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第2周:两线作战的德国和施利芬计划1 – 译学馆
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Germany in Two-Front War and the Schlieffen-Plan I THE GREAT WAR - Week 2

我的名字是Indy Neidell 欢迎来到第一次世界大战
My name is Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War.
We left off last time with the Austro-Hungarian Empire declaring war on the kingdom of Serbia,
今天呢 我要从一些电报讲起
and I’m going to begin today with a couple of telegrams.
Now, in Russia there were very real fears that Austria’s plans might extend to more than
不仅仅是占领塞尔维亚或者惩罚塞尔维亚 俄国认为塞尔维亚真的会失去独立权
just Serbian occupation or Serbian punishment- Russia thought that Serbia might actually lose her independence.
你看 奥地利派遣了3/4的军队 足以攻克塞尔维亚
You see, Austria had mobilized three quarters of her army, which was way more than enough to deal
所以在7月29日奥地利开始轰炸贝尔格莱德 (塞尔维亚首都)俄国为了以防万一 派遣了部分军队
with Serbia, so on July 29th, as Austria began bombarding Belgrade, Russia partially mobilized her army just in case.
The Tsar,though,did not want a war with Germany,who had pledged to support Austria-Hungary,so he
telegraphed his cousin Kaiser Wilhelm,“To try to avoid such a calamity
as a European war, I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop
阻止你的盟军做得太过火” 署名“Nicky”
your allies from going too far.” He signed it “Nicky”. At the same time, the Kaiser
was telegraphing back “I am exerting the utmost influence to induce the Austrians
快速处理 与你达成满意的协议”
to deal straightly to arrive at a satisfactory understanding with you.” This was signed
然而 当天德国开始调动舰队是为了回应
However, that same day the German fleet began to mobilize and in response the British
英国派遣舰队到它的北海驻地 去预防这些可能发生的攻击
fleet was sent to its war stations in the North Sea in case of a possible attack. At
在那时 同盟军法国和俄国施压英国并宣称
that point, the allied pair France and Russia were putting pressure on Britain to declare
以防德国袭击俄国的盟友法国 英国将加入战争
that in case of a German attack on Russia’s ally France, Britain would join the war, but
但是英国 尤其是外交部长爱德华•格雷并未表态
Britain, especially the foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey, wouldn’t commit.
Important stuff now.
德国密电英国 如果英国保持中立
Germany told Britain in a secret message that if Britain remained neutral, Germany would
除了殖民地 德国将不会从法国带走一片领土  这却适得其反
take no territory from France except her colonies. This provoked the opposite effect though,
showing Grey once and for all that Germany was committed to going to war,
against Russia.
在俄国在29号没有宣战 但将近六百万人开始行动
In Russia on the 29th there was no declaration of war, but a draft of nearly six million
men began and the army was already moving toward the Austrian border, and it was at
7月30日下午5点 俄国全民总动员开始了
5 PM on July 30th that the Russian general mobilization began. The Tsar finally signed
因为部分德军集结 同时沙皇担忧他们在波兰前线中尚未做好准备
this order because of partial German mobilization and his worries about being unready on the
Polish front.
这里有点让人困惑 德国总理贝特曼•霍尔维格电讯
It all actually got a little confusing here; German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg telegraphed
维也纳(奥地利首都)不要派军对阵俄国 但就在同一天 德国参谋长小毛奇
Vienna NOT to mobilize against Russia, but the same day, German chief of staff Moltke
telegraphed his opposite Austrian number Conrad to mobilize at once, so who was really in
于是德国对俄国下了最后通牒 在24小时之内停止所有对
charge? And then, Germany sent Russia an ultimatum to stop all war measures of any kind against
奥地利和德国的战争举措 这被驳回了
Austria and Germany within 24 hours. This was rejected.
你能感受到这变得有多糟糕 但7月末所有军队
You could see that this was becoming a real mess. But at the end of July all of the various
向他们的政治领导施压 因为许多领导人反对战争
armies were pressuring their political leaders. Because many of the leaders were against the war,
但这些军队担心还没做好准备 于是想要尽快行动
but the armies were afraid of being unready and wanted to move as quickly as possible.
7月29日 德国对比利时的最后通牒准备好了
On July 29th, a German ultimatum to Belgium was prepared.
什么? 比利时?为什么是小中立国比利时? 你会问 这是因为:
What? Belgium? Why little neutral Belgium? Why Belgium you will ask. Here’s why:
如果德国忍不住与俄罗斯交战 她担心法国
If Germany was going to war with Russia she could not help but be worried about France
会从背后入侵 因为法俄是坚定的盟友
invading her from behind, because again- France and Russia were committed allies. So here
was the idea- the moment you’ve all been waiting for… the Schlieffen Plan!
Alfred von Schlieffen had been the Germany army Chief of Staff from 1891 to 1905 and
here was his big idea in case of war with both Russia and France: France would have
to be knocked out immediately so all troops could focus on the more daunting task of attacking
所以德国制造了一场闪电战 穿过比利时和荷兰 进入法国北部
Russia, so Germany would make a swift attack through Belgium and Holland into Northern
France, completely bypassing the heavily defended Franco-German border and sweeping down into
Paris from the north. Moltke streamlined the plan a bit by skipping Holland, but the idea
但这个想法要占据巴黎只需要六周时间 因此避免了两线作战
was to take Paris within six weeks and thus avoid a two front war. We’ll go into this
in more depth later.
但比利时是中立国并且英国与她有条约 在7月31日
But Belgium was neutral and Britain had a treaty with her, and on July 31st, Britain
英国问法德是否会尊重比利时的中立立场 法国说是 但德国没有回应
asked France and Germany if they would respect Belgian neutrality. France said yes, but Germany
did not respond, so Britain eventually sent an ultimatum of her own; if Belgium were attacked,
Britain would go to war.
In all of these countries people were enlisting like crazy.
民族主义狂热即将脱轨 在法国 例如 饶勒斯
and nationalistic fever was going off the rails. In France, for example, Jean Jaurés,
leader of the socialist party who was appealing to all the European working classes to stop
在31号被暗杀 更为讽刺的是 在欧洲这比
the war, was assassinated on the 31st. Ironically, this actually caused more shock around Europe
弗朗茨费迪南的遇刺更令人震惊 但这也表明了法国
than Franz Ferdinand’s assassination did, but it showed that in France there was a great
对此次战争的巨大热情 许多人想要为40多年前的战败
deal of enthusiasm for the war. Many people wanted revenge for the loss against Prussia
over 40 years earlier.
Back to Russia and Germany!
俄国集结军队后的第二天 德国也这样做了 地点在国会大厦
The day after Russia mobilized, Germany also mobilized. This was presented in the Reichstag as
只是为了单纯的防御 这样做的原因是俄国首先集结了军队
purely defensive. We have to mobilize to defend ourselves, because they did first. This was
pretty much the only way that the Germany military high command could get the social
democrats to agree with mobilization.
8月1日晚 由于俄罗斯拒绝德国的解除战备状态最后通牒
And on the evening of August 1st, the German ambassador gave Russia the German
declaration of war, which resulted from Russia rejecting the German ultimatum to stand down.
实际上结果是 德国大使给了俄国两个版本的宣战书
Actually, as it turned out, the German ambassador actually gave the Russians two versions
一份称俄国拒绝回应德国 另一份
of the declaration of war, one that claimed Russia refused to respond to Germany and one
that said the Russian response was unacceptable.
是的 这就是在外交部门你想避免的事情
Yep. That’s the kind of thing you want to avoid in the diplomatic service.
威廉二世起初下令只攻击俄国 但小毛奇说服他
The Kaiser at first ordered an attack on only Russia, but Moltke convinced him that this
由于大部分军队早已在西部严阵以待 这是不现实的
wasn’t really possible since most of the army was already committed in the west, and
那天晚上 德国军队进入卢森堡保护电报机和铁路
that evening, German troops entered Luxembourg to secure the telegraph and the railways
我们从这开始吧:8月2日 德国军队40多年来第一次越界进入法国
Here we go: on August 2nd, German troops crossed into France for the first time in over 40
有几次小的边境冲突 当晚7点
years, and there were several small border skirmishes. At seven that evening, Germany
德国给比利时下了最后通牒—让德国军队自由通过比利时 比利时拒绝了
gave Belgium an ultimatum- give German troops free passage through Belgium. Belgium refused.
8月3日德国向法国宣战 这一天占领了俄属波兰的三个城镇
On August 3rd, Germany declared war on France, and that same day occupied three towns in
8月4日德军进入比利时 此时英国向德国宣战
Russian Poland. On August 4th, German troops entered Belgium and Britain declared war on
Germany. Many of those in England who had been anti-war, were suddenly very much for
例如 外交部长格雷认为如果现在不阻止德国 那么欧洲所有的
the war. Grey, the foreign secretary,for example, now believed that if Germany wasn’t stopped then all European
national independence was just a fiction.
在地中海区域 8月3日起 奥斯曼帝国开始在达达尼尔海峡布雷
In the Mediterranean, the Ottoman Empire began mining the Dardanelles on the 3rd, although
虽然土耳其还没参战 但几周后我们将会看到他们
the Turks were not yet going to war. We’ll see more of them in a few weeks, but what
of Serbia? I mean, this whole thing snowballed because of issues between Serbia and Austria-Hungary,
对吧? 好了 我保证 我们下周将更深入挖掘这些事
right? Well, we’re going to get to that in more depth next week, I promise.
在欧洲的许多地方 人们对这场战争非常乐观 每个人都认为
In much of Europe, there was huge optimism about the war. Everyone really thought that
他们将会胜利 尽管此时仍有数百万士兵行在欧洲各地游行
they were going to win. Even though by this time there were several million soldiers marching
战争仍将持续 但会在圣诞节前结束
around Europe this was still the war that would be over by Christmas. The Russian high
例如 俄国统帅部需要新的打字机 但被告知这场战争并不会长到去体现它的价值
command, for example, asked for new typewriters, but were told that the war would not be long
因为所有这一切 每个人的军事计划
enough to justify the expense. And because of all of this, everyone’s military
需要快速猛烈的攻击 因为当你胜利了
plans called for huge immediate attacks, since there seemed no point saving resources for
later when you could just win right now.
但是事情是这样的 人们回顾像普法战争这样的短期战争时
But here’s the thing, the wars people looked back on were short wars like the Franco-Prussian
war, but they really should have looked at the American Civil War to get an idea of how
long and how bloody modern warfare was going to be.
好了 8月5日德意志帝国遇到了第一个严重的军事障碍—列日市
Alright, on August 5th, the German Empire reached her first serious military obstacle-
Liege. That day the Germans failed to take any of the 12 forts of the city. Ludendorf
鲁登道夫计划在7号进入列日 但是德国必须首先占领这些堡垒
managed to enter Liege on the 7th, but taking the forts was necessary for the German advance.
Germany brought in her big guns and this was accomplished in only a few days, and THIS
is really important.
看 法国和比利时有战略的部署他们的堡垒
See, France and Belgium had strategically placed fortresses all over them. They were
堡垒造价昂贵并且防守严密 但战争所展现出的第一件事就是
very expensive and heavily defended. But one of the first things the war showed was the
火炮技术的进步 重型榴弹炮能从10英里远处轰炸堡垒
technological advance in artillery. Heavy howitzers could bombard fortresses from ten
而无被反击之忧 堡垒却只能坐以待毙
miles away without real fear of retaliation, and the fortresses were just sitting ducks,
so all of the fortresses attacked in 1914 fell very quickly, and all the money and effort
to build them up was for nothing.
So, to bring us up to date: on August 6th, Austria-Hungary officially declared war on
Russia and Serbia declared war on Germany.
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