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神,神论和意识形态全部土崩瓦解时,人脑仍将涅槃 – 译学馆
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神,神论和意识形态全部土崩瓦解时,人脑仍将涅槃

Gods, Monotheism, and Ideologies All Failed. But the Human Brain Could Still Succeed. | Joscha Bach

宗教 法西斯 民主……神经科学主义
Religion, Fascism, Democracy… Neuralism?
何塞·巴赫 我认为宗教可能让我们从最初的一百万人口
JOSCHA BACH: I think that religion probably got us from the first million individuals
同时 这一百万人在历史上持续很久
and we had been at a million individuals for a very long time in history
发展到拥有一亿人
to the first hundred million.
后来发展成为神教 此时人类数量达到三亿
And then this monotheistic religion, we got to something like three hundred million.
在世纪之交的公元前一世纪我们大约有三亿人类
And at the turn of the times at 1 BC we were about three hundred million individuals.
在启蒙时代初 即公元约700年
And at the beginning of enlightenment, that is somewhere around seven hundred AD approximately,
我们仍是四亿人类
we were still four hundred million individuals.
此时我们进化出质疑的能力
And at this point we evolved in our culture the ability to doubt.
我们开始怀疑宗教
We started doubting the religion.
而结局便是封建主义的破裂
And feudalism broke down as a result
同时我们开始构建一个更为现代高效的社会
and we started building amodern much more productive society.
这个社会创造了二十亿人
This society got us two billions of individuals.
接着在二十世纪迎来了下一次革命
And then came the next revolution and the twentieth century.
这些都是系统性社会
These were systemic societies.
创造了意识形态的人们在实验室创造了社会
Societies that were grown in the lab from people that created ideologies.
法西斯主义 社会主义 共产主义 市场自由主义
Fascism, socialism, communism, market literalism
这一切都是人们所想并在实验室里创造
These were all things that people thought of and invented in labs
和植入社会的
and then implanted them in societies.
不巧他们都失败了 如今是后系统化时代
Incidentally they all failed, and now in something like a post-systemic age
我们并不知道什么有效 什么没用
and we don’t really know what works and what doesn’t work.
但我们想描述这个时代时我们有时会用“韧性”这个词
And when we want to describe our society we sometimes use words like “resilience”
或者是“抗脆的”等等
or “anti-fragility” and so on
容易混淆过去的词
which are good words for muddling through
因为我们不再知道怎么来组织这些社会
Because we don’t really know how to organize these societies in these days anymore.
这是个很大的问题 而且必须解决
It’s a very big problem; we need to deal with this
所以很多国家尝试着用不同的方法来解决他们的问题
and many countries try to find different answers to their problem.
某种程度上 这种编排各意识形态并使之应用于人类自身的能力
In a way this ability to program ideologies and then project them onto people
是我们这个物种的一种突破
has been a very big breakthrough for our species
而且对大众传媒极其重要
and important it is for mass media
大众传媒使得二十世纪成为现实
Mass media made the twentieth century possible
因为大众传媒使
because mass media synchronized
使千万人对他们所居住的世界
the dreams of large numbers of people
但目标变得一致
the ideas about the world that they lived in
如今社交媒体取而代之 大众传媒失去其影响力
And now due to social media, mass media has lost much of their appeal.
大家知道美国某方面说有两大媒体有线电视新闻网和福克斯新闻
You know that U.S. in some sense had two realities, the CNN and the Fox News reality.
他们相似而不相容
They were two narratives that were pretty much incompatible.
他们在人群中根深蒂固 并影响着思维
Two stories that were being told to the people and that affected their minds.
但现在轮到社交媒体
And now due to social media
人们很大程度上不相信这些大众传媒
people have stopped believingthese media narratives to a very large extent
人们主要相信新颖的事情
People believe random stuff basically.
这使得我们热衷于那些谣言
That’s why we are so obsessed with the idea of fake news
并不是那些我们所害怕受害的随意传言
which is incidentally not the propaganda that we are afraid of falling victim to
这是一种我们不希望受人干预的传播言论
It’s a propaganda that we don’t want others to infect.
是吧?
Right?
网络中混乱不堪的信息 病毒式爆发的信息
Random bits of information, viral bits of information that come from the internet
让人们不再相信我们所共同梦想的
and that get people to disbelieve the same dream that we are dreaming.
这是累卵之危因为这将撕裂整个社会
It’s actually very dangerous because it’s going to splinter society into parts
而且我们不知如何挽救
that we don’t know how to glue together again.
我想我们的大脑在做一些令人惊讶的事
I think that our brain is doing an amazing thing
让我们不知道该在现实世界里怎么做
that we don’t know how to do out there in the real world.
我们的大脑是一个能让信息处理最优化的自我调节系统
Our brain is a self-organizing system that processes information in a near-optimal way.
有时候你会出现缺陷 大脑便开始自我欺骗
Sometimes you have defects where the brain starts lying to itself
但那极少发生
but mostly it doesn’t happen
在它很少欺骗自己的角度上
Our nervous system is pretty accurate in the sense
我们的大脑是非常准确的
that it doesn’t lie to itself very much
在我们在世界上建立像政府等其他组织的方式上
And the way we build our organization in the world of our governments and so on
从某种角度上是我们社会的神经系统
which are in some sense the nervous systems of our societies
他们自我欺骗
they lie to themselves.
他们因地方利益或其他因素而腐败
They are corrupted by local interests and so on.
同时我们还未能在世上建立起信息处理网络
And we haven’t really found a way to build information processing networks out in the world
来形成处理占大多数的真实贴切的信息的系统
that manage to be for the most part always truthful and relevant.
如果我们知道我们的大脑是如何拆分来通过那种方式以自我管理
And if we understand how our brain is pulling this off to self-organize in such a way
那很多很多小单元可以同心协契
that many, many small units can link up in a way
来为特定的有机体实现自我管理
that organizes itself to do the bestfor that particular organism
我们需要在社会上推行这些
this is somethingthat we need to pull up in our societies too.
因此我确信了解
So I do think that insights from understanding
我们的大脑和神经系统的工作原理
how our minds work and how our nervous systems work
对于探索如何
are going to be very helpful in understanding
构建社会和社会生态机构意义非凡
how to build better societies and better organizations

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视频概述

巴赫是哈佛认知科学家,致力于进化动力计划研究,本视频他将讨论社会进化的历程和人类社会将来的方向

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翻译译者

zohar

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嘉言先森

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKekkrgqsn0

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