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即时地理——波黑

Geography Now! Bosnia and Herzegovina

嘿嘿 你认为比利时让你很困惑么?
Hehehe, you thought Belgium was confusing?
兄弟 如果你要更复杂的
Brother please, if you want complication,
来看看波斯尼亚-黑塞哥维那吧
come to Bosnia-Herzegovina.
现在 是时候来学习地理了
It’s time to learn Geography – NOW!!!
大家好 我是你们的主持人Paul Barbato
Hey everyone, I’m your host Paul Barbato.
如果你曾经
If you’re ever
看过一个节目叫百万美元抢答游戏
on a game show and there’s a million dollar question,
那么这个国家有机会出现在百万美元问题里面
chances are this country will be on that million-dollar question –
所以集中你的注意力
so pay attention,
你有可能会赢得奖金
you might win some money.
波黑有这样一个看上去很简单的国旗
Bosnia-Herzegovina have what seems like a very simple flag,
但这背后隐藏这着很多东西
but there’s a lot hidden underneath it.
首先这个国旗
First of all the flag has
是蓝色的底色上有一个黄色的三角形
a blue field with a yellow triangle,
和七个完整的五角星和两个半五角星
and seven full stars and two half stars
分别位于三角形斜边的顶部和底部
at the top and bottom of the hypotenuse of the triangle.
这个三角形代表了波黑的三种组成民族
The triangle represents the three constituent peoples of Bosnia-Herzegovina –
波斯尼亚人 塞尔维亚人和克罗地亚人
the Bosnians, Serbs and Croats,
它也分别代表了波斯尼亚的地图
it also respectively represents the map of Bosnia
它看上去有点像一个三角形
which kind of looks like a triangle.
这些五角星代表了欧洲 并意味着永存
The stars represent Europe and are meant to go on forever
因此在顶部和底部分别有半个五角星
hence the half stars at the bottom and the top.
有些人说这个国旗部分改编自欧盟旗帜
Some say the flag was even partially adapted from the European Union flag.
在传统上 白蓝黄三色代表着和平
The colours white and blue and yellow are traditionally seen as colours representing peace.
现在让我们来看看这个国家多么爱好和平 好么?
Now let’s find out how peaceful this country is, shall we?
还记得比利时以及那混乱的佛兰德-瓦隆地区的事么
Remember Belgium, and how confusing that whole Flanders-Wallonia thing was? Well,
好 做好准备我们将要征服一个地方
get ready because we’re gonna conquer one place,
两个区域 三个实体 和一个怪异的三分之一的半流浪自治区
two regions, two entities, and a weird third semi-rogue autonomous region district.
先做一个警告
Just for a warning,
你可能会为了试图去理解所有这些事物而抓狂
you might have a seizure trying to understand all of this stuff
所以如果你的大脑
so if your brain’s not
不是那么强大 那么直接快进到自然地理部分
that strong just fastforward to the Physical Geography part
我们会有一些不错的图片给你看
and we’ll have some nice pretty pictures for you to look at!
首先
First of all,
波黑位于欧洲南部一块复杂而美丽的地方
Bosnia-Herzegovina is located in that lovely area of mass confusion
叫做巴尔干半岛
in south Europe known as the Balkans.
位于克罗地亚的南面 塞尔维亚的西面和黑山的北面
Located to the south of Croatia, west of Serbia and north of Montenegro.
你可能会认为波黑是被陆地所包围的国家
You would think the Bosnia-Herzegovina is landlocked but
但是如果你仔细看
if you look very close,
你会注意到有
you’ll notice they have the
一个非常小的像平底锅柄状的土地连接到亚得里亚海
smallest little panhandle which touches the Adriatic Sea
大约只有25公里或15英里的宽度
for only about 25 kilometres or about 15 miles.
现在告诉你一个诡异的事情
Now here’s where things get tricky –
当你听到
when you hear the name
波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那这两个名字的时候
Bosnia and Herzegovina,
你可能会认为有点像
you would think it kind of sounds like two
两个分开的民族实体
separate nationalistic entities,
比如英国或者阿联酋
kind of like the UK, or the United Arab Emirates
但其实并不是这样的
but that’s not really the case.
首先 波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那确切的是指什么?
So first of all, what exactly is Bosnia and what exactly is Herzegovina? Well,
好 我现在用最短的时间和最简单的方法告诉你
in the shortest and simplest way I can put it,
它们只是地区
they’re just regions.
尽管边界含糊 未被明确定义
Although the borders are vague and not clearly defined,
波斯尼亚主要位于这个区域
Bosnia is generally located in this area
而黑塞哥维那主要位于南面的这个区域
and Herzegovina is generally located in the south, in this area.
文化上 波斯尼亚人
Culturally, the people of Bosnia are the same as
和黑塞哥维那人是一样的
the people in Herzegovina
区别只有在黑塞哥维那的南部
except there are more ethnic Croats living in
有更多的克罗地亚人生活 特别是和克罗地亚接壤的地方
the south by Herzegovina, especially on the border of Croatia.
它被分开是因为
The only reason why it’s separate is because some guy
在十五世纪某个人建立了自己的国家
in the 1400s created his own country,
他有拥有赫尔佐克的头衔
he had the title of Herzog which is where
黑塞哥维那的名字也从此而来
the name Herzegovina comes from – but other than
但除此之外它们就是同一个国家
that it’s just the same country.
现在这个事情就要被分成两块来说
Now here’s where things do get divided though.
波黑有点儿像被分成两个实体
Bosnia-Herzegovina is kind of divided into two separate entities,
每一个都拥有一半的领土
each one with about half the land of the
和三种不同民族的人民
country that serve the three different people groups known
他们有一个独特的名词 叫“组成民族”
as the ‘constituent peoples’, a unique term
这个词仅在波黑共和国使用
that only applies to Bosnia-Herzegovina.
我们会在人口统计上进一步解释这点
We’ll explain more about this in the demographics.
基本上 波黑被分成
Essentially, Bosnia-Herzegovina is divided into
波黑联邦和斯普斯卡共和国
the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the Republic of Srpska.
我知道 听上去它的发音像斯~普~坡~沙
I know, it looks like it’s pronounced’s-puh-puh-perp-ska’,
但它正确的发音是斯普斯卡
but it’s pronounced’Srpska’.
三重双元音在一起可真是一种奇特的语言学现象
Triple dipthongs are an amazing linguistic phenomena.
大多数的塞尔维亚族人住在斯普斯卡共和国
Most of the ethnic Serbs live in the Republic of Srpska,
它们各自有自己的首都
and each side has its own capital. Sarajevo,
波黑联邦的首都是萨拉热窝
for the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina,
斯普斯卡共和国的是巴尼亚卢卡
and Banja Luka for the Republic of Srpska,
但是萨拉热窝也作为整个国家的首都
however Sarajevo acts as the national capital for the entire country as well. Furthermore,
此外 斯普斯卡共和国也划分为两个地区
the Republic of Srpska is split into two regions,
然后它们也都被再分成州(或县)和自治市
and then they are both divided into cantons (or counties) and municipalities –
波黑联邦有10个
ten for the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina,
斯普斯卡共和国有7个
and seven for the Republic of Srpska.
记住波黑有两个小自治飞地
Keep in mind Bosnia-Herzegovina has two small municipal exclaves
位于靠近克罗地亚边界的萨瓦河边
on the Sava River on the border of Croatia known
叫做波萨维纳地区
as the Posavina canton county.
它们属于波斯尼亚-黑塞哥维那联邦
These belong to the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina
并且是最小的行政区
and make the smallest cantons.
然后还有一个奇特的布尔奇科地区
Then you have the weird Brčko district –
我知道 它听起来像嘭~哔呲~抠 其实它的发音是布尔奇科
I know, it looks like’Bm-bizh-ko’. It’s pronounced’Birch-ko’.
这是一个四重双元音-我要爱上这些斯拉夫语了
That was a quadruple dipthong – gotta love these Slavic words!
这个地方有点像“中间地带”
This place is kind of seen as a’neutral ground’
既似乎属于所有两个政治实体 又好像是自治管理的
and kind of belongs to both entities, and it kind of governs itself.
所有这些措施之所以这样制定
All of this was done to kind
就是为了缓和
of alleviate the demographical tensions
90年代南斯拉夫战争后的民族紧张局势
in the country after the Yugoslav wars in the 90s.
然而这背后的策略也总会动摇这一地区根基
However the strategy behind it has always been kind of shaky at its foundations.
说到战争 这一地区有着
Speaking of war, this place has a lot
诸多让人陷入沉思的残酷历史
of lingering reminders of its brutal past.
比如在萨拉热窝 有一个隧道博物馆和萨拉热窝“玫瑰”
Like in Sarajevo, there’s a tunnel museum and the Sarajevo’roses’
所谓的“玫瑰”其实就是人行道上的用粉红色混凝土填充的迫击炮弹坑
which are mortar blasts in a sidewalk that were filled up with pink concrete.
这确实还挺幽默的
They do have a little small sense of humour though.
他们还做了一个讽刺意味的ICAR牛肉罐头纪念碑
They made an ironic ICAR Canned Beef Monument
用来献给近三年以来历史上
dedicated to the longest airlift raid attempt
最长的空运救援行动
in history for nearly three years
这场人道主义空投救援行动涉及到了整个欧洲
in which humanitarian airlifts from all over Europe
特别是英国
and especially in the UK would
投放了大量以前战争留下的
drop off food supplies that were often
没有人要吃的过期食品
expired leftovers from previous wars that nobody wanted to eat.
并且很多时候这些食品含有猪肉
Many times the food contained pork that
而这个国家的大部分穆斯林民众
many of the Muslims
只能放弃食用
in the country had to abstain from eating,
这对他们来说是毫无用处的
so it was useless to them.
这简直是世界上最具讽刺意义的纪念碑
It was literally the world’s most sarcastic monument ever.
现在如果你觉得波黑的边界
Now if you thought Bosnia-Herzegovina was pretty quirky
有点古怪的话
with their land borders,
你会注意到
then you’ll notice
它的实际领土有更多的圈套
that the actual land has a lot more tricks and gimmicks.
首先这个国家是大部分地方是山脉和丘陵
First of all, the country is mostly mountainous or hilly
因为它位于巴尔干半岛的第纳尔山脉地区
as it lies on the Dianaric Alps in the Balkan Peninsula,
在东北部有平坦的潘诺尼亚盆地
with flatter lands in the north-east by the Panonian Basin.
整个国家有一半土地是森林
About half the country is forested and about 30 %
30%的土地是可耕种的
of the land is arable,
主要都在东北部地区
mostly in the north-east regions, whereas the south, mostly in Herzegovina,
而南部的黑塞哥维那是多岩石地区且较为干燥
is more rocky and dry than the rest of the country.
这里有点有意思的地方
Here’s where things get a little interesting – yes,
这个国家其实有大量可耕种土地
the country does have a lot of potential arable land
但问题在于它的战争历史
but the problem is due to its war past,
这个国家仍然有大约20万枚地雷
the country still has about two hundred thousand landmines
需要被清除
that they have to clear from the ground.
不过我说
But I mean hey,
这个数字只有阿尔巴尼亚的三分之一 还记得么?
that’s only like a third of the amount from Albania, remember? Woohoo,
稍微那么好一点
slightly less danger! Then,
然后 在斯普斯卡共和国 你能找到南欧最后一个原始丛林
in the Republic of Srpska, you can find the last jungle (or primeval forest) in southern Europe,
Perucica森林
the Perućica forest, which is only accessible to explorers
并且你只能在游骑兵的陪同下进去探索
in the company of rangers.
在这里能发现世界上最高的挪威云杉树
The world’s tallest Norwegian spruce tree can be found here
还有很多迷人的瀑布和古老的树木
and many captivating waterfalls and ancient trees that
会把你带回过去
take you back years in the past.
现在有个好玩的东西
Now here’s the funny thing –
在波斯尼亚靠近萨拉热窝的很多人会告诉你
many people in Bosnia around Sarajevo will tell you that
他们确信他们的国家拥有
they’re pretty certain that the country has the world’s largest
世界上最大的人造古金字塔
manmade ancient pyramid.
位于维索科镇附近
Located near the town of Visoko,
这个地区的山丘看上去有着几乎完美的几何形状
the hills in the region seem to have an almost perfect geometric shape
其形状为具有几乎相等的边长和角度的金字塔
that creepishly resembles a pyramid with almost equal sides and angles.
现代考古学家对此表示怀疑
Modern archaeologists are sceptical,
但如果你看这些从空中拍摄的照片
but if you look at the pictures from above, I mean,
它确实有点像金字塔
it does kind of look like a pyramid.
我不知道为什么 你可以去判断
I don’t know, you be the judge. Also,
并且 多亏了多山的地形 波黑的萨拉热窝被选为
thanks to its mountainous terrain Bosnia-Herzegovina was selected and hosted
1984年冬奥会的主办城市
the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo.
但在那之后整个比赛地区包括
However since then the entire area
包括大滑雪撬道几乎完全被废弃了
including the bobsledding trail is all but completely abandoned
并画满了涂鸦
and tagged with graffiti.
因此目前这里只是一个流行的旅游点而已
It’s actually a kind of popular tourist spot these days.
波黑奇特的大气环境变化多端难以历数
Bosnia-Herzegovina just doesn’t stop when it comes to the strange atmosphere
但这里的人们甚至更加复杂
but the people here are even more complex.
这是波黑的规则
Here’s the rule of Bosnia-Herzegovina –
你经常不得不用三种方式思考问题
you always have to constantly think in threes.
在这个国家绝不能把任何人只考虑为波斯尼亚人
Never refer to everyone in the country as just’Bosnian’.
那样的话有一半的人会对你超级愤怒
Half of everybody will get super mad at you.
首先 这个国家有大约400万人口
First of all, the country has about four million people,
其中48%的人是波斯尼亚人 33%塞尔维亚人 15%克罗地亚人
about 48% of whom are Bosnians, 33% Serbs and 15% Croats,
还有剩余4%的人是其它民族
with the remaining 4% from other nations.
这个国家的三个主要族群
The three main people groups
是造成很多事情非常复杂而诡异的原因
of this country are pretty much what make it function in such a weird way.
这里有个有趣的事情 波斯尼亚人
Now here’s the funny thing – Bosnians,
克罗地亚人
Croatians,
塞尔维亚人和甚至黑山人之间互相都能很好的理解对方的语言
Serbians and even Montenegrans can all pretty much understand each other with their languages,
他们的语言基本上都是相同的斯拉夫语基础的方言
their languages are all pretty much the same Slavic-based dialect
仅有一些细微的差别
with a few differential nuances.
这仅有的差别就是
The only difference is
通常塞尔维亚人使用斯拉夫语字母
that typically Serbian is written with the Cyrillic alphabet,
而波斯尼亚人和克罗地亚人使用拉丁语字母
and Bosnian and Croatian are written with a Latin based alphabet.
然而他们都会郑重的告诉你
However they will fiercely tell you
他们的语言是完全不同的
that the languages are separate and distinct languages – Croatian,
分为克罗地亚语 塞尔维亚语 和波斯尼亚语
Serbian and Bosnian.
他们甚至在香烟的包装盒上放上了所有三种语言
They even put warning signs in all three languages on cigarette packs.
所以基本上就像
So essentially it’s like this – “Hi!
“你好 我说美语”
I’m speaking American!” “Hello!
“你好 我说英语”
I’m speaking British!” “Hi!
“你好 我说爱尔兰语”
I’m speaking Irish!”
“你知道你们大家互相都能理解对方的语言”
“You know what you guys all pretty much understand each other
“你们其实都在说同一个东西 你们不是在说相同的语言么?”“不是!”
and you’re all kind of saying the same thing, aren’t you all speaking the same-“”NO!!!”
然后还有一个事情让人很困惑
Now here’s where things get really confusing –
波黑有一个两院制的立法机构包含三个总统
Bosnia-Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that includes a three member presidency,
每一族的人民各自有一个总统
one for each of the people groups –
塞尔维亚的 克罗地亚的 和波斯尼亚的
the Serbs, the Croatians and the Bosnians.
对 这个国家有三个总统
That’s right, a country has three Presidents.
你在这世界的其他任何地方都没见过像这样的
You don’t see anything like this anywhere else in the world. However,
但是 州政府是高度分散管理的
the state government is highly decentralized
大多数的法律只是用于各自的实体
and a lot of the legislation just goes to the respective entities. Culturally,
文化上就更突出了
this place just sticks out.
作为前奥斯曼帝国的一部分
As a former part of the Ottoman Empire,
伊斯兰教在全国传播 今天仍然是主要宗教之一
Islam spread to the nation and today is still part of the religious majority.
穆斯林约占整个人口的45%
Muslims make up about 45 % of the population,
他们中的大部分都是非宗派的穆斯林
most of whom are non-denominational Muslims.
大约有36%的人口是塞尔维亚东正教徒
About 36% are Serb Orthodox Christians,
15%的人是天主教徒 多数来自克罗地亚人
and 15% Catholic, mostly from the Croats.
这里有点怪异
It’s kind of strange because Bosnia is one of the few places
因为波斯尼亚是世界上少数几个
in the world where you can find the
你能看到白肤色的穆斯林的地方之一
whitest Muslims you will ever see in your life.
不过这也是挺好玩的
It’s funny though because for a long time Bosnia-Herzegovina
因为波黑有很长一段时间是被奥匈帝国统治的
was also under the Austro-Hungarian Empire,
所以你可以体会一下这种混合了欧洲 穆斯林和东方的奇特文化
so you kind of get this weird European-Muslim-Eastern mix in terms of culture.
这里也因为第一次世界大战起源于此被世人了解
It’s also kind of known as the place where World War One started.
还记得弗兰茨·斐迪南大公么?
Remember Archduke Franz Ferdinand? Yeah,
那是这个国家如何与自己互动
that’s kind of how the country interacts with itself.
那么现在来看看它是和其它国家如何沟通的呢
Now how does it interact with the outsiders?
说到这个 这里有非常大的政治分歧
Now this is where things get very politically divisive,
因为这个国家有非常久远的同盟国和敌对国历史
because the country has a very deep history in alliances and enemies.
不谈更多的具体细节 基本上在90年代
Without getting into too much detail, essentially in the 90s
这个国家仍然陷在内战中
the country was in a straight up war internally
并且基本上就是这三个族群之间的战争
and it was basically against all three people groups.
在战争结束及《代顿和平协议》签署后
After the war ended and the Dayton Agreement was signed,
这个国家有点冷静下来了 人民也有点冷静下来了
the country cooled off (kind of) and the people agreed to calm down (a bit)
停止了互相厮杀
and stop killing each other and
组成一个主权统一的新国家
make a new country that had a
但划分的区域仍然多少有点隔离
full sovereign status as one, but with divided regions that were somewhat segregated.
你明白么?
Did you get that?
这是他们能做到的最好的结果了
This was the best they could do,
说实话
and I mean honestly with a country
对于一个有着那么多内部恩怨的国家来说 已经很好了
with that much internal animosity it worked kind of well.
就像说“我们相互仇视但还能一起干活”
It’s like:”Look, we all hate each other and we still do but things have
“这真有点疯狂”
gotten a little too crazy
“所以让我们同意用一种建设性的方式来”
so let’s just agree to stop all the chaos and hate
“停止一切混乱和彼此的憎恨”
each other in a distant yet constructive way,
“所以我们的国家仍然可以创造财富”
so that our country can still
“并且不被外面的任何人嘲笑 好么?”
make money and not get ridiculed by everyone else outside. Deal?”
“好!”
“Deal.”
在外部朋友方面 保加利亚是第一个承认
In terms of outside friends, Bulgaria was the first country to
波黑主权地位并立刻建立双边外交关系的国家
Bosnia-Herzegovina’s sovereignty and immediately stepped in with bilateral relations
至今两国仍保持良好关系
and the two get along just fine today.
令人惊讶的是 马来西亚也是波黑的坚定支持者
Surprisingly, Malaysia is also a huge supporter of the country
并且在战争期间唯一一个接受波斯尼亚难民的亚洲国家
and during the war became the only country in Asia to accept Bosnian refugees.
直到今天很多波斯尼亚的学生还在马来西亚生活和学习
To this day many Bosnian students study abroad and live in Malaysia. Now,
当然 要说到最好的朋友
when it comes to best friends it really depends
还是要看你在这个国家问的是什么人
on who you ask in the country.
克罗地亚人当然会说克罗地亚
Of course, the Croats will tell you Croatia,
波斯尼亚人大部分喜欢说土耳其
the Bosnians will most
而塞尔维亚人会说塞尔维亚
likely say Turkey and the Serbs will say Serbia.
然而 奇怪的是
In a weird way, though,
人民喜好的分散无意中增加了
the division of peoples kind of inadvertently increases
这个国家作为统一国家的外交关系
the diplomatic relations the country as a whole has access to.
比如 波斯尼亚人不喜欢俄罗斯
For example, Bosnians may not like the
但在波黑的塞尔维亚人喜欢
Russians but the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina do.
因此作为一个统一国家 波黑得益于
Therefore the country as a whole benefits from the relations that
每一个族群的外交关系 而无需考虑其它族群的感受
one people group engage in, regardless of how the second feels.
是不是有点怪异 就像“我敌人的朋友默认也是我的朋友”
Isn’t that weird? It’s like:”The friend of my enemy is by default my friend too.”
欢迎来到波黑!
Welcome to Bosnia-Herzegovina!
许多波斯尼亚人其实试图主张
Many Bosnians have actually tried to contend
一个统一的中央政府
for a unified central government,
在一个法律框架下
all under one legislation.
但是 斯普斯卡共和国强烈反对
However, the Republic of Srpska is fiercely opposed to this.
他们仅仅因为几缕头发
They only kind of reluctantly agree to be under Bosnia-Herzegovina’s sovereignty,
而不情愿在波黑的主权统治下
just by a few strands of hair.
他们甚至威胁
They’ve even threatened that if
让科索沃获得完全独立
Kosovo gains complete independence,
而他们对于把自己划归回塞尔维亚表示毫无问题
they will have no problem annexing themselves back to Serbia,
这样的话塞尔维亚将会变成这样
which would make Serbia look like this.
总而言之 波黑有点像巴尔干半岛的比利时
In conclusion, Bosnia-Herzegovina is like the Belgium of the Balkans
但有更加奇怪的冲突 更加努力克制的愤怒
but with stranger conflicts, quieter controlled anger,
一点点功能失调的政治
slightly dysfunctional politics but with a pinch of
但是挖苦和冷幽默给了这个国家火辣的吸引力
sarcasm and dry humour that gives the country its spicy appeal.
欢迎继续收看 下次我们聊博茨瓦纳!
Stay tuned, Botswana is coming up next!

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译制信息
视频概述

波黑——一个多民族的奇特国家

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

柳叶飞飞刀

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KO0rEwwyB0g

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