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天才不是擅长某事,而是做法不同 – 译学馆
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天才不是擅长某事,而是做法不同

Genius Is Not about Excelling at Something—It's about Doing Things Differently | Eric Weinstein

I think that very few people see the words ‘excellence’ or ‘consensus’
我想 几乎没人会把 “优秀”或“共识” 看成是
as anything other than the most positive of words.
任何除了最正面词语以外的东西
These are the habits that most people seek to cultivate.
这是大多数人追求养成的习惯
They wish to be part of the consensus.
他们想要成为共识的一部分
They wish to be excellent in both their behavior and hope for excellent outcomes.
他们希望他们的行动和成果都变得优秀
I think the problem is that, we didn’t realize that excellence so far as it goes is fine but it’s involved in a trade-off.
问题在于 我们并没有意识到 尽管优秀是好的 但它涉及权衡
And that trade-off has to do with the fact that excellence is really about quality control.
而权衡基于一个事实 即优秀实际上是关于质量控制的
It’s about the fact that if I’m going to go for, let’s say, a classical music concert,
是关于这样的事实 比如说 如果我要去听一场古典音乐会
I want to assume that the piece will be played flawlessly
我就要假定 这件作品会被演奏得完美无瑕
and I will concentrate only on the interpretive aspects of the piece above that.
而我只关注于在那之上的 作品的演绎方面就可以了
But, in fact, quality control can be deadly.
但实际上 质量控制也可能会致命
For example, if in a jazz date where an improviser takes few risks
例如 在爵士乐时代 即兴演奏者几乎没有风险
the music may be pleasant enough as background music
那音乐可能悦耳得足以作为背景音乐
but it’s scarcely the sort of thing that would have animated the bebop generation
但它并不是那种能让波普那一代爵士乐充满活力的东西
who played live dates under open-mic conditions never knowing what would happen next.
那种在开放式麦克风的条件下 你永远不会知道接下来要发生什么的现场即兴演奏
Perhaps the most famous jazz album of all time was Miles Davis’ ‘Kind of Blue’, and
可能史上最著名的爵士乐专辑就是迈尔斯·戴维斯的《泛蓝调调》而且
if you look at the sheet music for that date almost nothing was written down.
如果你看到那时的乐谱 几乎什么都没写下
It was just a question of bringing the most amazing minds together.
那就是一个把最优秀头脑都聚集在一起的问题
And you can even hear a few flaws on that album which make it so exciting.
甚至听到专辑中的一些瑕疵也能令人如此兴奋
So I think that the problem is that, we have to realize that excellence is about hill climbing.
所以我认为问题是 我们必须意识到 优秀就像爬山
It’s about the fabled 10,000 hours.
如同传说中的一万小时
It’s about practice making perfect.
就如同练习带来完美
And this is something that, to the credit of excellence,
就如同一些 关于优秀的声誉
it’s something we do know how to teach.
这是我们知道如何教的东西
Perhaps we don’t know how to teach everyone how to achieve it, but there’s always a class of people
也许我们不知如何教每一个人实现它 但总是有一类人
who through dedicated repetition will be able to bring their variance
能够在非凡的压力下 通过专注的重复练习
under extraordinary pressure so that they are reliable members of our society.
从而造就他们的不同 成为我们社会的可靠成员
We want this in our surgeons, often.
我们往往希望我们的外科医生是这样的
We want this in our classical music performers.
希望我们的古典音乐表演艺术家是这样的
But the question is: do we want it everywhere?
但问题是:我们到处都需要吗?
And because we do know how to teach excellence we’ve blinded ourselves to the role that
因为我们知道如何教导优秀 却让我们忽视了一个
a different thought process is involved in, which I would associate with genius.
涉及到不同思想过程的角色 我将其与天才联系起来
The key question is: who are these high-variance individuals?
关键问题是:这些高度差异的个体是谁?
Why are our schools filled with dyslexics?
为什么我们的学校充满阅读障碍者?
Why are there so many kids diagnosed with ADHD?
为什么有这么多孩子被诊断为多动症?
My claim is these are giant underserved populations who are not meant for the excellence model.
我的主张是 他们只是不同于优秀人才模型 欠缺服务的巨大人口
They are meant to be the innovators, the people who bring us new forms of music
他们意味着创新者 能为我们带来新音乐形式
that others will seek to perfect and hone in their performance.
人们将在他们的表演中寻求完美和想念
But these are the sorts of people who bring us new scientific vistas,
但是 这些人给我们带来了新的科学前景
who explore new terrain, and what we’ve done is we’ve created a system
探索新的领域 而我们所做的只是建立了一个
which effectively demonizes these different patterns.
擅长将这些不同模式妖魔化的系统
We even call these things learning disabilities when, in fact, if you look at the learning
我们甚至把这些叫做“学习障碍” 其实 如果你看看
disabled population they very often are the most intellectual, accomplished members of society.
学习障碍人群 他们往往是最聪明、最有成就的社会成员
But we put them through a total chamber of K12 education where we attempt
我们把他们安排到一个完整的K12教育的教室里
to convince the teachers, who have no idea how to serve this population—we try to make
并试图说服那些不知如何服务这一人群的老师
sure that there’s no indication that there are teaching disabilities by pushing the responsibility onto the students.
确保没有由于向学生推卸责任而导致的教学障碍
These are the learning disabled but in no real terms is this population learning disabled.
这些只是学习障碍 而不是说他们真的没有学习能力
It’s a different and a somewhat alien population that we have tried to machine to a point where
这是一个不同的 有点古怪的人群 我们试图找到一个点
they look as close to the excellent population as possible.
使他们看起来尽可能接近优秀人群
So it’s not really that I’m against excellence.
所以 我并不是真的反对优秀
What I’m really against is the idea that we’ve absorbed the concept of excellence
我真正反对的是 我们接受优秀的理念
into the very fabric of our society so that all those who don’t function within that
进入我们的社会结构中 使所有那些不合定义的人
idiom feel that they are somehow abhorrent and less than, when, in fact, these are the
在某种程度上感到格格不入 而实际上
people who are going to cure our cancers.
这些人是将要治愈我们癌症的人
These are the people who are going to create new multi-billion dollar industries.
是将要创造数十亿美元的新兴产业的人
And, in fact, the problem is that
实际上 问题是
we don’t realize that genius is really about adaptive valley crossing.
我们尚未认识到 天才真的就像独自穿越山谷
It’s about taking on risk, taking on cost, doing things that make almost no sense to
需要承担风险 承担成本 做别人认为没有道理的事
anyone else and can only be shown to have been sensible after the fact because, in fact,
只能在事后被证明是明智的 因为事实上
and I think, you know, Jim Watson said this beautifully, he said if you’re really going
我想 你知道 吉姆沃森说得好 他说 如果你真的要
to do anything big you are by definition unqualified to do it.
做一些大事 就做那些你被认为没资格去做的事
So the entire culture of credentialism, of professionalism, is really a culture of excellence.
所以 整个文凭主义、专业主义的文化 确实是一个关于优秀的文化
But, in fact, society is run by power laws.
而事实上 社会是由权力法律管理的
The very thick tails of these distributions suggest that life isn’t normally distributed
这些分配有一个非常厚实的尾巴 它表明生活不是正常分配的
but distributed by power laws.
而是由权力法律分配的
And we need a special class of people to play those tails, to get us the returns,
我们需要一群特殊的人来玩那些尾巴 让我们能得到回报
to power us forward and advance society.
推动我们前进和推进社会发展
And so what I’m really interested in is not being blinded
所以我真正感兴趣的是 不要因为优秀而忽视
by excellence to the prospects for other modalities, in particular genius.
其他形式的前景 特别是天才的前景

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视频概述

什么样的人才是天才?怎样做才能成为天才?关于优秀与共识,我们应该有一个怎样的认识?本次对话将告诉你,天才不是擅长某事,而是做法不同。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EzdLBGPidAM

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