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治疗胰腺癌的福音 – 译学馆
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治疗胰腺癌的福音

Good news in the fight against pancreatic cancer | Laura Indolfi

你们当中 至少
By raising your hand,
知道一位屏幕上显示的人 请举手!
how many of you know at least one of the person on the screen?
哇 几乎在座所有人都举手了
Wow, it’s almost a full house.
是的 他们在自己专长的领域十分出名
It’s true, they are very famous in their field.
那你们知道他们都有什么共同之处吗?
And do you know what all of them have in common?
他们都死于胰腺癌
They all died of pancreatic cancer.
尽管这是一件十分 十分悲伤的消息
However, although it’s very, very sad this news,
但因为他们的个人经历
it’s also thanks to their personal stories
让我们意识到胰腺癌是多么致命
that we have raised awareness of how lethal this disease can be.
胰腺癌已晋升为癌症死亡的第三大原因
It’s become the third cause of cancer deaths,
只有百分之八的患者能够存活五年以上
and only eight percent of the patients will survive beyond five years.
这是一个极小的比例
That’s a very tiny number,
尤其是和乳腺癌的
especially if you compare it with breast cancer,
九成的存活率相比
where the survival rate is almost 90 percent.
所以说被确诊为胰腺癌
So it doesn’t really come as a surprise
就几乎相当于被判处了死刑
that being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer
这种说法也不足为奇了
means facing an almost certain death sentence.
令人震惊的是 四十年来
What’s shocking, though, is that in the last 40 years,
其它类型肿瘤的治疗已取得了许多进展
this number hasn’t changed a bit,
但胰腺癌的存活率却从来没有变过
while much more progress has been made with other types of tumors.
那么我们应该如何使胰腺癌治疗更加有效呢?
So how can we make pancreatic cancer treatment more effective?
作为一名生物医学领域的企业家
As a biomedical entrepreneur,
我想要去解决那些看似无法解决的问题
I like to work on problems that seem impossible,
了解它们的局限性
understanding their limitations
并找到创新的解决方法
and trying to find new, innovative solutions
去改变结果
that can change their outcome.
第一个关于胰腺癌的坏消息是
The first piece of bad news with pancreatic cancer
你的胰腺恰好就在你的腹部中央
is that your pancreas is in the middle of your belly, literally.
也就是屏幕中橘黄色所指的部分
It’s depicted in orange on the screen.
但你几乎看不见它
But you can barely see it
除非我将胰腺前面所有的器官移除
until I remove all the other organs in front.
此外 胰腺被很多其他重要的器官包围着
It’s also surrounded by many other vital organs,
例如肝 胃 以及胆管
like the liver, the stomach, the bile duct.
肿瘤会扩散到那些器官中
And the ability of the tumor to grow into those organs
这就是为什么胰腺癌
is the reason why pancreatic cancer
是最令人痛苦的肿瘤类型之一
is one of the most painful tumor types.
这难以触及的位置让外科医生
The hard-to-reach location also prevents the doctor
无法像在乳腺癌手术中
from surgically removing it,
通常做的那样把肿瘤摘除
as is routinely done for breast cancer, for example.
因此 由于这些原因使化疗
So all of these reasons leave chemotherapy as the only option
成为治疗胰腺癌患者唯一的选择
for the pancreatic cancer patient.
这就又给我们带来了第二个坏消息
This brings us to the second piece of bad news.
胰腺癌肿瘤几乎没有血管
Pancreatic cancer tumors have very few blood vessels.
为什么我们要关注肿瘤的血管呢?
Why should we care about the blood vessel of a tumor?
让我们想一想化疗是如何起到治疗作用的
Let’s think for a second how chemotherapy works.
药物注入到血管中
The drug is injected in the vein
沿着血管在身体里流通并到达肿瘤所在的位置
and it navigates throughout the body until it reaches the tumor site.
就如同在高速公路上行驶 去往一个目的地
It’s like driving on a highway, trying to reach a destination.
但如果你的目的地在高速公路上没有出口会怎么样呢?
But what if your destination doesn’t have an exit on the highway?
你将永远无法到达目的地
You will never get there.
这就是化疗和胰腺癌
And that’s exactly the same problem
的问题所在
for chemotherapy and pancreatic cancer.
药物流遍你的整个身体
The drugs navigate throughout all of your body.
它们会进入健康器官
They will reach healthy organs,
给病人全身上下造成高毒性副作用
resulting in high toxic effect for the patients overall,
但却对肿瘤没有任何威胁
but very little will go to the tumor.
因此化疗的功效是十分有限的
Therefore, the efficacy is very limited.
只针对一个特定器官 而要对全身进行治疗
To me, it seems very counterintuitive to have a whole-body treatment
这似乎是有悖常理的
to target a specific organ.
但在过去的四十年里
However, in the last 40 years,
尽管人们在寻找能够有效治疗胰腺癌的新药物的过程中
a lot of money, research and effort have gone towards
做了许多研究 投入了大量的金钱和努力
finding new, powerful drugs to treat pancreatic cancer,
但这一切都对治疗方法
but nothing has been done in changing the way
没有任何改进之处
we deliver them to the patient.
在两条坏消息后 我想告诉你们一个好消息
So after two pieces of bad news,
希望这对你们来说是一个好消息
I’m going to give you good news, hopefully.
与麻省理工学院以及
With a collaborator at MIT
波士顿马萨诸塞综合医院合作
and the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston,
我们实现了局部药物传送
we have revolutionized the way we treat cancer
从而完全改革了治疗癌症的方法
by making localized drug delivery a reality.
我们基本上是 用降落伞空降的方法送到目的地
We are basically parachuting you on top of your destination,
避免你在高速路上到处行驶
avoiding your having to drive all around the highway.
我们将药物植入到装置中 就像这样的装置
We have embedded the drug into devices that look like this one.
这些装置很灵活 可以折叠起来
They are flexible enough that they can be folded
放入导管中
to fit into the catheter,
因此医生仅用微创手术
so the doctor can implant it directly on top of the tumor
就能够将它植入肿瘤上方
with minimally invasive surgery.
但它们也足够坚硬
But they are solid enough that once they are positioned
一旦被放置在肿瘤上方
on top of the tumor,
它们就会像一个笼子一样(将肿瘤锁住)
they will act as a cage.
这些装置从物理的角度上
They will actually physically prevent the tumor
可以抑制癌细胞转移
from entering other organs,
防止肿瘤扩散
controlling the metastasis.
这些装置还可以进行生物降解
The devices are also biodegradable.
也就是说它们从进入人体后
That means that once in the body,
就会开始降解
they start dissolving,
慢慢地并有效地局部传送药物
delivering the drug only locally, slowly and more effectively
这就是比全身治疗更好的地方
than what is done with the current whole-body treatment.
临床研究表明
In pre-clinical study, we have demonstrated
这种局部疗法
that this localized approach
能够12倍地加强对药物治疗的反应
is able to improve by 12 times the response to treatment.
我们将一种已知的药物
So we took a drug that is already known
局部地传送到最需要它的地方
and by just delivering it locally where it’s needed the most,
我们不仅取得了十二倍的疗效
we allow a response that is 12 times more powerful,
还减少了全身的毒性作用
reducing the systemic toxic effect.
我们坚持不懈地工作 希望能将这项技术提高到新的水平
We are working relentlessly to bring this technology to the next level.
我们正在最后确定临床试验结果
We are finalizing the pre-clinical testing
在临床试验中我们将使用动物模型 这需要提前取得食品及药物管理局
and the animal model required prior to asking the FDA for approval
的同意
for clinical trials.
现在 大多数的病人都死于胰腺癌
Currently, the majority of patients will die from pancreatic cancer.
我们希望有一天
We are hoping that one day,
我们可以减少他们的痛苦 延长他们的生命
we can reduce their pain, extend their life
希望使治愈胰腺癌
and potentially make pancreatic cancer
成为可能
a curable disease.
重新思考我们施药的方式
By rethinking the way we deliver the drug,
我们不仅使其药效更强 副作用更小
we don’t only make it more powerful and less toxic,
我们还在寻找创新的疗法
we are also opening the door to finding new innovative solutions
以应对胰腺癌以及其他绝症病患的无解难题
for almost all other impossible problems in pancreatic cancer patients and beyond.
非常感谢
Thank you very much.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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视频概述

从全身疗法到局部疗法,演讲者分析了胰腺癌的现状,并为其治疗提供了新途径。

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翻译译者

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审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tRqJysI-yiw

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