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Genius Is Not about Excelling at Something—It's about Doing Things Differently | Eric Weinstein

I think that very few people see the words ‘excellence’ or ‘consensus’
我想 几乎没人会把 “优秀”或“共识” 看成是
as anything other than the most positive of words.
These are the habits that most people seek to cultivate.
They wish to be part of the consensus.
They wish to be excellent in both their behavior and hope for excellent outcomes.
I think the problem is that, we didn’t realize that excellence so far as it goes is fine but it’s involved in a trade-off.
问题在于 我们并没有意识到 尽管优秀是好的 但它涉及权衡
And that trade-off has to do with the fact that excellence is really about quality control.
而权衡基于一个事实 即优秀实际上是关于质量控制的
It’s about the fact that if I’m going to go for, let’s say, a classical music concert,
是关于这样的事实 比如说 如果我要去听一场古典音乐会
I want to assume that the piece will be played flawlessly
我就要假定 这件作品会被演奏得完美无瑕
and I will concentrate only on the interpretive aspects of the piece above that.
而我只关注于在那之上的 作品的演绎方面就可以了
But, in fact, quality control can be deadly.
但实际上 质量控制也可能会致命
For example, if in a jazz date where an improviser takes few risks
例如 在爵士乐时代 即兴演奏者几乎没有风险
the music may be pleasant enough as background music
but it’s scarcely the sort of thing that would have animated the bebop generation
who played live dates under open-mic conditions never knowing what would happen next.
那种在开放式麦克风的条件下 你永远不会知道接下来要发生什么的现场即兴演奏
Perhaps the most famous jazz album of all time was Miles Davis’ ‘Kind of Blue’, and
if you look at the sheet music for that date almost nothing was written down.
如果你看到那时的乐谱 几乎什么都没写下
It was just a question of bringing the most amazing minds together.
And you can even hear a few flaws on that album which make it so exciting.
So I think that the problem is that, we have to realize that excellence is about hill climbing.
所以我认为问题是 我们必须意识到 优秀就像爬山
It’s about the fabled 10,000 hours.
It’s about practice making perfect.
And this is something that, to the credit of excellence,
就如同一些 关于优秀的声誉
it’s something we do know how to teach.
Perhaps we don’t know how to teach everyone how to achieve it, but there’s always a class of people
也许我们不知如何教每一个人实现它 但总是有一类人
who through dedicated repetition will be able to bring their variance
能够在非凡的压力下 通过专注的重复练习
under extraordinary pressure so that they are reliable members of our society.
从而造就他们的不同 成为我们社会的可靠成员
We want this in our surgeons, often.
We want this in our classical music performers.
But the question is: do we want it everywhere?
And because we do know how to teach excellence we’ve blinded ourselves to the role that
因为我们知道如何教导优秀 却让我们忽视了一个
a different thought process is involved in, which I would associate with genius.
涉及到不同思想过程的角色 我将其与天才联系起来
The key question is: who are these high-variance individuals?
Why are our schools filled with dyslexics?
Why are there so many kids diagnosed with ADHD?
My claim is these are giant underserved populations who are not meant for the excellence model.
我的主张是 他们只是不同于优秀人才模型 欠缺服务的巨大人口
They are meant to be the innovators, the people who bring us new forms of music
他们意味着创新者 能为我们带来新音乐形式
that others will seek to perfect and hone in their performance.
But these are the sorts of people who bring us new scientific vistas,
但是 这些人给我们带来了新的科学前景
who explore new terrain, and what we’ve done is we’ve created a system
探索新的领域 而我们所做的只是建立了一个
which effectively demonizes these different patterns.
We even call these things learning disabilities when, in fact, if you look at the learning
我们甚至把这些叫做“学习障碍” 其实 如果你看看
disabled population they very often are the most intellectual, accomplished members of society.
学习障碍人群 他们往往是最聪明、最有成就的社会成员
But we put them through a total chamber of K12 education where we attempt
to convince the teachers, who have no idea how to serve this population—we try to make
sure that there’s no indication that there are teaching disabilities by pushing the responsibility onto the students.
These are the learning disabled but in no real terms is this population learning disabled.
这些只是学习障碍 而不是说他们真的没有学习能力
It’s a different and a somewhat alien population that we have tried to machine to a point where
这是一个不同的 有点古怪的人群 我们试图找到一个点
they look as close to the excellent population as possible.
So it’s not really that I’m against excellence.
所以 我并不是真的反对优秀
What I’m really against is the idea that we’ve absorbed the concept of excellence
我真正反对的是 我们接受优秀的理念
into the very fabric of our society so that all those who don’t function within that
进入我们的社会结构中 使所有那些不合定义的人
idiom feel that they are somehow abhorrent and less than, when, in fact, these are the
在某种程度上感到格格不入 而实际上
people who are going to cure our cancers.
These are the people who are going to create new multi-billion dollar industries.
And, in fact, the problem is that
实际上 问题是
we don’t realize that genius is really about adaptive valley crossing.
我们尚未认识到 天才真的就像独自穿越山谷
It’s about taking on risk, taking on cost, doing things that make almost no sense to
需要承担风险 承担成本 做别人认为没有道理的事
anyone else and can only be shown to have been sensible after the fact because, in fact,
只能在事后被证明是明智的 因为事实上
and I think, you know, Jim Watson said this beautifully, he said if you’re really going
我想 你知道 吉姆沃森说得好 他说 如果你真的要
to do anything big you are by definition unqualified to do it.
做一些大事 就做那些你被认为没资格去做的事
So the entire culture of credentialism, of professionalism, is really a culture of excellence.
所以 整个文凭主义、专业主义的文化 确实是一个关于优秀的文化
But, in fact, society is run by power laws.
而事实上 社会是由权力法律管理的
The very thick tails of these distributions suggest that life isn’t normally distributed
这些分配有一个非常厚实的尾巴 它表明生活不是正常分配的
but distributed by power laws.
And we need a special class of people to play those tails, to get us the returns,
我们需要一群特殊的人来玩那些尾巴 让我们能得到回报
to power us forward and advance society.
And so what I’m really interested in is not being blinded
所以我真正感兴趣的是 不要因为优秀而忽视
by excellence to the prospects for other modalities, in particular genius.
其他形式的前景 特别是天才的前景