未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

从沙子到硅:微芯片的诞生

From Sand to Silicon: The Making of a Microchip | Intel

The world is producing data at an unprecedented rate,
这个世界正以前所未有的速度产生数据
faster than our ability to analyze and understand it.
远远超越了我们分析和理解数据的能力
To move, store and compute all of these data
对这些数据进行传输 存储和计算
requires incredible processing power.
需要难以想象的处理能力
From the blazing speeds of our devices
从设备的高速运算
to blazing trails within AI,
到AI应用的极速发展
Intel builds chips that are in the heart of nearly everything.
英特尔制造了几乎一切事物的核心–芯片
Within every Intel chip manufacturing facility across the globe,
在全球每一家英特尔芯片制造工厂
innovators are pushing the limit of science,
创新者们都在突破科学的极限
and literally rearranging atoms to create groundbreaking technology.
真正以原子重新排序的方法创造突破性技术
This strong silicon foundation is what gives each Intel chip limitless potential.
这种强大的硅基赋予了英特尔芯片无限潜力
At the heart of all modern electronics,
在所有现代电子产品的核心部分
the transistor is a tiny switch,
晶体管是一个微型开关
ten thousand times smaller than the human hair
是人类发丝细微一万倍
that controls the flow of electrons through a circuit.
它控制着电路中的电子流
To build the processer,
要制造一个处理器
billions of transistors are packed to an area no larger than a fingernail.
就需要将数十亿个晶体管封装在不超过一个指甲盖的面积内
It’s one of mankind’s most complex feats and remarkable achievement
英特尔每一代新的处理器
that Intel has essentially doubled transistor density
几乎都将晶体管的密度提高了一倍
in every new generation of processers.
这是人类最复杂的壮举之一 也是一项了不起的成就
The process begins when silicon-rich sand is melted and cooled,
在整个加工过程的开始 我们将富含硅的沙子熔化并冷却
forming a solid, which is then sliced into wafers.
形成固体 然后将它切割成晶圆
Once inside an Intel fab
未加工的晶圆进入英特尔工厂后
the raw wafers begin their long journey through an incredibly complex process.
就开始了其漫长而复杂的加工旅程
They’re loaded in the front opening unified pods, or FOUPs,
这些晶圆将被装载到前开式晶圆传送盒中
which travel hundreds of miles along Intel’s automated superhighway.
并沿着数百英里的英特尔自动高速轨道传输
They’re linked from tool to tool,
使用不同工具的加工后 晶圆被链接到一起
as processors are painstakingly built up on each wafer.
在每个晶圆上都精密地构建了处理器
The wafer first goes through a series of important steps, such as photolithography,
晶圆首先通过一系列重要步骤 例如光刻
ion implantation, and etching,
离子注入和蚀刻
that prepare for the critical transistor formation process.
为关键的晶体管形成过程做好准备
Intel was the first to manufacture three dimensional transistors called FinFETs,
英特尔率先生产了名为Fin FETs三维晶体管
FinFET construction requires first building a channel in the form of a fin.
要制造FinFET 首先要建造一个鳍状的通道
Intel has devised several innovations
英特尔设计出多项创新技术
to overcome foundamental barriers to continue transistor scaling,
来克服持续扩大集成电路规模的主要障碍
one such innovation is a breakthrough fabrication method called gate-last,
其中一项创新是称为后栅极的突破性制造方法
it involves building, then removing a temporary gate,
它采用先建造临时栅极 再将其移除的方法
in order to precisely place the dielectric material and metal gate.
来精确放置介电材料和金属栅极
This allows for the gate to wrap around the fin
这样能够让栅极包裹鳍状通道
and control the flow of electrons through the channel.
同时得以控制通过通道的电子流
Another invention moves the transistor contact directly over the active gate.
另一发明是将晶体管接触层直接移动到有源栅极上
To accomplish this, the gate material is recessed
要实现这一点 需要使栅极材料凹陷
and then filled with insulating dielectric material
再填入绝缘介电材料
to prevent the creation of the short circuit.
以防止发生短路
Next, the dielectric near the gate is etched,
接下来 对栅极附近的电介质进行蚀刻
filled with metal,
填充金属
recessed and capped,
凹陷加工并加顶
to allowing novel self-aligning process that enables the high density contact geometries.
以实现高密度基础层几何结构的新型自对准工艺
Now, the dielectrics are etched selectively to expose only the desire part
现在选择性地对介电材料进行蚀刻
that connected to the first metal lines.
以暴露连接第一条金属线所需的这部分
This is done through an innovative via etch and deposition scheme,
这是通过创新的通孔蚀刻和沉积方案完成的
allowing contact over active gate to happen.
让有源栅极上的接触层得以成型
Finally, dozens of layers of metal interconnected lines are added to complete the circuit.
最终 添加数十层金属互连线以完成电路
After more than a thousand of these complex steps,
经过一千多道复杂的工序后
the wafers are finally prepared for singulation and packaging.
最终就可以准备晶圆的切粒和封装了
Innovative processor packaging
不断创新的处理器封装方式
has become a critical feature of advanced computing architecture,
已经成为先进计算机架构的关键特性
2D and 3D packaging technologies are enabling new device’s form factors
2D和3D封装技术可适配新设备的外形尺寸
and additional boosts in performance and energy efficiency.
并进一步提升了性能和能效
Testing of the final product ensures that
最终产品测试可确保每个芯片
every chip exceeds our performance and quality standards.
都能超过我们的性能和质量标准
In addition to adding more performance and features with each new processor generation,
除了为每一代新处理器增强性能和凸显特性外
Intel’s integrated design and manufacturing capabilities have enabled humanity
英特尔的一体化设计和制造能力
to innovate game changing technologies
推动了革命性的各种技术创新
that impact nearly every facet of modern life
对现代生活的方方面面产生了深远的影响
Intel keeps powering the world,
英特尔持续为全球科技提供动力
at the same time, we’re powered by you,
与此同时 正是你们赋予了英特尔前进动力
the makers, the dreamers, the doers,
你们是创造者 梦想者 实践者
the people who share in our history of making the world
你们与英特尔一起见证着这个世界
smarter, faster and more connected
变得更智能 更快捷 联系更紧密

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍了英特尔公司是如何制造出微芯片,通过创新不断突破,不断改变世界的理念。

听录译者

Syllab

翻译译者

李大漂亮

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_VMYPLXnd7E

相关推荐