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锯齿线是怎样影响选举结果的 – 译学馆
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锯齿线是怎样影响选举结果的

Gerrymandering: How drawing jagged lines can impact an election - Christina Greer

大部分人曾听过“改划选区”这个词一两次,
Most people have heard the word ‘gerrymandering’ once or twice,
可能在总统选举期间
probably during a presidential election.
什么是改划选区呢?
What exactly is gerrymandering?
本质上,它是倾向于一个政治党派而压制另一党派
Essentially, it’s the process of giving one political party an advantage over another political party
通过重新划分选区
by redrawing district lines.
这就像是民主党员想要胜过于共和党员
It’s like Democrats trying to gain an advantage over Republicans,
或共和党员想要胜过于民主党员
or Republicans trying to gain an advantage over Democrats.
很明显每个政党都想获得足够多的选区
You see, each party wants to gain as many districts as possible
这样他们就可以做如控制财政预算之类的事情
so they can do things like control the state budget,
或者在将来为自己赢得更多的选区做好准备
or set themselves up to win even more districts in the future.
所以 为了明白这个过程是怎么开始的 以及在今天是如何继续的
So to understand how this process began, and how it continues today,
我们必须追溯到1812年的马萨诸塞州(美国)
we must go back to 1812 in Massachusetts.
时任马撒诸塞州州长的埃尔布里奇.格里支持并签署了一项允许重划选区的法案
Elbridge Gerry, the governor of Massachusetts, supported and signed a bill to allow redistricting.
那就是 重新划分选区间的边界
That is, redrawing the boundaries that separate districts.
目的?新的边界会有利于格里自己的政党,
The catch? The new lines would favor Gerry’s own political party,
已不存在的民主共和党
the Democratic-Republican party, which no longer exists.
很明显 格里想要他的政党在州参议院里获得尽可能多的席位
You see, Gerry wanted his party to win as many state Senate seats as possible.
你的政党中投票的人数越多 你就越有可能赢得选举
The more members of your party who vote, the more likely you are to win an election.
重新划分的边界会囊括进来大量的选区 这将帮助州长格里获胜
The new lines were drawn to include loads of areas that would help Governor Gerry in the future.
分割线划分的如此奇怪以至于有人说看上去像条蜥蜴
They were so strange looking that someone said the new districts looked like a salamander.
于是波斯顿公报就将格里的名字加到了蜥蜴前面
The Boston Gazette added Gerry’s name to the word salamander,
然后 看! 重划选区 这个词出现了
and voilà! Gerrymandering,
指的就是通过重新划分选区来使政党获利的过程
the process of dividing up and redrawing districts to give your political party an advantage.
那么究竟某人是怎么通过 重划选区 来保护
So how exactly does someone go about protecting their own political party,
自己的政党的呢?
and actually gerrymandering a district?
有两种成功的手段
There are two successful practices.
包围选区
Packing a district,
和分裂选区
and cracking a district.
包围选区是绘制选区分界线,像赶牲口一样包围对手
Packing is the process of drawing district lines and packing in your opponents like cattle,
将他们赶进尽可能少的选区
into as few districts as possible.
如果越多的选区相当于越多的选票 那较少的选区
If more districts equals more votes, the fewer the districts there are,
则会让对手政党获得更少的选票
the fewer votes the opposition party will get.
包围 然后 分解对手选民的力量 压制他们的影响力
Packing, then, decreases the opponent’s voter strength and influence.
分裂则恰恰相反:
Cracking is the opposite:
将一个选区分裂成几块
taking one district and cracking it into several pieces.
这经常用于对手的支持者甚多的选区
This is usually done in districts where your opponent has many supporters.
分裂能将这些支持者分散到多个选区里
Cracking spreads these supporters out among many districts,
让对手得不到较多数的选票
denying your opponent a lot of votes.
当你拥有一群大部分会投票支持一类党派的民众
When you have a large number of people who would generally vote for one type of party,
这些平民被称作选民团体
those folks are known as a voting bloc.
分裂就是打破这个团体的办法
Cracking is a way to break that all up.
那么党派会何时选择包围他们的对手 而不是分裂他们呢?
So when would a party choose to pack their opponent’s districts rather than crack them?
实际上取决于这个政党需要什么
Well, that really depends on what the party needs.
为削弱对手的选民 可以把他们包围进一个选区
To dilute your opponent’s voters, you could pack them into one district
然后在周围选区布满自己政党的选民
and leave the surrounding districts filled with voters of your own party.
或者 如果你和你的政党正当权 适合去重划选区时
Or, if you and your party are in power when it’s time to redraw district lines,
你能重新绘制选区 分裂掉一个强势选区
you could redraw districts and crack up a powerful district
然后将你的对手们分散到几个邻近的选区
and spread your opponent’s voters out across several neighboring districts.
因此 1812年格里州长想要为他的政党赢得优势票数
So, Governor Gerry in 1812 wanted to gain an advantage for his party,
在他的州内重新绘制选区分界线 这种如此疯狂的手段 以至于产生了一个新词
and redrew district lines in his state in such a crazy way we have a whole new word
和一种思维方式 关于政治党派怎样获得多数席位压制对手
and way of thinking about how political parties can gain advantages over their opponents.
每几年政客们就会创新重划选区的方法
Politicians think of creative ways to draw districts every few years.
因此下次大选到来时
So the next time an election comes around,
政客请求人们投票
and politicians ask people to vote,
记得查看你所在选区和周围选区的形状
be sure to look up the shape of your district and the districts that surround it.
你的选区在你所在的州有多大呢?
How wide does your district stretch across your state?
是否州内所有选区都形状相似呢?
Are all of the districts in your state relatively the same shape?
你所在的选区挨着多少其他选区呢?
How many other districts does your district touch?
但是请记住问问自己
But always be sure to ask yourself,
我所在的选区看起来像一只蜥蜴吗
does my district look like a salamander?

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