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从DNA到蛋白质

From DNA to protein - 3D

从DNA到蛋白质
Here is a cell, the basic unit of all living tissue.
细胞 所有生命组织的基本单位
In most human cells there is a structure called the nucleus.
大部分人类细胞中存在细胞核的结构
The nucleus contains the genome.
细胞核包含基因组
In humans the genome is split
在人体中基因组被分为
between 23 pairs of chromosomes.
23对染色体
Each chromosome contains a long strand of DNA,
每一条染色体包含一条长链DNA
tightly packaged around proteins called histones.
紧紧包裹在一种叫做组蛋白的蛋白质周围
Within the DNA are sections called genes.
在DNA中的一些片段被叫做基因
These genes contain the instructions for making proteins.
这些基因包含编码蛋白的信息
When a gene is switched on,
当一个基因被解螺旋
an enzyme called RNA polymerase attaches to the start of the gene.
一种RNA聚合酶附着在基因的起始位点
It moves along the DNA making a strand of messenger RNA
它沿着DNA移动 从核内游离碱基中
out of free bases in the nucleus.
制造出一条信使RNA
The DNA code determines the order in which
DNA的编码信息决定了
the free bases are added to the messenger RNA.
游离碱基被加入到信使RNA上的顺序
This process is called transcription.
这一过程叫做转录
Before the messenger RNA can be used as a template for the production of proteins,
在信使RNA被作为编码蛋白质的模板之前
it needs to be processed.
它需要经过加工处理
This involves removing and adding sections of RNA.
这涉及到RNA片段的移出和插入
The messenger RNA then moves out of the nucleus
然后 信使RNA移出细胞核
into the cytoplasm.
进入细胞质
Protein factories in the cytoplasm, called ribosomes,
细胞质中的“蛋白质工厂” 叫作核糖体
bind to the messenger RNA.
与信使RNA结合
The ribosome reads the code in the messenger RNA
核糖体读取信使RNA上的密码子
to produce a chain made up of amino acids.
产生一条由氨基酸组成的肽链
There are 20 different types of amino acid.
蛋白质中有20种不同的氨基酸
Transfer RNA molecules carry the amino acids to the ribosome.
转运RNA分子携带氨基酸到核糖体
The messenger RNA is read three bases at a time.
信使RNA一次被识别三个密码子
As each triplet is read,
每当一个三联体密码被识别
a transfer RNA delivers the corresponding amino acid.
一个转运DNA就会转运相对应的氨基酸
This is added to a growing chain of amino acids.
氨基酸被加到一条逐渐加长的氨基酸链中
Once the last amino acid has been added,
一旦最后一个氨基酸加入进去
the chain folds into a complex 3D shape
这条肽链就折叠成一种复杂的三维结构
to form the protein.
形成蛋白质

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视频概述

从DNA到RNA,RNA到蛋白质的过程

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-90743

审核员

审核员CR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gG7uCskUOrA

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