未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

南极爆发的“幽灵粒子”可能会动摇标准物理学

‘Ghost Particles’ Erupting from Antarctica Could Shatter Standard Physics

You may think scientists stationed in Antarctica
你可能认为驻扎在南极洲的科学家工作
are just playing with penguins or studying leopard seals.
只不过是戏耍企鹅或是研究海豹
But some of them are down there to fly balloons or watch ice cubes.
其中有些科学家在那里发射气球或是观察冰立方
Special balloons and special ice cubes.
特制的气球和特殊的冰块
Like the balloon-based experiment ANITA,
就像安尼塔球载型实验
which has seen things we thought weren’t possible,
看到了我们认为不可能的事情
and could show us that our current knowledge of particle physics
并且告知我们 目前人对粒子物理学的
is just the tip of the iceberg.
了解仅仅是冰山一角
ANITA, short for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna,
ANITA 为南极短脉冲雷达的简称
was designed to study ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos,
旨在利用覆盖在南极洲的冰层
by taking advantage of the ice sheets that blanket Antarctica.
来研究宇宙超高能中微子
Now I know you are already an expert in neutrinos,
现在我知道你已经是中微子专家了
because you watch all my videos, right?… Right??
因为你早已把我全部视频都看过了 对吧
Okay then, quick refresher: neutrinos are ultra lightweight and chargeless particles
那我们快速回顾一遍 中微子是超轻量且无电荷的粒子
that almost never interact with other matter.
几乎不会与其他物质发生反应
Because of those properties, they can travel
由于这些特性 中微子可以穿越
through entire planets without being affected.
整个星球而不受任何干扰
At least that’s true for the low energy neutrinos we usually talk about.
至少 这对于我们常讨论的低能量中微子来说确实是这样的
That variety mostly comes from atomic decay deep inside the sun
它的变体主要是来自太阳内部的原子衰变
and act likes me at a party;rarely interacting with anything.
就像我参加聚会时 几乎不和人互动
These are the same neutrinos we use massive tanks of ultra pure water
我们使用大量的纯水中有相同的中微子
like the Super-Kamiokande detector to spot.
正如超级神冈探测器所侦测到的一样
But there are other types of neutrinos, and
当中还存在其他类型的中微子
the ultra-high-energy variety is something different animal.
超高能变体是一种特殊的微子
They have wider cross sections meaning they’re more likely
它们有更宽的横截面 这意味着它们
to collide with other particles as they pass.
更容易与其他粒子发生碰撞
They’re made during high-energy collisions like
它们是在高能碰撞中产生的
when cosmic rays and photons interact.
就像宇宙射线和光子相互作用一样
Then they zip along through the universe until they reach us here on Earth.
在宇宙中穿梭直到到达地球这里
Because of that bigger cross section, they don’t penetrate very far
由于横截面较大 它们在与某物质
before they interact with something, causing a cascade of particles that gives off
相互作用之前无法穿透很远 过程中产生一系列的粒子
what scientists describe as a “snap” of radio frequencies.
这些粒子会发出科学家所说的无线电频率的“啪啪”声
To pick up these fairly faint signals, known as Askaryan pulses,
为了接收这些微弱的信号 即所谓的“阿斯卡莱恩脉冲”
scientists need somewhere without a lot of other radio signals.
科学家们需要找个无任何无线电信号的地方
They also need a lot of a radio transparent medium,
他们还需要大量的无线电透明介质
so the high-energy particle interaction can occur,
从而使高能粒子发生相互作用
but the Askaryan pulses can still propagate.
而“阿斯卡莱恩脉冲”也将会继续传播
A medium like ice.
这种介质类似于冰
And that is why the ANITA experiment was flown over Antarctica.
这就是安妮塔实验在南极洲上空探索飞行的原因
Attached to a NASA Long Duration Balloon,
该天线与美国宇航局的一个超级气球相连
the antenna flew a total of four missions from 2006 to 2016,
从2006到2016年间共执行了四次飞行任务
staying aloft between three and five weeks at a time.
每次飞行持续三到五周
While it was up there it picked up
当它在上空飞行时
the refracted radio signals coming from the ice below.
接收到了来自冰层底部折射出的无线电信号
Scientists basically turned an entire continent into a scientific instrument.
科学家几乎把整个南极大陆变成了科学仪器
That is some comic-book villain logic.
这简直就像漫画中才会出现的事情
And it totally worked.
而且已经奏效了
Actually, it worked so well it spotted something
实际上 仪器运行得非常好 发现了我们
we can’t explain with our current particle physics.
目前粒子物理学所无法解释的东西
On multiple occasions, ANITA detected signals coming straight up from beneath it,
很多情况下 安尼塔都会检测到其下方传来的信号
meaning in theory they must have traveled through the earth
这在理论上意味着它们一定是穿过了地球
as opposed to just skimming through the ice at an angle.
而不是简单的在某个角度掠过冰层
Since ultra high-energy neutrinos interact much more frequently than their low-energy counterparts,
由于超高能中微子的相互作用比低能中微子更频繁
they shouldn’t be able to travel through the entire Earth.
它们应该不能够穿过整个地球
To double check there was no mistake, they looked through the
为了再次确认没有发生错误 他们核实了
results of another Antarctic based neutrino detector, IceCube.
另一个南极中微子探测器“冰立方”的结果
Not the rapper-turned-actor, he’s not down there.
IceCube不是那个说唱歌手出身的演员
Making use of stable ultra-clear ice,
冰立方传感器采用稳定的超透明冰层
IceCube’s sensors monitor a cubic kilometer of ice for
从地表以下1500米开始 监测一立方千米
neutrino interactions starting 1500 meters below the surface.
冰层里中微子的相互作用
Sure enough, the data revealed three other events where
果然 数据揭示了另外三个检测事件
particles seemed to come straight up from below.
证明其中粒子似乎是从底层直接上升的
Three detections may not sound like a lot,
三次检测听起来可能很少
but mathematically it’s way more than they should be seeing.
但是从数学上讲 这远超出了他们预想的范围
It shouldn’t even happen once.
甚至一次都不应该发生
This is potentially huge news for particle physics.
这对于粒子物理学来说是个大发现
If we can rule out the idea that these are neutrinos
如果我们可以排除这样的观点 即这些中微子
that are blasting at us from one specific place so intensly that
是从特定的地方向我们发射的 强度如此之大
the detectors can see them what’s called the ‘point source hypothesis’
以至于探测器能侦测出来 这就是所谓的“点源假说”
then these can’t be ultra-high energy neutrinos at all.
那么这些中微子就不可能是超高能中微子
Which means NOTHING in the standard model explains it.
这证明标准模型中没有任何东西能解释这一点
This means it could point to other theories that could supplant
这意味着它可能属于其他理论
or expand the standard model one day.
在未来可能会取代或扩展标准模型
But scientists aren’t ready to throw out the standard model just yet.
但科学家还没有准备好舍弃标准模型
More data is necessary, so ANITA’s proposed successor,
因为还得收集更多的数据 因此安妮塔的继任者
the Payload for Ultrahigh Energy Observations, may continue
“超高能观测有效载荷” 会继续寻找
the hunt for these inexplicable interactions.
这些相互作用难以解释的原因
The resulting data from it, and experiments like ANITA and IceCube could help tell the
从以上研究得到的数据和安妮塔 冰立方这样的实验
Large Hadron Collider where to look as it searches
可以帮助大型强子对撞机在搜索标准模型
for particles outside the standard model.
之外的粒子时更加准确定位
Of course, we can’t discuss Antarctic research
当然 在讨论南极研究时
without acknowledging the giant penguin in the room: the climate crisis.
我们不能忽视当下突出的问题:气候危机
Check out this episode of Focal Point about scientists creating an “Ice Vault” in
请看本期“焦点”节目 科学家们在南极洲
Antarctica to store glaciers memories before they’re gone forever.
建设了一个“冰库” 来储存冰川消失之前的珍贵印象
And for more stone-cold-stunning science news,
想知道更多令人震惊的科学新闻
subscribe, and I’ll see you next time on Seeker.
来关注我吧 我们下期再见

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

目前我们对中微子的了解有多少呢?科学家在南极的实验发现重新刷新我们的认知!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

开心喜条

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkeAszl7A0s

相关推荐