宗教 法西斯 民主……神经科学主义
Religion, Fascism, Democracy… Neuralism?
JOSCHA BACH: I think that religion probably got us from the first million individuals
and we had been at a million individuals for a very long time in history
to the first hundred million.
And then this monotheistic religion, we got to something like three hundred million.
And at the turn of the times at 1 BC we were about three hundred million individuals.
And at the beginning of enlightenment, that is somewhere around seven hundred AD approximately,
we were still four hundred million individuals.
And at this point we evolved in our culture the ability to doubt.
We started doubting the religion.
And feudalism broke down as a result
and we started building amodern much more productive society.
This society got us two billions of individuals.
And then came the next revolution and the twentieth century.
These were systemic societies.
Societies that were grown in the lab from people that created ideologies.
法西斯主义 社会主义 共产主义 市场自由主义
Fascism, socialism, communism, market literalism
These were all things that people thought of and invented in labs
and then implanted them in societies.
Incidentally they all failed, and now in something like a post-systemic age
and we don’t really know what works and what doesn’t work.
And when we want to describe our society we sometimes use words like “resilience”
or “anti-fragility” and so on
which are good words for muddling through
Because we don’t really know how to organize these societies in these days anymore.
It’s a very big problem; we need to deal with this
and many countries try to find different answers to their problem.
In a way this ability to program ideologies and then project them onto people
has been a very big breakthrough for our species
and important it is for mass media
Mass media made the twentieth century possible
because mass media synchronized
the dreams of large numbers of people
the ideas about the world that they lived in
And now due to social media, mass media has lost much of their appeal.
You know that U.S. in some sense had two realities, the CNN and the Fox News reality.
They were two narratives that were pretty much incompatible.
Two stories that were being told to the people and that affected their minds.
And now due to social media
people have stopped believingthese media narratives to a very large extent
People believe random stuff basically.
That’s why we are so obsessed with the idea of fake news
which is incidentally not the propaganda that we are afraid of falling victim to
It’s a propaganda that we don’t want others to infect.
Random bits of information, viral bits of information that come from the internet
and that get people to disbelieve the same dream that we are dreaming.
It’s actually very dangerous because it’s going to splinter society into parts
that we don’t know how to glue together again.
I think that our brain is doing an amazing thing
that we don’t know how to do out there in the real world.
Our brain is a self-organizing system that processes information in a near-optimal way.
Sometimes you have defects where the brain starts lying to itself
but mostly it doesn’t happen
Our nervous system is pretty accurate in the sense
that it doesn’t lie to itself very much
And the way we build our organization in the world of our governments and so on
which are in some sense the nervous systems of our societies
they lie to themselves.
They are corrupted by local interests and so on.
And we haven’t really found a way to build information processing networks out in the world
that manage to be for the most part always truthful and relevant.
And if we understand how our brain is pulling this off to self-organize in such a way
that many, many small units can link up in a way
that organizes itself to do the bestfor that particular organism
this is somethingthat we need to pull up in our societies too.
So I do think that insights from understanding
how our minds work and how our nervous systems work
are going to be very helpful in understanding
how to build better societies and better organizations
宗教 法西斯 民主……神经科学主义