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杰作之城解析:伦敦

Great Art Cities Explained: London

This is a story about the British aristocracy.
这是一段关于英国贵族的故事
Three wealthy and titled men who centuries ago went against social expectations.
在几百年前 三位有钱有爵位的男性跳出世俗的期望
One was a leading high court judge
一位是高等法院首席法官
who also campaigned for the abolition of slavery.
也是废奴运动的发起者
One was a bastard child of the wealthiest man in England,
一位是英格兰首富的私生子
and one was the son of a bricklayer,
另一位则是泥瓦匠的儿子
who in a time with little to no social mobility
在当时社会阶层几乎是僵化的情况下
rose through the social classes to become a Knight of the British Empire.
他跨越社会阶层 跃升为大英帝国的骑士
Not only were their homes gifted to the Nation,
他们不仅把房产捐给了国家
but also their incredible art collections within them.
还把房子里大量的艺术藏品也一同捐出
杰作之城 解析
伦敦
If you went to an art gallery in London every day for the next two years,
如果你每天都去参观伦敦的一个美术馆
you still couldn’t visit them all.
用两年你也逛不完
The National Gallery, the two Tates,
国家美术馆 两座泰特美术馆
the Hayward and the Royal Academy
海沃德美术馆以及皇家美术学院
are just a few of the UK Capital’s 857 public art galleries.
只是英国首都857个公共艺术馆的一小部分
This series will look not only at galleries around the world which often get overlooked,
本系列视频不仅聚焦在世上常被忽略的美术馆上
but also the fascinating stories behind them.
还将讲述它们背后的美妙故事
第一章:肯伍德府
Kenwood House, designed by Robert Adam,
由罗伯特·亚当设计的肯伍德府
is on the edge of Hampstead Heath
位于汉普斯特德荒野边缘
and houses of staggering collection of old master paintings,
它收藏着大量早期大师画作
including Rembrandt, Vermeer,
包括伦勃朗 维米尔
Reynolds and Van Dyck.
雷诺兹和凡·戴克的作品
The owner of Kenwood House, William Murray, the first Earl of Mansfield,
肯伍德府的主人 威廉·默里(曼斯菲尔德伯爵一世)
was an unusual man.
是个不一般的人
He was the most powerful judge in England,
他是英格兰权力最高的法官
part of the elite ruling class.
属于精英统治阶层
Yet he was also an early advocate for the abolishment of slavery.
但他也是最早呼吁废除奴隶制的人
In 1772, he presided over the case of James Somerset,
1772年 他主理了詹姆斯·萨默塞特的案子
who was bought as a slave in Boston
他在波士顿作为奴隶被买卖
and transported to England where he escaped.
在被运送到英格兰后逃跑了
Somerset won the court case and was freed.
萨默塞特赢了官司 获得了自由
It was a turning point for the abolitionist movement.
该案是废奴运动的一个转折点
Murray’s abolitionist sympathies may have come from his great niece,
默里对废奴主义者的同情来自他的侄孙女
one of the most extrodinary woman: Dido Elizabeth Belle.
一位非凡的女性 黛多·伊丽莎白·蓓儿
This is a rare 18th century portrait of a black woman
这是一幅罕见的18世纪肖像画
and her white cousin as equals.
平等描绘了一个黑人女性和她的白人表姐
Dido Belle was the illegitimate daughter
黛多·蓓儿是威廉·默里的侄子
of a black slave and William Murray’s nephew
和一个黑人奴隶的私生女
and was raised by Murray as part of the aristocracy.
默里把她视作家族一员来抚养
By all accounts, Dido and her cousin were raised as equals,
根据各方记录 黛多和她的表姐是被平等对待的
and this portrait of the two was seen as an image of the sisterhood
而两人的画像也被视为姐妹情谊的见证
reflecting their equal status.
反应了两人的平等地位
But looking at it with modern eyes,
但用现代的眼光看这幅画
we can see it more in the vein of traditional servant
我们可以看出它更像是当时
and master portraits of the time.
传统的主仆肖像
Belle’s exotic clothing is designed to differentiate her from her cousin,
蓓儿的异域服饰是用来区分她和她表姐的
and the painting reflects the conservative views of the time.
这幅画反映了当时的传统观念
肯伍德府:伦勃朗
Kenwood House owns a Rembrandt said by many to be one of his greatest.
肯伍德府收藏了被多人评为伦勃朗最佳作之一的画
In his 40-year career,
在他40年的画家生涯里
Rembrandt made at least 80 self portraits,
伦勃朗画了至少80幅自画像
and here he is presented as an artist in his studio,
而在这幅画中 他是身处画室的艺术家
in his working clothes, holding the tools of his profession.
身着工作服 手持专业画具
And you can really see Rembrandt physically at work here.
你能真切地看到伦勃朗在画室的工作状态
The work is rough, the brushstrokes are loose and expressive.
画风粗犷 笔触豪放且饱含情感
But it is above all a portrait of painful honesty
但最重要的是 画像记录了令人心酸的事实
that shows Rembrandt tired, old and newly bankrupt.
它描绘了疲惫 衰老且刚刚破产的伦勃朗
Look at the hat which is painted wet on wet
看这帽子 它采用了湿画法
with just a few rough strokes, he produces intense realism.
用仅仅几笔粗糙的笔画就达到逼真的效果
He draws on the painting with the end of his brush.
他还用画笔末端作画
You can see it here and here.
能在这两处看到
And some parts are painted so quickly with just a whisper of paint.
而有些部分画得匆忙 只得着以些许的颜料
This begs the question: is it finished?
那问题来了 这幅画完成了吗?
Probably not, and that’s what makes it so interesting.
很可能没有 这也正是它耐人寻味的地方
The two strange circles in the background
背景中两个奇怪的圆
have long puzzled art historians.
长期以来困扰着艺术史学家
And there are many theories.
关于这两个圆也有很多说法
The most plausible one I think is that he was referencing Giotto,
我认为最合理的是 伦勃朗参照了乔托
who in the 14th century proved his artistic skill
他在14世纪通过徒手画出完美的圆
by drawing a perfect circle freehand.
来证明自己的画技
It’s harder than you think.
这比想象的要难
It is possible that Rembrandt is linking himself with another master.
可能伦勃朗想把自己与另一位大师相提并论
肯伍德府:维米尔
There are only 36 paintings by Vermeer worldwide,
全世界只有36幅维米尔的画
and Kenwood House has one of them.
而肯伍德府就收藏了其中一幅
This domestic masterwork fits so well in the setting of a warm home.
这幅场景为室内的画和这栋温馨房子的布置相得益彰
Vermeer wasn’t that famous until the 19th century,
维米尔在19世纪以前并没这么出名
and the family bought this in 1889 for just a thousand pounds.
这个家族花了一千英镑就买下了这幅画
Only a few years later,
而仅仅几年后
a Vermeer was sold for a hundred thousand dollars.
维米尔的一幅画就买出了十万美元的高价
The artist painted the quiet existence of women.
他擅长画出女性的娴静美好
And here we see a young girl interrupted from her guitar playing.
在画中可以看到一个被打断吉他演奏的年轻女孩
If you think you’ve seen her jacket before,
如果你觉得她的衣服眼熟
you probably have.
那你很可能见过
It is a well-used studio prop.
那是被广泛使用的画室道具
It is an understated, subtle scene
这是一个朴素而微妙的画面
and Vermeer uses light to move us around the composition.
维米尔对光线的运用使画面产生一种流动感
In this case the light comes from the right side,
在画中 光线来自右侧
which is very unusual for Vermeer,
这在维米尔的画中十分罕见
and the only other example is the Lacemaker.
唯一的另一幅是《花边女工》
Otherwise, Vermeer painted with the light sources from the left
维米尔在其他画作都把光源设在左边
so that the shadows of his right hand
这样就能避免在作画时
did not fall onto the canvas as he was painting.
右手的影子落在画布上
This is a late painting by Vermeer,
这是维米尔晚期的作品
and we see experimentation.
我们能发现他有所挑战
The guitar player is far to the left.
吉他手的位置非常靠左
She is cropped almost photographically
就像被裁剪过的相片
and the room to the right is in shadows
而房间右侧则处在阴影之中
giving a sense of movement as if she has just turned to her right.
给人一种她刚转向右边的动感
Most of his music players stand posed and silent at keyboards
他笔下的大部分乐手都是静静立在钢琴前
but she is moving.
但她是动态的
Look at the strings on her guitar.
仔细看吉他上的琴弦
They are blurred, which means they are vibrating.
它们是模糊的 这意味着它们在振动
He has captured not just a moment in time, but sound as well.
他捕捉到的不仅仅是一瞬间 还有琴声
The pink of the book matches her flushing cheeks
书的粉与她红润的脸颊相映成趣
and the fall of her hair matches the picture above.
头发的垂坠感则与上方的画互相呼应
These are wonderful details designed to pull us in.
这些巧妙细节十分地引人入胜
The big question is:
最大的疑问是
did he use a camera obscura, an optical device, to paint this?
他有用暗箱这种光学装置来画这幅画吗?
It is something I will return to when I make my film on Vermeer.
我之后会在介绍维米尔的视频里给出答案
第二章:约翰·索恩爵士博物馆
Sir John Soane’s House is in central London,
约翰·索恩爵士博物馆在伦敦的中心
and has been an eclectic and quirky museum since 1837.
自1837年以来就是一座兼收并蓄 风格奇特的博物馆
It has works by Caneletto, Piranesi,
馆藏有卡纳莱托 皮拉内西
Turner and famously Hogarth.
特纳以及霍加斯的著名作品
This is the former home of Bank of England architect, Sir John Soane.
这是英格兰银行建筑师约翰·索恩爵士的故居
It is a labyrinth of artistic treasures
是一座藏着艺术珍品的迷宫
packed to the rafters with antiquities and artworks,
里面堆满了古文物和艺术品
including a tiny picture room
其中包括一间小型图画展示室
which is rammed with 118 paintings,
里面堆放了118幅画
a collection large enough for a room four times its size.
这些画足以放满一个是它四倍大的空间
Soane was a working-class boy,
约翰·索恩来自工人阶级
who miraculously rose through the British class system.
却奇迹般地在英国阶级制度中崛起
His spoiled and snobby sons despised him,
骄纵势利的儿子们都瞧不起他
and one, George, wrote an anonymous article
其中一个儿子乔治甚至写了一篇匿名文章
trying to ruin his father’s career.
试图毁掉他的事业
Soane would get his revenge by cutting George out of his will
对此 索恩把儿子乔治从遗嘱中剔除
and leaving his wealth to the nation.
并把财产捐给国家
Geoge was a classic example of a rake or philanderer.
乔治是个典型的酒色之徒 花花公子
He lived in a ménage à trois with both his wife and her sister
他和妻子及妻妹是同居的三角关系
who tried to blackmail Soane.
妻子的妹妹也试图敲诈索恩
In fact George’s life was not too far removed
实际上 乔治的一生有些像
from the theme of William Hogarth’s famous series of paintings:
威廉·霍加斯的著名组画
A Rake’s Progress,
《浪子生涯》的主题
the star attraction of the museum.
这是博物馆的明星展品
The eight-part painting series is a moralistic
这个由8幅画构成的组画以道德为题材
and satirical story of the downfall of Tom Rakewell.
讲述了汤姆·雷克韦尔的堕落的讽刺故事
The paintings were considered so shocking in Soane’s time
这组画在索恩的时代冲击力十足
that they were hidden away in secret panels in a room in his house.
以至于要放到某个房间的暗层里藏起来
To this day you need to ask a staff member to reveal them.
时至今日仍需叫工作人员打开夹层才能参观
The director, Alan Parker, described them perfectly
艾伦·帕克导演对组画的描述很准确
as “like storyboards for a film”.
“就像电影的分镜”
In the first scene, Tom inherits his father’s fortune
第一幕 汤姆继承了父亲的财产
and ditches his pregnant fiancée Sara Young.
并抛弃了他怀孕的未婚妻萨拉·扬
Seen here weeping in her mother’s arms
可以看到她挽着母亲的手臂哭泣
as she clutches her engagement ring.
手里还紧攥着订婚戒指
In scene two, the newly wealthy Tom
第二幕 新晋富豪汤姆
is surrounded by tradesmen eager to get his money.
被渴望得到他钱财的商人簇拥着
By scene three, Tom is in an orgy—
到了第三幕 汤姆身处酒池肉林
a scene designed to titillate the viewer,
这一画面旨在刺激观众的感官
as he is surrounded by prostitudes in various states of undress
汤姆被妓女环绕 她们各种衣衫不整
note the black spots on their faces that cover syphilitic sores.
脸上还有遮盖着梅毒疹的黑点
Tom in scene four is now broke and arrested by debt collectors,
第四幕 汤姆破产了 还被债主抓住
but is saved by the good Sara Young.
而善良的萨拉·扬救下了他
By scene five, Tom is trying to recoup his loses
到了第五幕 汤姆为了填补损失
by marrying a rich old hag.
与一位年迈的富婆结了婚
His eyes however are on her young maid.
但他的目光却落在年轻女仆身上
Tom here is already losing his wife’s fortune on gambling,
这幅画的汤姆把妻子的财产也输在赌桌上
a major problem in the 18th century.
赌博是18世纪英国的一大问题
And by scene seven he is in debtors’ prison.
第七幕 汤姆被关在债务人监狱里
The final scene is Tom in the mad house.
最后一幕是汤姆身处疯人院
His downfall is complete.
他已经堕落到底了
The ever faithful Sara Young is visiting him with their child
始终忠诚的萨拉·扬带着孩子来探望汤姆
but he is too far gone.
但他已经彻底变样了
These well-dressed women are here to be amused.
这些衣着光鲜的女士是来消遣的
The upper classes would pay to see lunatics
上流社会的人会花钱去疯人院看病人
in the asylum as a form of entertainment.
这是他们的一种娱乐方式
They are here to remind us just how far Tom has fallen.
她们的出现是在告诉我们汤姆已堕落至何种地步
What is interesting is that Hogarth never intended these paintings to be sold.
有趣的是 霍加斯从未打算卖这些画
His main income came from engravings of his work
他主要的收入来源于他作品的版画
which were affordable to the new growing middle class.
这些版画主要面向新兴的中产阶级
The brilliant entrepreneur sold subscriptions to his engravings
这位天才企业家以订阅形式出售他的版画
and these paintings were made to show to potential clients.
而这些画是专门向潜在客户展示用的
Hogarth were so successful
霍加斯是如此成功
that it wasn’t long before unscrupulous engravers were copying his work
以至于不久后 无良的雕刻师开始制作盗版
and selling it on the black market,
并在黑市上出售
leaving Hogarth to lobby parliament
霍加斯只好去游说议会
to instigate the world’s first copyright act of 1753.
推动1753年世上第一部版权法的出台
第三章:华莱士收藏馆
The Wallace Collection is a national museum
华莱士收藏馆是一家国立博物馆
in a London townhouse
位于伦敦一个联排别墅中
with 25 galleries of world-class collections.
内设25个展厅 展示着世界级的藏品
Titian, Rembrandt, Rubens,
提香 伦勃朗 鲁本斯
Caneletto and Fragonard are the highlights.
卡纳莱托和弗拉戈纳尔都是其中的亮点
Sir Richard Wallace was not your typical Victorian aristocrat.
理查德·华莱士爵士并非典型的维多利亚时代贵族
He was the illegitimate son of the 4th Marquess of Hertford
他是赫特福德侯爵四世的私生子
and was married to a commoner.
还娶了一个平民
But as he was the sole heir,
但由于是唯一的继承人
he inherited the Marquess’s vast fortune
他继承了侯爵的巨额财产
and his extensive art collection.
及大量的艺术藏品
Wallace immediately went on a spending spree of his own
华莱士当即就开始疯狂消费
and bought masterpieces to add to the collection.
并购入更多名作以扩充收藏
But it was his great grandfather, the 1st Marquess of Hertford,
其实这些收藏始于他的曾祖父
who started the collection,
赫特福德侯爵一世
by buying several Canelettos on a trip to Italy in 1738
他在1738年去意大利的船上
directly from Caneletto himself.
直接从卡纳莱托那儿买下几幅画
The artist was at the height of his fame
卡纳莱托当时名声正盛
and this would have cost a fortune.
买他的画定要花不少钱
大游学
The grand tour was a rite of passage for every titled child in England.
大游学是英格兰贵族子弟的必经阶段
These were cultural trips through Europe
是指在欧洲地区的文化之旅
to see great works of art from classical antiquity and the Renaissance.
可欣赏古典时期和文艺复兴时期的伟大艺术品
On their journey they would buy souvenirs but not postcards.
他们中途会购买纪念品 但不包括明信片
These were works by Rembrandt, Caneletto and Vermeer.
这些是伦勃朗 卡纳莱托和维米尔的作品
华莱士收藏馆:卡纳莱托
Caneletto’s paintings see almost photographic in their accuracy to us.
卡纳莱托的画精准得像是拍下来的一般
But in fact, he often changed the width of a canal
但实际上他经常改变运河的宽度
or removed less important buildings from his view
或者去掉他认为没那么重要的建筑
in his quest to create the ideal image
为像侯爵那样的18世纪游客们
for 18th century tourists like the Marquess.
画出完美的景色供他们收藏
What makes the Canelettos in the Wallace Collection so unique
让卡纳莱托作品在华莱士收藏馆独树一帜的
are these two paintings designed as a pair.
是“一对画”
Both show the Bacino Di San Marco,
画的都是圣马可盆地
Venice’s inner harbor of Saint Mark’s but from opposing views.
但是在两个相反的角度画的威尼斯圣马可内港
Caneletto shows the view from here looking over the Bacino.
卡纳莱托展示了从此处展望的视角
And then from this opposite point of view represented by this painting.
然后再从对面的视角画下了另一幅画
In the first painting we have the Customs House on our left,
在第一幅画中 左侧是海关大楼
and we are looking across the Bacino towards the Church of San Giorgio.
目光越过盆地来到的是圣乔治教堂
We glimpse the Doge’s Palace over to the left.
我们还能瞥见在左侧的总督宫
In the second painting,
在第二幅画中
we are now on the terrace of the Church of San Giorgio,
我们的视角位于圣乔治教堂的露天平台
looking at the dome of the Santa Maria Della Salute.
从这儿可以看到安康圣母教堂的穹顶
Again we see the Doge’s Palace.
并再次看到了总督宫
But this time as the view is reversed, it is on our right.
但由于是在相反视角 总督宫就在右侧了
And to the right of Santa Maria De La Salute,
然后在安康圣母教堂的右侧
we can also see the Customs House from the opposing view.
我们同样可以看到相反视角的海关大楼
The paintings were meant to be hung opposite each other
这两幅画应该相对着挂起来
in which case the direction of the sunlights matches.
这样的话 它们阳光的方向就一致了
The sun comes from the left in the case of the view from San Giorgio
在圣乔治教堂视角的画中 阳光自左侧洒下
and from the right in the case of the view from Giudecca.
而朱代卡岛视角的画中 阳光来自右侧
华莱士收藏馆:弗拉戈纳尔
Fragonard’s erotic painting the Swing
弗拉戈纳尔带有情色风格的画《秋千》
originally would have been kept in a private room behind a curtain
本来应该收藏在一面窗帘后的私密房间中
as it was so salacious.
因为它的画面太过轻佻了
The painting was commissioned by the notorious libertine, Baron de San Julienne.
这幅画的委托人是花名在外的圣朱利安男爵
It is Fragonad’s most famous work and an iconic piece of Rococo Art.
这是弗拉戈纳尔最著名的作品 是典型的洛可可风格
It features a young woman in scandalous pink silk
它描绘了一个身着轻佻粉色丝裙的年轻妇人
tantalizingly poised mid air on a swing.
坐在秋千上在空中摆出挑逗的姿势
Behind her, working the swing is her elderly husband.
在她身后拉着秋千的是她年长的丈夫
And in front of her is her young lover,
而在她前面的是她年轻的情人
getting a good look up her skirt.
他正观赏裙底风光
Cupid is telling us to keep quiet
一只鞋子恣意飞起时
as a shoe flies off with abandon.
丘比特摆出噤声的手势
Women’s ankles were just not shown in public
妇女的脚踝不应该在公众场合露出
and had seriously erotic connotations.
这有很强烈的情色暗示
In 2021, the painting was restored
到2021年 这幅画被修复好了
and finally we get to see it in its original glory.
我们也终于得见它最初的光彩
Details were revealed, like the rope being frayed,
画中的细节也被展现出来 比如磨损的绳子
which adds an element of danger to the scene.
这为这一场景增添了几分危险
华莱士收藏馆:弗兰斯·哈尔斯
Known as the Mona Lisa of the Wallace Collection,
被誉为华莱士收藏馆的《蒙娜丽莎》
The Laughing Cavalier is neither laughing or a Cavalier.
《笑容骑士》既没在笑也不是骑士
But he was given a name in the 19th century and it stuck.
但在19世纪被赋予这个名字后就没改过
Frans Hals is known for his startlingly realistic portraits
弗兰斯·哈尔斯以极其写实的肖像画著称
created by very loose and impressionistic brushstrokes
他的画笔触松散且洒脱随意
not seen in the Netherlands before.
这在荷兰是前所未见的
Hundreds of years later, his painting technique would inspire a new generation of artists,
几百年后 他的绘画技巧将启发新一代艺术家
like Singer Sergent and Edouard Manet.
比如辛格·萨金特和爱德华·马奈
And Van Gogh in particular would be strongly influenced by Hals.
尤其是梵高 受哈尔斯影响极深
The loose brushwork on the Laughing Cavalier’s lase collar
《笑容骑士》花边领子上的洒脱笔触
is an unparalleled example of Hals’ incredible technique.
是哈尔斯非凡画技的最好例子
We don’t know who the Cavalier is
我们不知道这位骑士是谁
but we know he was 26 as Hals tells us.
但正如哈尔斯所写 他26岁了
He had to be very rich to be able to afford such opulent clothes.
他一定非常富有才能买得起如此奢华的衣服
He was probably single as Hals usually painted men facing left
他很可能单身 因为在哈尔斯画的夫妻肖像画中
as part of a marriage double portrait.
已婚的男性通常面朝左边
And the Cavalier is facing right.
而骑士却是面朝右侧
The minutely detailed embroidery on his jacket
他衣服上精密细致的刺绣
can be read just like hieroglyphics.
可以当成象形文字去解读
We find some of the common motifs symbolic of love
我们发现了一些常见的象征爱的图案
including bees, arrows and flaming cornucopia,
包括蜜蜂 箭以及燃烧着的丰饶之角
which could mean this was a betrothal portrait.
这些可能意味着这是一幅订婚肖像
Other symbols like Mercury’s hat and staff
其他的图案像是墨丘利的帽子和手杖
would be associated with good fortune and business.
则与好运和商业有关
His pose is casual and makes him appear extremely lifelike
他的姿势很随意 加上处于构图中最突出的位置
by positioning him in the extreme foreground of the composition.
这让他看起来栩栩如生
His left arm on his hip as if he is breaking the picture plane
他左手叉腰 仿佛要穿过画纸
and spilling out into the viewer’s space
出现在看画人的眼前
—a true masterpiece.
这是一幅真正的杰作
第四章:大众艺术
When these aristocrats left their houses and collections to the state,
当贵族们把他们的房产和收藏捐给国家时
it could be seen as a vanity project:
可以看作是一场面子工程
a means of maintaining legacies after their death.
一个让他们能够千古留名的手段
I think what links these three men
我认为这三人的共同点
is a sense of being an outsider, a sense of difference.
是一种作为局外人 不与世俗同流合污的态度
And it is this eccentric attitude
也正是这种不寻常的态度
that produces these great collections.
才有了这些伟大的艺术藏品
By contrast, the wealthy today see art as a commodity
相比之下 如今的富豪把艺术视为商品
rather than as something to admire and inspire.
而不是一些值得欣赏 能激励人的东西
They often hide great artworks in freeports—
他们经常把艺术品藏到自由港里
offshore tax-free storage—to sit and increase in value
就是放到离岸免税仓里 闲置着等待升值
rather than to be seen and appreciated.
而不是展示出来被观看和欣赏
There are great philanthropic collectors out there.
世上的确有很多慈善收藏家
But the world needs more men like Murray, Soane and Wallace.
但世界需要更多像默里 索恩和华莱士这样的人
Men who saw that art can transcend social class.
那些认识到艺术能超越社会阶级的人
They understood that art should enrich the soul
他们深知艺术能充实的是灵魂
not the bank balance.
而不是银行账户余额

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译制信息
视频概述

该视频带我们游览了英国的三座博物馆,分别是肯伍德府、约翰·索恩爵士博物馆和华莱士收藏馆。视频结合了历史文化来赏析维米尔、伦勃朗、卡纳莱托等著名画家的著作,十分引人入胜。

听录译者

韫淇

翻译译者

OlO

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6vzJ6ceJqs

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