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即时地理第一集——阿富汗 – 译学馆
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即时地理第一集——阿富汗

Geography Now! Afghanistan

大家好
Hey, everybody.
欢迎收看第一期的《即时地理》
Welcome to the first episode of Geography Now!
让我们一起来看看这些
We’re going to the list of
在世界上被国际认可的主权国家
all the internationally recognized sovereign nations of the world,
我们将会按照字母顺序来依次介绍
and we are going to do it alphabetically,
这就意味着我们的第一集将会介绍
which means our first episode is gonna be on
阿富汗
Afghanistan.
#是时候了解一下地理了#
♫ It’s time to learn geography! ♫
现在
NOW!!!
那是片头曲 希望你能喜欢
That’s the intro song. I hope you liked it.
这是我和我朋友比尔花了不少精力录制的
I worked really hard recording it with my friend Bill.
那么 今天去了解阿富汗吧
So today is gonna be Afghanistan.
我真的很开心能介绍这个国家
I’m actually really glad we’re getting this country covered,
因为它是一个非常复杂且深不可测的国度
because it’s a very complex and deep country,
我们在十分钟内无法概括它的全部
and we can’t cover all of it in 10 minutes,
所以我会竭尽所能
so I’m going to try to do my best.
开始之前 让我们仔细看看它的国旗
Before we get into anything though, let’s dissect the flag.
阿富汗国旗是一面由红 黑 绿组成的三色旗
The Afghani flag is a tricolor band of three different colors: red, black and green.
红色代表为阿富汗斗争的人民的鲜血
The red representing the blood of those who fought for Afghanistan,
黑色代表了黑暗和他们艰苦的过去
the black representing the obscure and difficult past that they’ve had,
绿色代表希望 未来 以及其国教伊斯兰教
and the green representing hope and a future and Islam as it is the state religion.
国旗的中间是阿富汗的国徽
In the middle of the flag is the Afghani emblem.
后面有点复杂 所以请耐心听我说
Now this is where things get a little difficult, so bear with me.
国徽上有一座清真寺
On the emblem is a mosque
两边分别有微型的阿富汗国旗
with two little miniature Afghani flags on the side,
阿富汗是世界上这么设计国旗的两个国家之一
which by the way makes Afghanistan one of the only two countries in the world
它的国旗上有自己国旗的迷你版
that has a flag with miniature versions of its own flag, on its own flag.
边上有一捆捆的小麦
On the side are sheaves of wheat,
顶部是“萨哈达” 也就是穆斯林信条
on the top is the Shahada, or the Muslim Creed,
在底部的是用阿拉伯语书写的国名阿富汗
on the bottom is the name of Afghanistan written in Arabic,
在顶部的是用阿拉伯数字书写的阿拉伯1298年
and on top of that is the Arabic year of 1298 written in Arabic numerals,
按公历年份计算为1919年
which also, in the standard Gregorian calendar is 1919,
就是在这一年
which was the year that
阿富汗脱离了英国殖民统治
Afghanistan was relinquished fromits British protectorate status.
成为了国际上认可的独立主权国家
and became an internationally recognized sovereign nation
也就是我们现在熟知的阿富汗
known as Afghanistan.
政治地理
Political Geography
就其政治地理的角度而言
In terms of its political geography,
阿富汗位于中亚地区
Afghanistan is located in the central Asian region,
被六个国家包围 理论上有七个
surrounded by six other countries,technically seven.
如果你觉得查谟-克什米尔地区属于印度的话
If you consider the Jammu Kashmir region part of India,
但巴基斯坦一定说那不是印度的领土
but Pakistan will tell you it totally is NOT,
我们会在其他视频中讨论这个问题
but we’ll discuss that in another video.
现在来看看阿富汗的形状
Now when you look at the shape of Afghanistan,
它看起来有点像一个无规则图形
it just kind of looks like a big amorphous blob,
位于茫茫大陆之中
in the middle of nowhere.
但是当你看向东北角你会发现
but then when you look at the northeast you start to see
一条延伸出去的狭长的陆地
this long narrow stretch of land
直抵兴都库什山脉
that kind of reaches out into the Hindu Kush mountain range.
你也许好奇 为什么阿富汗有这么一个狭长地带?
You might ask yourself: Why doesAfghanistan have that long panhandle?
严格说来是因为英国和俄罗斯的缘故
And the reason why is kind of technically because, England and Russia.
追溯到十九世纪八十年代
See back in the 1800s,
英国和俄罗斯正在相互竞争
the British and the Russians were competing against each other,
看谁能成为全球
to see who could amass the largest global empire.
最大最有影响力的殖民帝国
in terms of colonization and influence.
俄罗斯接管了现在的许多中亚国家
Russia took over what are now known as many of the Central Asian countries
像哈萨克斯坦 塔吉克斯坦 乌兹别克斯坦
as Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
而英国接管了多个南亚国家
While the British took over many of the South Asian regions,
像印度 孟加拉 巴基斯坦
such as India,Bangladesh and Pakistan.
如今 当提起阿富汗
Now,when it came to Afghanistan,
情况就有点复杂了
things were a little difficult because
因为阿富汗人不想被接管
the Afghani people really did not want to be taken over,
从地图上看 它的地理位置真的很关键
It was also really crucial point on the map,
因为它实际上是
because essentially it was the area where
大英帝国和沙俄帝国交接的地区
the British and the Russian empires got really close to each other.
最终在19世纪末 英国接管了阿富汗
Eventually the British kind of took over at the end of 19’s century,
此举遭到了阿富汗人民的反对
much to the reluctance of the Afghans.
尽管如此 他们仍需区分
However, they still have to distinguish
阿富汗和周围其它国家的边界
the borders between Afghanistan and the rest of the other nations in the empire.
说到巴基斯坦 或者英国殖民时期的印度
When it came to Pakistan, or back then British India.
英国决定用杜兰线划分边境
the British decided to use the Durand Line,
而沙俄帝国一方
and when it came to the Russian empire,
决定用潘杰河和帕姆利尔河来划分
they decided to use the Panj and Palmir rivers.
在两个帝国划线圈地时
Now the thing is when both the empires drew these lines,
在东北地区 彼此的界限实际上是不相接触的
they technically didn’t touch each other in the northeast,
留下了巨大狭长的缓冲地区
and left a huge long narrow buffer zone,
也就是如今我们所知的瓦罕走廊
which is now today known as the Wakhan Corridor.
这块区域默认归属于阿富汗
By default, it was given to Afghanistan.
直到现在 瓦罕走廊在阿富汗的地缘政治上扮演了重要角色
and to this day the Wakhan Corridor plays a very crucial role in Afghanistan’s geography,
因为在瓦罕走廊的尽头
because for a very, very small twenty or so mile
有一条只有约20英里长的边境
border at the very end of the Wakhan Corridor
边境的另一边是中国
is a border with China.
我知道20英里听起来真的不长
Now, I know twenty miles doesn’t really sound like much,
但是在世界地缘政治分析中
but in the world of geopolitical analytics
它真的是非常重要的
that can be a very important thing!
自然地理
Physical Geography
从自然地理学来看
When it comes to physical geography,
阿富汗有大量不同种类的地貌
Afghanistan has a large vast array of different kinds of landscapes.
然而 阿富汗实际上绝大部分是山地
However, the large portion of the country is actually mountainous,
兴都库什山脉占据了
with the Hindu Kush mountain range dominating the
这个国家的东北部和中部地区
northeast regions and the central regions of the country.
事实上 山脉上的雪
In fact, the snow from these mountains
孕育了贯穿阿富汗庞杂河流体系的大部分
accounts for the vast majority of the complex, immense river systems that flow throughout Afghanistan.
使得这个国家拥有众多翠绿的山谷
allowing their country to have lush, green valleys
他们的农场大多就建在那里
where most of their agricultural sector can be found.
尽管阿富汗有许多河流和水库
Now, despite all the rivers and water reservoirs.
但阿富汗一直是一个相对缺水的国家
Afghanistan still remains a relatively dry nation.
实际上 你越靠近南方 接近坎大哈地区
In fact, the further south you go, closer to the Kandahar region,
几乎刚刚通过多丽河
almost immediately after you pass the Dori river,
就到达了锡斯坦盆地
you hit the Sistan basin.
地理学家猜测
Which is basically what geologists speculate
这里有可能曾经是一个大水库
may have actually been a large body of water at some point.
但是现在干涸了 变成荒芜人烟的沙漠地带
but is now a dry, desolate desert wasteland.
不过这里仍有耕地
Nonetheless, with the arable land that it does have,
阿富汗人民仍能生产一些世界上最好的作物
Afghanistan is still able to produce some of the world’s best produce,
包括石榴 杏仁 杏子 以及罂粟
including pomegranates, almonds, apricots …and poppy.
没错 过去的几百年里
That’s right, for the past few hundred years,
阿富汗的罂粟产量位居前列
Afghanistan has been a leading nation in opium production.
人口统计
Demographics
据人口普查统计 阿富汗有大约3100万人
In terms of its demographics, Afghanistan has just about 31 million people,
粗略地估计 人口总数略少于加拿大
or roughly a little bit smaller than the size of Canada.
这些人中的一小部分是帕什通人
A slight majority of these people identify as ethnically Pashtun
或者来自于帕什通部落
or people from the Pashtun tribe.
他们说帕什通语
They speak the Pashtun language, known as Pashto.
这里还有一些其它少数民族人口像乌兹别克人 塔吉克人 哈扎拉人
Now, there are some other ethnic minorities like: Uzbeks and Tajiks and Hazaras.
有趣的是 大多数人
However, the interesting thing is that the majority of the people
包括普什图人在内约85%的人 都说达里语
about 85% including the Pashtuns speak Dari.
达里语实际上是一种波斯方言 又叫波斯语
Dari is actually a dialect of the Persian language, Farsi.
这意味着说达里语的人
So that means someone who speaks Dari
可以方便地游历阿富汗和伊朗
can actually interchangeably travel between Afghanistan and Iran.
不会有任何的沟通障碍
without really having any trouble being understood.
有趣的另一件事是 这里有最后一个犹太人
Interesting side note, there is one last living Jew
生活在阿富汗
living in all of Afghanistan.
我可以很负责任的说真的有 他叫做Zablon Simintov
I’m not even joking his name is Zablon Simintov.
他居住在喀布尔(阿富汗首都)
he lives in Kabul.
他曾拥有一家餐馆
He used to own a restaurant,
而且他还维持了全阿富汗最后一座犹太教堂
and he maintains the last synagogue in all of Afghanistan.
当地人只知道他是”唯一的犹太人”
The locals there know him just as”that one Jew guy”
而且对他很友好 他们会说”嗨!Zablone”和他打招呼
and they’re cool with him. They’re just like”Hey Zablone”
这就带我们来到最后一部分内容 友谊区
Which brings us to our final segment, the friend zone.
友谊区
The Friend Zone
阿富汗同别国互动的方式很有趣
Afghanistan has a very interesting way in how it interacts with other countries.
因为语言上的相通 阿富汗人和伊朗人有
Now, because of the whole language thing, Afghans and Iranians have
自古以来莫名相似的文化和互相之间的默契
typically kind of had somewhat of a cultural similarity and resonance with each other.
他们也有一些冲突
However, they also have had some controversy.
巴基斯坦和印度是阿富汗最大的商业伙伴
Now, Pakistan and India are the biggest business partners of Afghanistan.
然而 这里依旧少不了戏剧性的事情
However again, there’s some drama there as well.
当说到他们最好的朋友
Now when it comes to their best friend
阿富汗认为土耳其是他最好的伙伴
Afghanistan considers Turkey their best friend.
他们和平合作了一百多年
They’ve cooperated with each other peacefully for over a hundred years,
有一句阿富汗老话是这样说的
and there’s an old Afghani saying:
“没有一个阿富汗人死于土耳其人的子弹
“No Afghani was ever killed by a Turkish bullet
没有一个受土耳其人训练的阿富汗人会出卖自己国家”
and no Afghani trained by a Turk ever betrayed his country.”
总之 我想这是节目最后一个部分了
So in conclusion, I guess this is the last segment, never mind.
我们把当今时代的冲突放在一边
Putting aside all the modern day controversies,
阿富汗实际上是一个很漂亮的国家
Afghanistan is actually a very beautiful country.
它的文化和历史丰富且充满活力
with a very rich and vibrant yet often hidden
却又常常被隐藏和忽略掉
cultural and historical past that very often goes overlooked.
这就是我们频道《即时地理》的目的
And that’s our objective here at Geography Now.
我们希望能够拨云见日
We want to shine light on the obscure,
向大家展示世界上那些经常被忽视的
and put on display the often neglected
但却令人着迷的土地
yet fascinating attributes of every region of the world,
希望你会喜欢
We hope we did you justice.
下期将迎来阿尔巴里亚 敬请期待!
Stay tuned, Albania is coming next!

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译制信息
视频概述

作者口述的方式带我们领略阿富汗的风土人情,地理环境

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ruapunzel

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipVw772hCrM

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