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被不同速度行驶的车撞到会如何

Getting Hit By a Car at Different Speeds

Hey there
大家好
Welcome to Life Noggin
欢迎来到《品生活》
Alcohol is a major contributor to traffic accidents
酒精是导致包括行人在内的众多交通事故
involving pedestrians
的主要原因
In the United States
在美国
nearly half of the crashes where a pedestrian
近乎一半导致行人死亡的车祸中
was killed involved alcohol impairment
均涉及到酒精损伤对
of either the driver or pedestrian
驾驶者或者行人的影响
contributing to the over 270,000 pedestrians around the world
其于每年会致使全球将近
that are killed in traffic accidents each year
超过27万名行人在交通事故中丧生
One way to reduce deaths
减少死亡数的一个方法
is by making the streets safer
就是让街道更加安全
To do this, city engineers need to know the speed
为此 城市工程师需要知道
at which an impact from a vehicle could become fatal
车辆以何种速度撞击行人可致死
Then, they can establish safe speed limits
然后 其即可建立安全限速机制
There’s clearly a big difference between
被以5迈的速度前行的汽车撞到
getting hit by a car rolling forward at 5 mph
与被高速公路上的公交车撞到
and getting hit by a bus on the highway
这二者之间有着显著区别
That’s because the weight and speed of the vehicle
因为车辆的重量与速度
determines how much energy is transferred to the pedestrian
决定了其会把多少动量传递到行人身上
So let’s dive into this hole
所以我们要进一步发掘这个突破口
getting hit at different speed a bit more
即被不同速度撞击的情况
and don’t forget to wear your seatbelt
并且切莫忘记系上安全带
Huh? Where have I heard that before?
嗯? 我之前在哪里听到这句话来着?
Using data from past accidents
研究人员利用以前事故中的数据
researchers have worked to identify safe speeds
试图努力确定安全速度
In a 2011 report
在一篇2011年的报告中
by the American Automobile Association’s Foundation for Public Safety
美国汽车协会公共安全基金会认为
They found that a car only needs to be going 31 mph
汽车仅需要以31迈的速度行驶
for a pedestrian to have a 50 percent chance of sustaining a severe injury
行人就有50%的概率遭受重伤
and 46 mph
而若以46迈时
for a 90 percent chance
此概率将高达90%
For a hit to be fatal
车辆仅需行驶得稍快
vehicles only need to be traveling slightly faster
就会发生致命撞击
At 42 mph
以42迈时而言
there is a 50 percent chance
就有五成的概率
of a pedestrian being killed by the impact
使得行人受撞击致死
and a 90 percent chance
而对于58迈时
at 58 mph
该几率则上升至九成
The pedestrian’s age also plays a big factor
行人的年龄亦是一种
in the seriousness of their injuries
影响其受伤程度的重要因素
For example a 70-year-old
如 一位70岁的老人
hit by a car traveling at 25 mph
在受到时速25迈的汽车撞击时
has a similar chance of injury as
其受伤的几率与
a 30-year-old
一个30岁的人
hit at 35 mph
在受到35迈时的撞击时一样
What body parts are struck and injured
而身体的哪个部位受到冲击或伤害
has to do with the mechanics of the impact
是由撞击的力学所影响的
The collision can be broken into three phases
撞击可分为三个阶段
all of which are a chance for injury
且在其中的任一阶段都可能受伤
They are the initial strike of the vehicle
这三阶段指 初撞阶段
the trajectory off of the vehicle
撞飞阶段
and landing on the ground
以及着陆阶段
First, the pedestrian’s legs are hit by the bumper
首先 行人腿部会被前车挡撞到
and rapidly accelerate
腿部在被急加速的同时
while their torso remains relatively still
躯干却保持相对静止
This is why these impacts
这就是为何此类撞击
most often injure the lower extremities
常常对下肢造成损害
often causing the pelvis, knee
且总是造成对骨盆 膝盖
or fibula to break
和腓骨的断裂的原因
As the vehicle keeps moving forward
而在车辆继续行进的过程中
their body wraps around the bumper and hood
行人的身体将沿着车前挡和引擎盖翻滚
until their head hits the vehicle
直至头部撞上车体
Which is where one of the most severe
此类事故也是以次多的几率
and second most common injuries occur
受到最严重的事故伤害之一
Finally, depending on what the driver does
最后 基于司机的不同驶法
the pedestrian could be projected
若司机在撞击时刹车
in front of the vehicle if the driver breaks
行人可能会被撞到车辆的正前方
be vaulted over the roof if they don’t
若司机没刹车 行人就会被甩到车顶上
or be vaulted over the side if the driver turns
若司机转向 行人就会被撞到侧边
If the vehicle is tall
若车辆较高
and the bumper is higher than
且车前挡高于
the pedestrian’s center of gravity
行人的重心
they could be knocked down or run over
行人就有可能被撞倒或被轧过
Over the years, changes in vehicle design
多年以来 汽车制造商
made by car manufacturers
对于车辆设计的变化
have led to less injuries to pedestrians
减少了行人受到的伤害
One study performed in France found that
一项在法国研究表明
cars produced in the 90s caused less lesions and fractures
90年代生产的汽车相较于70年代
compared to cars made in the 70s
会造成更少的身体损伤或骨折
They attributed this
他们将其归因于
to the newer car’s profile and windshield design
车辆外形及挡风玻璃的新设计
that reduced the severity of the impact
其降低了撞击所造成的严重性
Going forward, as we design cars of the future
更进一步 我们在未来设计汽车时
we can hope manufacturers
可以希望制造商
continue to keep public safety in mind
会继续注重公众安全
and help to decrease the number of pedestrian fatalities
并会更有助于减少行人的死亡数
So my question to you is
所以我的问题是
have you ever been in a car accident?
你是否曾经历过交通事故?
If you’re comfortable with sharing your story
若你乐于分享自己的经历
let me know in the comment section below
请在视频下面的评论区告诉我
If you wanna know more about
若你想知道更多关于
what happens to your body
车祸时身体
inside of a car during a car crash
在车里会发生什么
you should probably check out this video
你应该再去看看这段视频
People often slam into the steering wheel or front panel
人们常常会撞向方向盘或是车前面板
and experience chest and lower limb injuries
而经历胸部或肋骨损伤
like broken ribs or crushed legs
如肋骨骨折 或者 腿部粉碎性骨折
As always my name is Blocko
一如既往 我是Blocko
this has been Life Noggin
这里是《品生活》
don’t forget to keep on thinking
切莫忘记 且思且行

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视频概述

本视频讲述了在交通事故中,行人在被不同车辆撞击时,不同情况下的撞击损伤情况及原理机制。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Duke

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig8uOyybH_o

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