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多一些希望,少一些绝望 – 译学馆
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多一些希望,少一些绝望

Get More Hope, Less Despair, and Move Toward Action with Mindfulness and Focus | Andrew Chignell

当你谈及希望时
When you start talking about hope,
有人认为希望就是盲目乐观
some people think it’s immediately a kind of Pollyannaish thing.
比如 “哦 我应该满怀希望”
like, “oh, I should be hopeful,”
或者一些贺卡祝福语调调的话
or it’s kind of a greeting card sentiment.
你张大天真无邪的眼睛
You go kind of doe-eyed and start thinking
想着对别人的美好寄语
soft thoughts about how we should all be hopeful in one another.
当然了 针对这些美好的希冀
And, of course, there are some important
有太多举足轻重的话能说
things to be said in favor of those kinds of things.
但我们认为希望也可以是一种极其不易
But we think of hope as also an extremely difficult and
然而非常重要 非常基础的东西
important and foundational sort of state
我们谈及希望时可以不必那么矫情
that can be discussed in ways that aren’t so saccharine.
有趣的一点是
One of the interesting things that
哲学家谈及希望时
philosophers talk about with respect to hope
关注的当然是它的合理性
is, of course, its rationality.
也就是说你不能事事如意
So there’s a sense in which you can’t hope for everything.
你可以祝愿那些没希望的事情
You can wish for lots of things for which you can’t hope.
我祝愿芝加哥熊队去年赢得超级杯大赛
I can wish that the Bears won the Super Bowl last year.
但我对此不抱希望
But I can’t hope that they won the Super Bowl last year
因为他们实际上输了
because we know that they didn’t.
这就像你无能为力的碎碎念
And so it seems almost like you’re misusing the word to say,
“我希望他们去年赢了”
“I hope that they won last year.”
或者“我希望昨天的天气没那么糟”
Or, “I hope that the weather was different yesterday than it was.”
所以这些话的语义内容表明
So there’s a kind of semantic content that
你的希望含有理性限制
suggests that there are rationality constraints on hope
这就是哲学家试着了解并解释的
which philosophers try to look at and analyze.
有一种公认的对“希望”的解释
There’s a kind of orthodox account—
之所以这样说
people call it the orthodox account
是因为大多数人都有这种体验
because most people share it—
也就是希望起码得包括渴望得到某物
that says that hope involves at least desiring something
并相信梦想可以成真
and believing that it’s possible.
所以在这个例子中
So in this case you wouldn’t believe that
你不相信昨天的天气会改变
the weather yesterday could be different than it was,
所以你不相信这件事会发生
and so you wouldn’t believe that it’s possible,
所以你对此不抱希望
and so you can’t really hope for it.
所以这样的状况就是希望是受理性限制的
So that’s that condition that’s constraining the rationality of hope.
然后就有了这种讨论:
And then there’s this kind of debate about
希望还受哪些条件的限制
what further conditions might be required.
人们频繁提及的一个思想实验就是
One thought experiment that people have discussed frequently is
电影《肖申克的救赎》
that of ‘The Shawshank Redemption’.
它由史蒂芬·金的短篇小说改编
So this is a Stephen King short story that was turned into a film,
电影里有两个主要人物 安迪和雷德
You have two characters, Andy and Red.
两人都非常渴望走出监狱
Both of them really desire something: to get out of prison.
两人都认为这件事是可能的
Both of them regard it as possible,
这一点在小说和电影中都有明确交代
it’s explicit in the story and in the film.
但我想安迪这个角色是充满希望的
But somehow one character, Andy,
之所以这样说是因为
is hopeful and says he’s hopeful and
即使希望很渺茫
he’s acting in such a way as to make it come about
安迪也会以某种方式使其成为可能
even if he thinks it’s extremely unlikely.
而另一个角色雷德则不允许自己有希望
And the other character, Red, says he can’t allow himself to hope.
他害怕失望太大 自己承受不了这种打击
The fear of disappointment is too great and will crush him.
所以他们的条件是相同的:
So they both meet those conditions that
一是对某件事有真切的渴望
it’s something they really desire and
二是认为某件事有实现的可能
it’s something they believe to be possible,
但是安迪是满怀希望的 雷德是绝望的
and yet one hopes and the other despairs.
所以这种情况让人们认识到
So cases like this make people think out
我们需要第三个条件
we need some other kind of condition to really explain
来解释希望和绝望的区别
the difference between hope and despair.
这时候就会有一些争论
And that’s where some of the debate is at the moment,
人们试着找寻其中难以捉摸的因素
trying to find this elusive third conditions.
而对于“希望”的公认概念
And different people have different things
不同的人有不同的延伸
they want to add to the orthodox conception.
我本人赞同的方法
My own favored approach,
我在写作中提到过这种方法
which I’m in the middle of writing up,
我称之为“希望聚焦”或“希望关注”
is what I call the focus or attention account of hope.
所以它基本上是说
So it basically says something like the difference
希望和绝望的区别
between hope and despair is the extent to
在于你对渺茫的希望的关注程度
which you’re focusing on the very slim odds of the thing coming about
在于你是否在意它可能发生这个事实
or whether you’re focusing on the fact that it’s possible—
你是否将有可能发生的事情付诸实现
or that you take it to be possible.
如果你认为某事的发生是有可能的
So if you’re focused on the thing as a possibility,
在你可触及的范围内
under the aspect of its possibility,
那么你就是满怀希望
if you want, then you’re hoping for it.
如果你认为
If you’re focusing on the fact that
某件事非常没有把握
it’s incredibly unlikely and
希望遥不可及
the odds are such long-shot odds,
那么你就会对它绝望
then you’re despairing of it.
所以也就是说 你可以渴望它
So you can desire it in the same way.
你也可以相信它发生的可能性
You can believe that it’s possible in the same way.
希望和绝望的不同在于它们的焦点不同
And it’s this focus that really makes the difference between hope and despair.
希望和绝望之间甚至存在一个范围
It might even be a kind of spectrum thing
你可以在其中来来往往
where you can move back and forth.
焦点有时在你的控制之内
The focus might be under your control sometimes.
有时由于环境 力量 欲望等因素
Other times given the circumstances or the strength and the desire,
焦点可能会脱离你的控制
it might not always be under your control.
所以我也谈论过
So I also kind of talk a little bit about
一种“正念训练”方法
the way a certain kind of if you want, mindfulness training
即通过关注一些事情的可能性
could lead us to be more hopeful people,
而不是任由我们的焦点和关注
cultivating the virtue of hope
漂流到遥不可及的地方
by learning how to focus on something under the aspect of its possibility
从而让我们成为更有希望的人
rather than allowing our focus or attention
并培养“希望”这种美德
to always drift towards the fact that it’s so unlikely.
你可以通过他人之口
You can even hear this in the way that
来理解希望或者绝望的真谛
someone might say something about what they hope for or despair of.
以安迪和雷德为例
So in the Andy and Red case,
安迪会说:
Andy might say,
“我知道希望渺茫
“I know that it’s really unlikely but
但起码是有希望的”
at least it’s possible,”
只需关注其可能性
and sort of focus on the possibility.
这是有希望的解决方法
That’s the hopeful sort of approach.
雷德会说:
And Red might say,
“我知道是有希望的
“I know that it’s possible,
但希望太渺茫了”
but it’s really unlikely.”
两个人有相同的希望
Same desire,
对可能性的估计相同
same estimation of the probabilities,
但是你可以发现他们的表述方式
but you can even hear in the way it’s stated
表达态度是截然不同的
a kind of difference in attitude that I
我认为这就是希望和绝望的本质区别
take to be the essential difference between hope and despair.
接下来咱们进一步探讨一下
So one more locus of discussion is the relationship
希望 乐观和行动之间的关系
between hope, optimism, and action.
我认为很多人并没有
I think a lot of people regard hope
把希望太当回事儿
in a way as unserious,
因为某种意义上 希望和行动并不是一体的
because it gets detached from action in a certain way.
所以说 希望是你除了这样做之外别无他法
So hope is something that you do when you can’t do anything else.
希望就是留在潘多拉魔盒里的诅咒
It’s the kind of curse that is left in Pandora’s box,
因为你仍然拥有希望
because you still have it even though
哪怕你无能为力
there’s nothing else you can do with
哪怕你不知道究竟会得到什么
respect to achieving the goal in question.
“我只是满怀希望
“I’m just hoping for it.
希望渺茫 但我全力以赴
It seems possible but there’s not much I can do.
我只是乐观地满怀着希望”
I’m just sort of passively hoping.”
很明显 在某种性格使然下
That obviously seems like a bit of a character of the way
希望确实会发生作用
in which hope might actually work.
所以我们对此充满好奇
And so we’re curious.
我们项目组的心理学家 社会学家 社会科学家
And people in both psychology and sociology, other social sciences
还有哲学家 宗教学家
as well as philosophers and religious studies people, in our project,
他们都认为 希望是行动的承诺
think about the way in which hope underwrites action,
希望在行动中彰显
hope manifests itself in action,
希望是行动的答案
hope is the result of action.
所以希望是很有趣味的
So agency and hope is a really interesting set of issues
有待我们深入了解
that we think is underdeveloped.

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视频概述

以《肖申克的救赎》阐述希望和绝望的本质区别…

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ccz

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyzoIYqmzMQ

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