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弗洛伊德谈升华 – 译学馆
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弗洛伊德谈升华

Freud on: Sublimation

Some of what we want deep down
在原始潜意识深处
in our primitive unconscious threatens to be pretty dark
我们的所欲所求可能是相当黑暗的
We may want to do no work, to steal, to injure others, to give way to despair
我们可能想偷懒 盗窃 伤害别人 绝望度日
Or to have sex in very taboo and damaging ways
或者以非常禁忌和破坏性的方式做爱
yet most of us do very little of this.
然而大多数人很少将之付诸行动
In fact we often pour our energies into worthwhile projects
实际上我们经常把精力放在有价值的事情中
and go out of our way to try to be good and helpful to those around us.
竭尽全力为周围人做好事 给他们提供帮助
That we’re able to do this fascinated
精神分析学派的创始人西格蒙德·弗洛伊德
the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud,
就着迷于人类的这种欲望转移发泄——
who gave a special word to this ability to put our primitive, egoistic,
将原始的 利己的 破坏性的能量用到正处
destructive energies to good use.
并提出了一个专业性词汇
He called the process sublimation in German Sublimierung
他把这个过程称为“升华”
It was an idea that came to freud while he was reading a well-known and charming travel book,
当时弗洛伊德在读著名而引人入胜的《哈茨之旅》
The Harz Journey, by the 19th century Poet Heinrich Heine.
这是19世纪诗人海因里希·海涅的一本游记
In it Heine mentioned
海涅在书中提到
meeting a legendary German surgeon
他遇到了一位声名远播的德国外科医生
called Johann Friedrich Deffenbaugh,
名叫约翰·腓特烈·德芬博
who’d been extremely selfish and sadistic as a boy,
这位医生幼时极端自私 虐待成性
loving to cut off the tails of stray dogs for sheer twisted pleasure.
纯粹为了扭曲的快感而剪下流浪狗的尾巴
But then, as an adult, had matured into a profoundly selfless
但成年后 他变得无私奉献
and brilliant surgeon,
成为才华横溢的外科医生
who’d made some pioneering discoveries in the fields of reconstructive and plastic surgery.
并在整形外科领域卓有建树
Freud felt that this evolution, from a person who had sadistically used a knife to wound,
从残酷地用刀伤人 到高尚地用刀子修复
to one who had nobly used it to mend,
弗洛伊德觉得这种演化
could not have been a mere coincidence
不可能仅仅是巧合
and proposed that what was at play belong to a widespread pattern of behavior,
他提出 这种行为属于一种广泛的行为模式
whereby an early harmful or shocking drive gives rise to precisely its opposite,
在这种行为模式下消极的力量会变积极
with the strength of the negative determining the power of the positive.
因此早期有害的骇人欲望会催生完全相反的结果
Freud felt that
弗洛伊德认为
this desire for compensation lays at the heart of many of the greatest achievements in the arts, politics and science.
这种补偿心理有助于人们在艺术 政治 科学上成就一番伟业
So, a great police detective might at an unconscious level,
所以 一个伟大的警探可能在无意识地
be defending themselves against certain of their own illegal wishes,
袒护自己的某些非法愿望
and a politician committed to the plight of the poor
一个致力于帮穷人摆脱困境的政治家
might be sublimating an early experience of raging greed.
可能正在升华早期体验中的巨大贪婪
In an essay on Leonardo da Vinci
在一篇关于达芬奇的文章中
Freud presented the claim
弗洛伊德提出了一种说法——
that da Vinci had been an extremely sexually active child,
达芬奇是一个性欲极强的孩子
who had then sublimated his sexuality into scientific research and art.
只不过他后来将性欲升华成科学研究和艺术
As Freud put it a forbidden desire for sexual pleasure, in this case for his mother,
弗洛伊德认为 对母亲产生性快感是被禁止的
and then other boys had turned in da Vinci into
然后升华过程把达芬奇变成了
a hugely honorable and powerful general urge to know
一个有着强烈求知欲的值得尊敬的人
The theory of sublimation is so hopeful
升华理论之所以充满希望
because there’s so much about what we all want that proves impossible
是因为我们想要的东西大多不现实
while there would be infinite reasons for anger and sterile nihilism,
还有很多理由会导致愤怒和徒劳的虚无主义
Freud notes our capacity to seek compensation and alternative fulfillments.
此时弗洛伊德注意到我们有寻求补偿和替代满足的能力
Repeatedly in his work,
弗洛伊德在文章中
Freud stressed a fact, which though it sounds absurdly obvious,
反复强调一个听起来很荒谬的事实
we nevertheless usually fail to give enough weight to –
婴儿期就开始有性冲动了
that all of us started out as babies.
而我们通常没有给予足够的重视
In that state we wanted only immediate pleasure and satisfaction.
那时候的我们只想要即刻的快乐和满足
Our drives in their initial forms, which are things that couldn’t work out for us
我们最初的欲望是没有结果的
and that had to be painfully surrendered,
必须痛苦地放弃
we believe that if we didn’t get all we wanted at once
而我们相信如果不能立刻得到想要的一切
it would be a catastrophe and we would die.
将是一场灾难 会死人的
This kind of thinking explains the shrieking and wailing of infants in a tantrum.
这种想法解释了婴儿发脾气时的尖叫和哀号
We thought the world revolved just around us
我们以为世界只围着自己转
and we couldn’t be generous to others,
且以自我为中心
and yet most of us turned into healthy adults
但大多数人能通过更道德更有成效的选择
by managing to substitute our original narcissistic aims for more ethical and fruitful alternatives.
来取代最初的自恋目标 从而变成健康的成年人
Freud added soberly
弗洛伊德明确地补充说
that we’re never quite done with sublimation.
我们从来没有完全完成升华
We continue to be frustrated in what we really want,
在我们真正想要的东西上我们不断受挫
most often around sex,
而大多数时候是因为性欲得不到满足
continually we encounter people we’d love to sleep with but mustn’t
我们会不断遇到我们想睡但又不能睡的人
and yet rather than this energy going nowhere
这种性欲不会消失
we have an ability to use our frustration to power other things creative endeavors,
但我们能够利用这种挫折来创造性地推动其它事情的发展
scientific breakthroughs, care for the vulnerable.
比如取得科学突破 关爱弱势群体
In Freud’s eyes disappointment is inevitable.
在弗洛伊德看来 失望是不可避免的
Our longings will systematically outrun reality,
我们的渴望会系统地超出现实
but sublimation remains the one hugely helpful option for us:
但是升华仍然是对我们最有益的选择:
under it’s guidance,
在它的指导下
envy can turn into effort,
嫉妒可以转向努力
wounded egoism into a capacity for gratitude and appreciation,
受伤的利己主义能转移成感激和欣赏的能力
sexual rejection into a film or a novel.
性排斥可以转化成电影或小说
As Freud saw it, psychoanalysis is the field designed
正如弗洛伊德所见 精神分析旨在
to help us discover how we can use our disappointments more productively,
帮助我们发现失望并更有成效地利用它
how we can grow up to be not embittered or shut down,
使我们长大后不会怨恨或自闭
but paradoxically, energized by some of our greatest underlying sorrows.
反而被内心深处的悲伤所激励
The good life isn’t one where we get exactly what we want,
美好的生活不是如己所愿
it’s one where we find fulfilling second bests
而升华可以使我们退而求其次
and where we have the inner freedom
在这里我们拥有内心的自由
to redirect our disappointments with maximal imagination,
去用最大的想象力重新引导自己的失望
a life where we’ve learned,
这种生活不难习得
as Freud tried to show us,
弗洛伊德已经很好地做了展示
to sublimate well.
只需把握好升华过程即可

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视频概述

人人内心深处可能都有一个魔鬼,本视频教你如何成功转化低级的欲望

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收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

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审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K96AeGqKVbs

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