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哥斯拉和摩斯拉:怪兽界的国王和王后 – 译学馆
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哥斯拉和摩斯拉:怪兽界的国王和王后

Godzilla and Mothra: King and Queen of the Kaiju

Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS
感谢CuriosityStream对PBS的支持
I bet most of us can identify this monster.
我想很多人都能认出这个怪物
Pretty universal right?
非常普遍 对吗?
It’s the main attraction in the oldest running film franchise in the world.
这是全世界最悠久的电影系列中最吸引人的部分
Battling robots and space monsters and King Kong,
和机器人 太空怪兽 金刚打架
it’s our most recognizable Japanese kaijū,
它是我们最熟知的日本怪兽
With Godzilla’s rise
随着哥斯拉的崛起
come a bunch more of these “Kaiju”:
出现了很多这类型的怪兽:
Mothra, Biollante,
魔斯拉 碧奥兰蒂
King Ghidorah, Gigan, and Rodan.
王者基多拉 盖刚和拉顿
And we see these monsters
我们看到这些怪兽
on the big screen in film after film
在一个接一个的电影中出现
but these giant creatures’ stories
但有关这些巨型生物的故事
have a strong literary and social history too.
同样有着很强的文学性和历史背景
So let’s talk about the two
那么我们来讨论一下
who get my vote for king and queen of the kaijū—
我自己选出来的怪兽界的国王和王后
Godzilla and Mothra.
哥斯拉和摩斯拉
Why did these two emerge in Japan
为什么它们会出现在日本
when they did?
什么时候出现的?
and what was their global attraction?
它们在全球的吸引力是什么?
I’m Dr. Emily Zaga
我是Emily Zaga博士
And this is Monstrum
欢迎收看《怪物理论》
Movies made kaijū world famous.
电影让怪兽世界出名
We can’t even begin to talk about them without looking at the film
在没看过开启“大怪兽映画系列”的电影前
that started the ‘daikaiju eiga’ or ‘giant monster film’ genre—
我们都无法讨论它们
the 1954 black and white classic Gojira.
那就是1954年的经典黑白电影哥斯拉
The movie directed by Ishirō Honda
电影由本多猪四郎执导
shows the modern discovery of a 50-meters-tall dinosaur
描述了现代发现的一只50米高的恐龙型巨兽
with atomic breath just living its best life in the depths of the ocean.
这只带有原子气息的巨兽一直生活在海洋深处
At least until an atomic bomb test destroys its natural habitat
直到一个原子弹试验破坏了它的生活环境
and the monster rises to terrorize Japan.
怪兽从海上出现威胁到了日本
Many people took Godzilla as an obvious metaphor
许多人认为哥斯拉很明显是在隐喻
for the continuing horrors of the nuclear attacks
美国在第二次世界大战中对日本
used against Japan by the U.S. during World War II.
进行核袭击所造成的持续恐慌
Honda saw first-hand the destruction of war serving as a soldier in China.
本田当兵时 在中国亲眼目睹了战争的毁灭性
The 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
1945年广岛和长崎的原子弹
loomed in the minds of the Japanese people.
一直浮现在日本人的脑海里
The film itself is a social commentary.
电影本身就是社会评论
So much so that a main character of the film asks out right
以至于电影主角发出疑问
“Isn’t Godzilla a product of the atomic bomb that still haunts many of us Japanese?”.
“哥斯拉不就是一直困扰我们日本人的原子弹吗?”
I mean is it even a metaphor at this point?
我说 都这样了还是隐喻吗?
Godzilla is radioactive from the testing
哥斯拉具有放射性
and during its rampage thousands of people die on the street,
在它肆虐期间 有成千上万的人被哥斯拉喷出的
hit with Godzilla’s radioactive breath.
放射性气体击中 死在街上
Entire neighborhoods are set aflame with a bright flash.
整个街区都被闪光击中点燃
Given the United State’s role in World War II
鉴于美国在二战中所扮演的角色
it’s not surprising to me
我一点都不惊讶
that when the film was introduced in North America in 1956 as
1956年会把这部电影引进北美
Godzilla, King of the Monsters!
《哥斯拉:怪兽之王》
It had been heavily edited.
电影已经被严重剪辑过
Thirty minutes of explicit references to
片中有30分钟明确提到
the atomic bombings and nuclear testing were removed from the movie
原子弹和核试验的内容已经剪辑掉了
and replaced with two pretty terrible additions
取而代之增加了两个很糟糕的新内容
the actor Raymond Burr,
一个是演员雷蒙德·布尔
who was very awkwardly spliced into the American version,
角色在美版中非常尴尬
and famously bad English dubbing.
另一个是非常糟糕的英语配音
Godzilla should not be destroyed, it should be studied.
哥斯拉不能被毁灭 我们要研究它
However, key scenes were kept that show the Japanese
但关键画面保留了下来 展现出了
as both heroic individuals and sympathetic victims.
日本既有英勇的个人又有无辜的受害者
Culturally, the best thing to come out of this Westernized version of Gojira
文化上来说 这部西化的哥斯拉带来最好的东西
was the introduction of Godzilla and the Japanese kaijū to a global audience.
就是给全球观众介绍了哥斯拉以及日本怪兽
The film’s international success
电影在国际上的成功
launched dozens of movie sequels
使得几十部后续电影得以推出
and we start to see the monsters appearing in manga,
我们看到怪兽开始出现在漫画上
a distinct comic style unique to Japan.
以一种独特的日本漫画风格出现
A manga comic featuring Godzilla was released
以哥斯拉为主角的漫画与原版电影
the same year as the original film.
同步发行
Reprinted and translated from the original 1985’s
重印翻译了1985年发行的原版漫画
The Return of Godzilla,
《哥斯拉归来》后
the first English-translated Godzilla manga
第一部翻译成英文的哥斯拉漫画
wasn’t released until 1988.
直到1988年才正式发行
In this comic Godzilla is woken from slumber on the ocean floor
这部漫画中 由于海底剧烈的火山喷发
by a massive volcanic eruption,
哥斯拉从沉睡中醒来
not as a result of nuclear testing.
而不是因为核试验
Still it must feed on radioactive substances,
但它必须以放射性物质为食
making submarines and nuclear power plants prime targets for its destruction.
以潜水艇 核电站为主要目标进行破坏
The negative portrayal of nuclear weapons remains.
对于核武器的负面描述保留了下来
The series ends with an emotional message
这一系列的结局传达了
about humanity’s willingness to destroy the natural balance of the world
关于人类破坏自然平衡的情感信息
and reminds the reader that some natural force may rise up
并提醒读者一些自然力量
to challenge the arrogance of mankind.
可能会反抗挑战傲慢的人类
Other comic versions of Godzilla aren’t so serious,
其他版本的哥斯拉漫画没有那么严肃
and some are even downright ridiculous.
有些甚至非常荒谬
Godzilla: Rage Across Time shows
《哥斯拉:穿越时间的愤怒》 描述了
Godzilla killing the majority of the Greek gods
哥斯拉杀死了大部分希腊神
until Zeus defeats him.
宙斯后来打败了它
One of the most recent literary versions of Godzilla was published as a prequel to
最新一个文学版本的哥斯拉是
the 2014 American film rebooting the franchise,
2014年美国重启哥斯拉系列电影的前传
hitting shelves less than two weeks before the movie’s premiere.
在电影的首映前两周上架
Godzilla: Awakening explains that
《哥斯拉:觉醒》解释了
Godzilla is an ancient apex predator
哥斯拉是古老的顶端捕食者
lured to the surface by the radiation left after Hiroshima.
被广岛遗留下来的核辐射引诱到海面
This is only implied in the film itself.
这只在电影中解释过
The 2014 Godzilla film
2014年的哥斯拉电影
marked the beginning of Legendary’s MonsterVerse.
标志着传奇怪兽史诗的开始
Which obviously, means more Godzilla.
很明显 会有更多的哥斯拉
But we know from the new trailers
从最新的预告片可以得知
that more kaijū will return to the big screen,
有更多的怪兽会回归大银幕
most importantly
最重要的是
Mothra
摩斯拉
Mothra!
魔斯拉!
I love Mothra.
我爱摩斯拉
Yes, really, I love Mothra.
是的 真的 我爱摩斯拉
I would pick her over Godzilla,
我会选她 而不是哥斯拉
Mechagodzilla,
机械哥斯拉
even Space Godzilla
甚至太空哥斯拉
although I do love those crystal shoulder pads
尽管我确实喜爱那些水晶护肩
Mothra is beautiful!
摩斯拉太美了!
She’s a brightly colored winged protectress
她是带着鲜艳色彩翅膀的守护者
who, understandably, is worshipped as a goddess.
是众人崇拜的女神
She shoots a laser out of her head.
她头顶能射出激光
She’s awesome.
她太棒了
Unlike Godzilla,
和哥斯拉不同
Mothra first appeared in literature,
摩斯拉第一次在文学作品中出现
in the 1961 serialized novel
是在1961年的系列小说
The Luminous Fairies and Mothra.
夜光仙子和摩斯拉
The story follows a group of humans
故事描述的是一群人类
who discover Mothra on a South Pacific island
在南太平洋的一座岛上发现了摩斯拉
where she is worshipped by fairies.
在那里她受到仙女的崇拜
Two of the female fairies are stolen,
其中两个仙女被劫走
and Mothra goes to Japan to save them.
摩斯拉到日本去救她们
Which she obviously does.
很明显她确实会那样做
Because again, Mothra is just that kind of amazing lady.
因为摩斯拉就是这种很棒的女神
Mothra’s first standalone film hit theaters the same year.
摩斯拉的第一部独立电影同年在影院上映
In the movie,
在电影中
Mothra hatches from an egg in the South Pacific
摩斯拉从南太平洋中的一颗蛋中孵化出来
and as a caterpillar swims to the Japanese shore.
以一只幼虫的形态游到日本海岸
This journey from her island to Japan parallels that of
从她的岛屿到日本的这段路程和现实世界中
the real-world influx of goods produced in and
南太平洋生产的产品流入到日本的过程很相似
inspired by the South Pacific.
也是受其启发
Bananas, mangos,
香蕉 芒果
and Hawaiian print fabrics made popular by Elvis in Blue Hawaii
猫王在《蓝色夏威夷》带火的夏威夷印花织物
were all popular commodities in Japan in the 1960s.
这些商品在二十世纪60年代的日本非常流行
The fact that both the flying kaijū and her tiny priestesses are female
事实上飞行的怪兽和她的小祭司都是女性
does also suggest some complicated representations of commodifying women.
这也是一些商品化女性的复杂表现
Nevertheless, I appreciate Mothra
不管怎样 我欣赏摩斯拉
because she is one of the few female monsters
是因为她是少数女妖兽中
who is not hideous, not typically sexualized,
不可怕 没有典型的性别化
and has powers and strength to rival any of her male counterparts.
并且有能力和力量去和任何男性同类对抗的
So yeah, Mothra is queen.
所以没错 摩斯拉是王后
And I am not the only one who feels this way.
我也不是唯一一个这样认为的
A 2017 poll of 10,000 Godzilla franchise fans
2017年日本朝日电视网的一项
by Japan’s Asahi television network named
对1万名哥斯拉粉丝进行的调查显示
Mothra their number one favorite Godzilla monster.
摩斯拉在最喜爱的哥斯拉怪兽中排名第一
She really is “The Queen of Monsters.”
她真的是“怪兽王后”
Even when the kaijū are adopted and adapted by non-Japanese cultures,
当非日文化中采用并吸收了怪兽因素时
there is still no denying that the monsters are influenced
不可否认的是 怪兽也被日本电影
by their predecessors in Japanese cinema and literature.
和文学中的前辈有所影响
All kaijū demonstrate the tension between technology and nature.
所有怪兽都表达了科技和自然之间的矛盾
They suggest that although humanity seeks progress, innovation and science,
他们表明了尽管人类寻求进步 创新和科学
there are serious, potentially cataclysmic side effects.
但依然存在着严重 潜在的灾难性副作用
So I’ll end with the words of Dr. Serizawa
所以我要以2014年哥斯拉电影中
from the 2014 Godzilla movie,
芹泽教授的话作为结尾
quote “The arrogance of man is thinking that nature is in their control,
“人类总是自以为是地以为控制了大自然
and not the other way around.”
而事实恰恰相反”
Thank you to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS.
感谢CuriosityStream对PBS的支持
CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service
CuriosityStream是一个订阅流服务
that offers documentaries and non-fiction titles for variety film makers,
为不同的电影制作者提供纪录片和纪实文学的电影
including CuriosityStream originals.
包括CuriosityStream的原创电影
If you like kaiju
如果你喜欢怪兽
want to learn more about the real history that influence the Godzilla story,
想要了解更多影响哥斯拉故事的历史
you might be interested in “Hiroshima: hidden traces” on CuriosityStream.
可以在CuriosityStream上看一看《广岛:隐藏的痕迹》
You can learn more at curiositystream.com/monstrum
你可以到curiositystream.com/monstrum学习更多内容
Thanks for watching Monstrum.
感谢收看怪物理论
Do you have favorite kaiju?
你有最喜欢的怪兽吗?
Let me know in the comments!
在评论中告诉我们吧
And don’t forget to subscribe!
同时别忘了订阅哦

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视频概述

哥斯拉的第一部电影带来了怎样的影响?意义是什么?魔斯拉的出现又有什么影响呢?一起来看视频

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收集自网络

翻译译者

爱睡觉的芝麻糊233

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y9550OVlMg8

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