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从奴隶到角斗士:斯巴达克斯的一生 – 译学馆
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从奴隶到角斗士:斯巴达克斯的一生

From slave to rebel gladiator: The life of Spartacus - Fiona Radford

勇士睡觉时 一条蛇盘绕在他脸上
As the warrior slept, a snake coiled around his face.
他的妻子没被吓到 而是看到了一个征兆
Instead of a threat, his wife saw an omen–
一种可怕的力量将给勇士带来荣耀或厄运
a fearsome power that would lead her husband to either glory or doom.
但是现在 他还只是个奴隶-
For now, however, he was only a slave –
数百万被罗马帝国占领了家园
one of millions taken from the territories
在矿山中劳作 在田野中耕种
conquered by Rome to work the mines,
或用打斗来娱乐大众的奴隶中的一个
till the fields, or fight for the crowd’s entertainment.
他是色雷斯地区 即现在保加利亚的牧民
A nomadic Thracian fromwhat is now Bulgaria,
他曾效忠过罗马军队 因为开小差而坐过牢
he had served in the Roman Army but was imprisoned for desertion.
他的名字叫做斯巴达克斯
His name was Spartacus.
巴蒂亚图斯 一名角斗士老板 或是角斗士训练员
Spartacus had been brought to Capuaby Batiatus, a lanista,
曾带斯巴达克斯去过卡普亚
or trainer of gladiators.
竞技场和角斗学校的生活是难以忘记的
And life at the ludus, or gladiatorschool, was unforgiving.
新招募的成员被迫宣誓
New recruits were forced to swear an oath
“被烧死 被捆绑 被打败
“ to be burned, to be bound, to be beaten,
以及被用剑刺死”
and to be killed by the sword, ”
完全遵循主人的意愿
and to obey their master’s willwithout question.
即使严厉的酷刑也无法摧毁斯巴达克斯的意志
But even harsh discipline couldn’tbreak Spartacus’s spirit.
公元前73年 斯巴达克斯带领73个奴隶
In 73 BCE, Spartacus led 73 other slaves
在厨房里寻得刀子和叉子
to seize knives and skewers
杀出了一条血路
from the kitchen and fight their way out,
并在路上截获一辆角斗士的四轮马车
hijacking a wagon of gladiator equipmentalong the way.
过去他们为别人战斗 现在为自己的自由而战
They were done fighting for others– now, they fought for their freedom.
消息传到罗马帝国时
When the news reached Rome,
元老院正在西班牙
the Senate was too busy with wars
忙着和蓬蒂奇帝国打仗
in Spain and the Pontic Empire
顾不上那些不忠诚的奴隶
to worry about some unruly slaves.
克劳狄斯格拉比很轻率的带领三千大军
Unconcerned,praetor Claudius Glaber took an army of three thousand men
抵达反叛者在维苏威火山的避难所
to the rebel’s refuge at Mount Vesuvius,
封锁了上山的唯一通道
and blocked off the only passageup the mountain.
接下来就是让反叛者们挨饿自己跑出来
All that remained was to wait andstarve them out–
-至少他是这么想的
or so he thought.
夜深人静时
In the dead of night,
反叛者用藤条编的绳子
the rebels lowered themselves down the cliffside
从悬崖上逃走
on ropes made from vines,
那个悬崖就在格拉比未看守营帐的侧面
and flanked Glaber’s unguarded camp.
接着寻找罗马角斗士的这段传奇就开始了
Thus began the legend of Rome’sdefiant gladiator.
随着叛乱的消息越传越远
As news of the rebellion spread,
反叛的队伍里面有逃跑的奴隶
its ranks swelled with escaped slaves,
开小差的士兵和饥饿的农民
deserting soldiers, and hungry peasants.
他们很多都从未受过训练 但是斯巴达克斯有精明的策略
Many were untrained, but Spartacus’s clever tacticstransformed them
他将他们训练成有效的游击队
into an effective guerrilla force.
由瓦利留斯带领的第二支罗马远征军
A second Roman expedition led by praetorVarinius,
在其长官洗澡的时候被伏击了
was ambushed while the officer bathed.
为了躲避剩余的罗马军队
To elude the remaining Roman forces,
反叛者用罗马士兵的尸体诱骗罗马守卫
the rebels used their enemy’s corpses asdecoy guards,
并偷了瓦利留斯的马来帮助自己逃跑
stealing Varinius’s own horseto aid their escape.
借助于这次振奋人心的胜利和平等分配战利品的政策
Thanks to his inspiring victoriesand policy of distributing spoils equally,
斯巴达克斯继续引导着反叛军
Spartacus continued attracting followers,
并获得了能制造新武器村庄的控制权
and gained control of villages where new weapons could be forged.
罗马帝国很快就意识到他们面对的已经不再是衣衫褴褛的流寇
The Romans soon realized they wereno longer facing ragtag fugitives,
公元前72年的春天
and in the spring of 72 BCE,
元老院派两支罗马军团倾巢而出进行了报复
the Senate retaliated withthe full force of two legions.
反叛者胜利的离开了
The rebels left victorious,
但很多人在这场战争中丢掉了性命
but many lives were lost in the battle,
其中包括斯巴达克斯陆军中尉克雷斯
including Spartacus’ lieutenant Crixus.
为了表彰他斯巴达克斯亲自主持了葬礼
To honor him,Spartacus held funeral games,
强迫其罗马俘虏扮演他的伙伴们曾忍受过的角色
forcing his Roman prisoners to play the role his fellow rebels had once endured.
公元前72年末
By the end of 72 BCE,
斯巴达克斯的军队已经有12万人左右
Spartacus’ army was a massive force ofroughly 120,000 members.
但是这12万人非常难以管理
But those numbers proveddifficult to manage.
在去阿尔卑斯山的行军路上
With the path to the Alps clear,
斯巴达克斯想让行军队伍穿越罗马帝国边界
Spartacus wanted to march beyond Rome’s borders,
在那里他们会得到自由
where his followers would be free.
但他的队伍已变得非常莽撞
But his vast army had grown brash.
很多人想要继续抢劫
Many wanted to continue pillaging,
还有些幻想着在罗马帝国本土行军
while others dreamed ofmarching on Rome itself.
最后 反叛军向南行进
In the end, the rebel army turned south–
放弃了他们获得自由的最后机会 同时
forgoing what would be theirlast chance at freedom. Meanwhile,
马库斯•李锡尼•克拉苏取得了战争的控制权
Marcus Licinius Crassushad assumed control of the war.
作为罗马帝国最富有的市民
As Rome’s wealthiest citizen,
他用八支罗马军团来追击斯巴达克斯
he pursued Spartacuswith eight new legions,
最终在意大利南部诱捕了反叛军
eventually trapping the rebelsin the toe of Italy.
扎木筏逃亡的企图失败后
After failed attempts to build rafts,
随着当地海盗最致命的背叛
and a stinging betrayal by local pirates,
反叛军想冲破克拉苏的防线-
the rebels made a desperate runto break through Crassus’s lines–
然而并没有什么用
but it was no use.
罗马帝国的援军已经从庞蒂克战争中返回
Roman reinforcements were returningfrom the Pontic wars,
反叛军的队伍和信心被打破
and the rebels’ ranks andspirits were broken.
公元前71年 反叛军进行了最后一次战斗
In 71 BCE, they made their last stand.
斯巴达克斯几乎杀到克拉苏跟前的那刻却被百夫长给斩首了
Spartacus nearly managed to reach Crassus before being cut down by centurions.
斯巴达克斯的军队就此覆灭
His army was destroyed,
6000名俘虏被沿着罗马古道钉在十字架上
and 6000 captives were crucified along the Appian Way–
这是罗马当局对叛军的严峻威慑
a haunting demonstrationof Roman authority.
克拉苏赢得了战争
Crassus won the war,
但名垂千古的并非他的功绩
but it is not his legacy which echoes through the centuries.
数千年以后
Thousands of years later,
那个让世界上最强大帝国战栗的
the name of the slave who
奴隶的名字
made the world’s mightiest empire tremble
已经和自由等同
has become synonymous with freedom–
-给予了人们去战斗的勇气
and the courage to fight for it.

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斯巴达克斯的一生

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8l1NyR6UvxU

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