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希腊地理问题

Greece's Geography Problem

本视频由《刺客信条:奥德赛》制作
This video was made possible by Assassin’sCreed: Odyssey.
点击说明中的链接 可了解更多
Learn more at the link in the description.
几世纪前 像葡萄牙 伊拉克
Centuries ago nations like Portugal, and Iraq,
叙利亚 西班牙 蒙古 土耳其 意大利 埃及
and Syria, Spain, Mongolia, Turkey, Italy, Egypt,
和希腊这样的国家是世界上最强大 最先进的文明
and Greece were the world’s mostpowerful, most advanced civilizations. Today,
但是今天 事实并不如此
though, that’s not the case.
虽然这些国家并不一定代表了
While this group does not necessarily represent the losers
在历史这场游戏中的失败者
in the game that is history, they’re
但它们一定不是优胜者
also certainly not in first place.
尽管这些国家早期成就非凡
Change has relegated them into second tier status
但发生的一些改变把它们降级到了第二梯队
despite their earlier prowess.
其中一个特别值得注意的例子就是希腊
One particularly noticeable case is that ofGreece.
几千年来 生活在这个半岛上的人们
In a span of a couple thousand years the people living
经历了从决定
on this peninsula went from shaping
西方世界运作的方式到
the way the western world would work to being boxed
被周遭的世界包围的过程
in by the very world around them.
希腊是历史上最有名的国家之一
Greece is one of the most celebrated nationsin history.
它们开创了民主政治制度——如今这种制度应用于
They developed the political system of democracy—the very one used
很多世界上
by many of the world’s most
最强大的国家
powerful nations today.
也许是因为这一点 这个小国的历史
Because of this perhaps a disproportionate amount
受到了过多的关注
of attention is placed upon the history
但是尽管如此
of this small nation but nonetheless,
古希腊还是克服了困难 建立了很多
ancient Greece overcame the odds to create a number
规模小却强盛的城邦 然而
of small yet powerful city-states. However,
引领这个古老的文明走向成功的
many of the factors that led to the success
很多因素
of this ancient civilization are the
也抑制了这个国家在现代的发展
same ones holding back the modern state.
在全球范围内 这个国家并不贫穷 但是
On a global scale the country is far from poor but,
作为一个欧洲国家 它是
as a European nation, it’s one
一个极富地区中最贫穷的国家之一
of the poorest in a very rich area.
希腊是一个有很多山的国家 然而
Greece is exceptionally mountainous yet the terrain
希腊的地形和很多其他国家的地形
of Greece is different than that of
都不一样 比如瑞士
many other countries. Switzerland,
它有着巨大的山脉 山与山之间
for example, has enormous mountains with nice,
夹着自然条件好 又宽又长的溪谷
wide and long valleys in between.
而希腊的山没有那么高
The mountains of Greece, though, are not astall.
希腊山峰的平均海拔是1600英尺 而瑞士山峰的平均海拔却有4400英尺
The average elevation of Greece is 1,600 feet compared to 4,400
但是希腊的山
in Switzerland but the mountains
更加不规则
in Greece are much more irregular.
这意味着
What this means is
希腊的任何一个地方只有这么多平地
that there is only so much flat land in any one place.
任何一个定居点周围都需要足够的土地
Any settlement needed enough land
来种植农作物 从而为人们提供食物
around it to grow the food that would feed its people
而且大多数的农业活动只能在相对平坦的土地上进行
and most agriculture can only grow on relativelyflat land.
今天 我们可以把食物运往世界各地
While today we can ship food across the world,
但是在古希腊时期
in the time of ancient Greece transportation
运输技术还没有那么发达
technology was not advanced enough so
所以在每一个定居点周围
one essentially had to have enough fields to feed
有足够的耕地来为人们提供食物是唯一的办法 因此
the population directly around each settlement. Therefore,
古希腊定居点的
the sizes
面积是由
of ancient Greek settlements were essentially determined by the amount
一个地方的平地面积决定的
of flat land they could find in one place.
对任何一个政治实体来说
It was tough for any one political entity to hold power
支配大片的土地都是困难的
over vast amounts of land because
因为想要走遍这些土地实在太不容易
it was just too difficult to get around.
因此 这个半岛当时并不像今天这样
For that reason, the peninsula was not one unified nation
是一个统一的国家
as it is today, it was divided
他分成了数以百计的小城邦 人们说同一种语言 信仰同一种宗教
into hundreds of small city-states unified by a common language and religion.
你会注意到 最强盛的城邦
The most powerful city-states, you’ll notice,
拥有最多的平地
were the ones that had the most flat land.
斯巴达是历史上最强盛的城邦之一 它周围的区域
The area directly surrounding Sparta, oneof the historically strongest city-states,
是一个相对比较宽阔
is a relatively large,
平坦的溪谷 为斯巴达人提供了比其他城邦更多的土地
flat valley that would have given them more land than other city-states
来种植农作物 因此斯巴达成为了最大的城市之一
to grow food and therefore Sparta was one of the largest cities.
雅典也是
Athens was also one
最强盛的城邦之一 它直到今天仍然是希腊最大的城市
of the strongest city-states and still today is by far the largest city
这多亏了雅典位于
in Greece thanks to being
希腊最大的平地之一
in one of the largest single flat areas in the country.
当然 这样的地形
This geography did, of course,
将这个半岛分割成数以百计的政治实体
fragment the peninsula into hundreds of political entities
但是在那时 这不是问题
but at the time that wasn’t really an issue.
这种地形保护了整片区域 使其免受外敌入侵
The same geography protected the entire areafrom outside invasion.
这些山充当了厚重的盾牌 使希腊免受西欧入侵 但是
Mountains acted as a thick shield from western Europe but this also,
当然 这也使得希腊人
of course, made it tough
很难到达西欧 至少是无法通过陆路实现
to get to these areas, at least by land.
这样的地形迫使希腊
This geography forced Greece to the
选择了海洋 一些城邦因此成为了
ocean and the city-states became some of the most
最发达的海洋国家
advanced maritime powers.
因此 希腊接触到了
Because of this, Greece was exposed to civilizations all
地中海地区所有的文明以及其它地区的文明
around the Mediterranean and beyond and
并且向其他国家学习 比如埃及和美索不达米亚
was able to learn from other nations such as Egypt and Mesopotamia.
与外界的接触
This exposure to the outside world
使这些城邦变成了高度发达的
helped turn the city-states into highly advanced
国际性文明 产生了当时最伟大的哲学家 然而
and cosmopolitan civilizations that producedthe era’s greatest philosophers. Nowadays,
现在这些山帮助不大了
however, the mountains are lesshelpful.
随着世界变得越来越全球化
As the world has become more
与其他国家的贸易往来
globalized trade linkages to other countries have become even
就变得更加重要
more important and the mountains that
遍布希腊半岛的群山仍然穿过巴尔干半岛地区
pepper the Greek peninsula continue through the Balkans
这意味着
which means that land transportation infrastructure
在西欧和希腊之间运送货物和人员的陆路运输基础设施
is limited to get goods and people between
受到限制
Western Europe and Greece.
更重要的是
More consequently, though,
希腊78%的土地被认为是多山的
78 % of the land in Greece is considered mountainous making
这使得希腊和斯洛文尼亚成为了欧盟中山最多的两个国家
it tied with Slovenia as the most mountainous country in the European Union.
希腊也是欧盟中贫穷的国家之一
Greece is also one of the poorer countries in the European Union.
事实证明
As it turns out,
欧盟成员国的人均国内生产总值和该国有多少山
there’s a link between how mountainous an EU country is and its GDP
有关
per capita.
欧盟成员国
The average EU country
平均有35%的土地是多山的 那么人均国内生产总值就是30000美元
with 35 % of its land mountainous has a GDP per capita of $ 30,000
而只有25%的土地是多山的话
while the average EU country with only 25 %
那么人均国民生产总值
of its land mountainous has a GDP per capita
就是54000美元 这说明财富和土地平坦程度相关 现在
of $ 54,000 proving that there is a correlation between flatness and wealth. Now,
有几个
there are some major
例外——瑞典是最富裕的欧盟成员国之一
exceptions—Sweden is one of the wealthiest EU countries while
可它也是最多山的成员国之一
also being one of the most mountainous while Latvia is one
而拉脱维亚是最贫穷的成员国之一 地势却最平坦
of the poorest while being completely
所以这种关联并不强
flat—so the correlation is not
而且欧盟有意遗漏了瑞士和挪威
that strong and the EU also conveniently leaves out Switzerland
两个特别富裕 而且多山的欧洲国家——但是尽管如此
and Norway—two exceptionally wealthy Europeancountries that are also exceptionally mountainous—but nonetheless,
这直观地阐明了
it intuitively makes sense
群山抑制发展这个结论 并且在某种程度上
that mountains inhibit development and the statistics
有数据支持
back this up to an extent.
有必要指出的是这种现象不只是在欧洲出现
It’s worth pointing out that this is not just a European phenomenon.
世界上最多山的五个国家是不丹 塔吉克斯坦
The five most mountainous countries in the world are Bhutan, Tajikistan,
吉尔吉斯斯坦 莱索托
Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho,
和黑山共和国 它们的人均国内生产总值
and Montenegro all of which have GDP
都低于世界平均水平
per capita’s below the world average.
你在欧洲会注意到
What you’ll notice in Europe is
富裕的多山国家 比如挪威 瑞典
that the wealthy mountainous countries such as Norway, Sweden,
瑞士和芬兰 它们全都
Switzerland, and Finland are all
气候寒冷 而不太富裕的多山国家
in cold climates while the less wealthy mountainous
比如保加利亚 西班牙 意大利 葡萄牙
countries such as Bulgaria, Spain, Italy, Portugal,
和希腊 它们的气候都更加温暖
and Greece are all in warmer climates.
事实证明 气候也是财富多少与否的预言者
As it turns out, climate too is a predictorof wealth.
欧盟的年平均气温
For every additional tenth of a degree Fahrenheit
每增加十分之一华氏摄氏度
of average yearly temperature in the EU a
平均一个成员国的人均国内生产总值就要减少1670美元
country’s GDP per capita is, on average,$1,670 lower.
气候和财富之间关系的论证
The reasoning behind the link
极其复杂 极具争议
between climate and wealth is massively complex, controversial,
而且人们还无法完全理解这一论证
and not yet fully understood
所以我们暂且把它撇开不谈 但是希腊却因此
so we’ll leave that out but Greece is therefore in this double
遭遇了双重打击 它气候炎热 山又很多
whammy situation of being both hot and mountainous
这说明它本身抑制了
which has proven itself as an inhibitor to
发展
development.
世界上最富裕的30个国家中
Of the world’s 30 wealthiest countries
没有一个是气候炎热 并且多山地
none could be considered both hot and predominantly
很多国家都有其中一个特点 但没有同时具备这两种的
mountainous—many are one or the other butnone both.
这两个特点的结合 似乎恰恰成了
The two factors together just seem to be the perfect cocktail
导致其经济肌体恶化的鸩酒
for poor economic health.
希腊受严重的区域化之苦
Greece suffers from strong regionalization.
这种将半岛
The same geography that cut the peninsula
分割成小城邦的地形
into small city-states today makes it difficult
如今也让中央政府难以有效地管理整片区域
for a central government to govern the entirearea effectively.
你经常会发现
You see this often,
以前曾被分割成很多国家或有着很多民族的那些国家
countries that were formerly multiple countries or nations often have problems
经常面临着管理方面的问题 但是希腊政府的
with governance, but part of the difficulty
一部分困难是他们的基础设施
for the Greek government is that their infrastructure
不够好
is just not good.
周游希腊是很困难的
It’s hard to get around the country.
当然 希腊由大约6000座岛屿组成
Of course Greece is made up of about 6,000 islands and you can not,
你当然不能
of course, build roads
横跨爱琴海修路 但是这个国家本土仍然缺少基础设施
across the Aegean Sea but the country still lacks infrastructure on the mainland.
原因可能是
This can likely be attributed to a mix
跨过群山修路缺少资金 而且成本太高
of a lack of funds and high cost to build through
因此 希腊
mountains and the country is therefore
被认为有着欧盟第三差的
considered to have the third worst infrastructure in
基础设施
the European Union.
没有
With a lack
像样的基础设施供人们跨越地理界线
of proper infrastructure to overcome the geographical boundaries this makes simple
像收税这样简单的政府职能也就变得很困难了
government functions like tax collection difficult.
由于猖獗的逃税行为
Greece receives about 28 % less value added tax
希腊征收的增值税
than it levies due to how rampant tax
少了28%
evasion is.
收入和其他形式的征税
The same is true for income and other forms
也是如此 所以难怪这个国家
of taxation so it’s no wonder why the country
最终陷入了债务危机
ended up in a debt crisis.
事实上 在过去十年间
In fact, this debt crisis that has devastated the country
摧毁希腊的这次债务危机
over the past ten years can too
在一定程度上也和地形有关
be partially linked back to geography.
你瞧 希腊主要的地理优势是爱琴海
You see, Greece’s main geographic assetis the Aegean Sea.
部分优势是经济上的
Part of this is economic.
希腊大多数最受欢迎的旅游景点 圣托里尼岛
Many of Greece’s most popular tourist destinations from Santorini,
米科诺斯岛和克里特岛都是
to Mykonos, to Crete are islands
爱琴海上的岛屿 但是爱琴海最重要的优势是战略上的
in the Aegean Sea but the more significant asset of the Aegean is strategic.
黑海位于希腊的东北方向
To the Northeast of Greece is the Black
它流经土耳其海峡和爱琴海
Sea which drains out into the Mediterranean through
最终流入地中海
the Turkish Straits and the Aegean.
土耳其通过控制土耳其海峡
While Turkey holds the most direct level
从而对海上交通
of control over maritime traffic by controlling
拥有最直接的控制权
the Turkish Straits,
希腊岛屿的密度和海军力量
the density of Greek islands and the strength of the country’s
意味着它可以相对容易地封锁黑海
Navy means that it too, if it wanted to,
如果它想这么做的话
could relatively easily blockade the Black Sea.
这意味着希腊拿着保加利亚 罗马尼亚
This means that Greece holds the keys for Bulgaria, Romania,
乌克兰和格鲁吉亚
Ukraine, and Georgia’s
唯一海上通道的钥匙
only ocean access.
也许更为重要的是
Perhaps more significantly,
希腊也控制了往返俄罗斯最重要港口的
Greece also controls the maritime routes to and from Russia’s
航线
most important ports.
作为一个十分靠北的国家
Being a very northern country,
俄罗斯大部分的海岸线在冬天都会结冰
the majority of Russia’s coastline sees ice in the winter
这使得海运变得非常困难
which makes shipping difficult
然而黑海的港口在军事上
whereas the Black Sea ports do not making them both militarily
和经济上都没有对俄罗斯起到决定性作用
and economically critical for Russia.
比如 俄罗斯17%的船运集装箱
17 % of Russia’s shipping containers leave
从诺沃西比尔斯克港口离开
from the Port of Novorossiysk, for example,
而这个港口仅仅是众多黑海港口中的一个
which is only one of the many Black Sea ports.
希腊的地缘政治影响力屈指可数
A good portion of Greece’s little geopolitical clout is
对爱琴海的控制算是其中之一
as a result of holding the Aegean.
鉴于其重要性
Given its importance,
希腊在维护自己对这一海域的主权方面
Greece therefore puts a lot of effort into asserting its sovereignty
付出了许多努力
over this sea.
然而 几十年来
This sovereignty, however,
这一海域的主权问题一直是希腊和土耳其争论的焦点
has for decades been the subject of a dispute with Turkey.
争论的内容不仅是哪国拥有土耳其附近的大量岛屿
The dispute is over not only who owns a number
还包括希腊对于爱琴海海域
of islands near Turkey but also over the extent
和空域拥有多大程度的主权
of Greek sovereignty over Aegean waters andairspace.
尽管这两个国家都隶属于北约
Despite both countries officially being NATO
但是紧张状态偶尔会加剧
allies tensions do occasionally heat up and
因此希腊定期在爱琴海海域和空域巡逻
Greece therefore regularly patrols the Aegeanby sea and air.
希腊拥有世界级的海军和空军
The country has a world class Navy and
对于一个如此之小的国家来说
Air Force that are considered to be some of the
拥有这些军事力量已经非常强大了 但是当然
strongest especially for such a small country but this,
这需要付出代价
of course, comes at a cost.
希腊把国内生产总值的2.5%作为军费开支
The country spends a full 2.5 % of its GDP on its military.
除了美国以外 北约没有任何一个成员国有如此大的军费开支
That’s a higher percentage than any NATOmember except the US.
主要由高昂的军费开支导致的
The high government spending,
高昂的政府开支
which high military spending contributed significantly to, along
以及希腊在收税方面的无能为力
with the country’s seeming inability to
迫使政府
collect the taxes it levies forced the government
承担债务
to take on debt which,
而希腊在2008年遭遇大萧条之后 它无法还清这些债务
after the Great Recession hit in 2008, it could not pay off.
之后希腊陷入了持续多年的经济和社会危机
The country was then plunged into years of economic and social crisis.
这影响了可能是希腊最重要的产业——旅游业
This affected what is arguably Greece’smost important industry—tourism.
希腊四分之一的工作岗位都是
A full quarter of jobs in Greece are
旅游业提供的或者是因其而产生的 该产业占
in or as a result of tourism and the industry represents
希腊国内生产总值的20%
20 % of the country’s GDP so
所以如果旅游业消失了 那么整个国家都会受到影响
if tourism disappears, the whole country is affected.
在债务危机期间
During the debt crisis,
随着发生在雅典街头的示威游行活动为世界所知
as violent demonstrations on the streets of Athens were publicized worldwide
游客数量立即减少 这使得债务危机进一步恶化
the number of tourist arrivals immediately declined which further exasperated the crisis.
多年以来
For a number
希腊的国内生产总值呈现了负增长的态势
of years the country actually had negative GDP growth and an unemployment
失业率逼近30% 但是
rate close to 30 % but,
在采取紧缩措施并接受紧急援助之后
after austerity measures and a series of bailouts, unemployment rates
目前失业率正在下降 希腊的国内生产总值再次增长
are now shrinking and the country’s GDP is once again growing,
至少是缓慢的增长
at least slowly.
关于希腊的真相是它的地形
The truth about Greece is that its geography,
温暖的气候 分离的陆块
with warm weather, disconnected landmasses,
陡峭的海边悬崖和高耸的山峰
sheer ocean cliffs, and soaring mountains,
对于大多数类型的经济发展来说都是非常糟糕的
is terrible for most types of economic development
但是正是这些地形特点
but it’s these geographical features,
引人入胜的历史和人们的热情好客
along with a fascinating history and warm hospitality,
让希腊成为了一个如此吸引人的旅游胜地
that make Greece such an attractive traveldestination.
希腊的游客数量正创造
Tourist numbers in the country are reaching historic
历史新高
levels to the point where there’s
这使得太过兴盛的旅游业成了问题
starting to be a problem of too much tourism.
虽然希腊在通往经济复苏的道路上
While the country continues its path
继续前进 但是真正的考验将会是
towards economic recovery the real test will be whether
希腊是否能承受它拥有的一切
it can take what it has going for it,
具体来说是旅游业 并用兴盛的旅游业来带动
most specifically tourism, and use that to fix
已经衰落的其他产业
what’s not.
希腊真正耐人寻味的地方不是
What’s really fascinating about Greece is not
它从强者的宝座上跌落
that they fell from a position of strength,
而是它曾经居于强者之位
it’s that they ever had that position ofstrength.
历史已经证明 这个半岛的土地
History has proven that the land of this peninsula,
尽管有着美丽的自然风光 却并不是
despite all its natural beauty, is not quite
看上去的那样热情好客 自在悠闲
as hospitable and idyllic as it may seem.
在本期视频中
In this video I’m sure you
我相信你已注意到那些叹为观止的希腊历史镜头
noticed the stunning historical footage of Greece.
它们全都来自于《刺客信条:奥德赛》
This all came from Assassin’s Creed:
它是一个全新的游戏 从本质上重现了
Odyssey—a brand new game that has essentially recreated
伯罗奔尼撒战争时期的古希腊全貌
the entirety of ancient Greece during thePeloponnesian War.
实际上 育碧曾经带我去了希腊
Ubisoft actually brought me out to Greece to
让我试玩了这个游戏并参观了
try the game and visit the historical sites
他们重现的历史遗迹 所以本视频中的
they recreated so most of the modern footage
大多数有关现代希腊的连续镜头都是由我拍摄的
of Greece in this video is my own and, even
虽然有些人真的不喜欢玩电子游戏
as someone who doesn’t really play video games,
但是我真的很喜欢玩《刺客信条:奥德赛》
I really enjoyed playing Assassin’s Creed:
因为在这个游戏中我可以探索一个惊险的历史世界
Odyssey for the ability to explore a pretty breath-taking historical world.
当然游戏设置和故事情节也很不错 但是
Of course the gameplay and storylines are great too but,
如果你只是为了探索
if you’re just in it for
而去玩这个游戏 那么他们将很快研发出
the exploration, they’ll be releasing
一个“发现之旅”模式
a “ discovery tour ” mode soon which will
它将会成为这个游戏中的交互式博物馆
essentially be an interactive museum in thegame.
如果你想了解更多或想要购买《刺客信条:奥德赛》
If you want to learn more and maybe even buyAssassin’s Creed: Odyssey be sure to click
请点击描述顶部的链接
the link at the top of the description.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching and we’ll see you again
两周以后我们将推出另一个温多弗制作公司的视频
in two weeks for another Wendover Productions
期待到时与你的见面
video.

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视频概述

本视频全面地论述了希腊的地形对它的政治、经济、社会的影响。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

醉里挑灯看剑

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RRfVQKo5Zs

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