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为什么格式塔(完形)心理学对良好的设计有重要作用 – 译学馆
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为什么格式塔(完形)心理学对良好的设计有重要作用

Gestalt Psychology and Why It's Essential for Good Design

当看到这里,你首先看到的东西是什么?
When looking at this, what’s the first thing you see?
你看到了一辆自行车?
Do you see a bicycle?
或者说你看到了车把扶手,脚蹬,轮辐,车胎,车闸,座椅和车架?
Or do you see handle bars, pedals, spokes, tyres, brakes, a seat, and a frame?
如果你是人类,
If you’re human,
我猜你看到的是一辆自行车。
I’m guessing you saw a bike.
我们将看到的事物作为一个整体去理解
This idea that we make sense of things by seeing a whole
而不是各个独立的部件这种想法称为“格式塔心理学”
rather than individual parts is called “Gestalt physchology”.
这种理念对于创造完整的编译图形的设计者尤为重要
And its principals are especially important for designers in creating complete and compiling visuals.
由于心理学家马克思·韦特海默,库尔特·考夫卡和沃尔夫冈·苛勒
Because of psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler,
格式塔理论得以拆分为六个设计理念
Gestalt theory can be broken down into six design principles:
图形——背景论
Figure-Ground,
当我们看一个场景的时 我们会把物体分割一些为焦点或人物
the thought that when we look at a scene we separate objects so that some of the focus or figure
其他的为背景
and others of the background.
类似性概念
Similarity,
这一概念是我们将有相似特征的物体分到一个组里
the notion that we place objects with similar characteristics in a group,
这些特征可以是颜色 标志 字体形状或纹理等等
these characteristics can include color, signs, font, shape, texture and more.
临近原理
Proximity,
这一理论是我们将相互离得比较近的物体组成一组
the belief that we group together objects that are close to each other.
关闭原理
Closure,
这是指我们的意识会忽视一些物体 这些物体
the idea that our minds close objects that are not necessarily together or complete
对于创造整体来说并不是很关键
in order to create a whole.
连续性原理
Continuity,
这里理论认为我们会持续注意外表上连续的物体直到它们断开
the theory that we continue to follow objects that are visually aligned until they’re interrupted.
有序性原理
Order,
这一理论认为对齐有序在设计中是很受欢迎和必不可少的因素
the belief that alignment and symmetry are attractive and essential elements of design,
当格式塔观念被忽略时 设计会看起来变得脱离本位变得不完整
When Gestalt principles are ignored, designs tend to look out of place or incomplete,
我们会强迫自己的眼睛去关注微小的矛盾而不是更大的整体
forcing our eyes to focus on little inconsistencies rather than the greater whole.
你可能并不清楚地知道哪里不对劲
You may not know exactly what seems off,
但是你会感到有些东西偏离了本位
but you will feel something is out of place,
最好的设计便是在不经意间令这个世界变得有更少的混乱
The best designs unintentionally make the world feel a little less chaotic.

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最好的设计便是在不经意间令这个世界变得更好

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