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Fresh Meat - The Search For New Recruits I THE GREAT WAR - Week 14

1914年10月30日 在奥匈帝国向塞尔维亚宣战的
October 30, 1914. In the last three months and two days since
三个月零两天内 数十万人惨死于战争中
the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia, hundreds of thousands of men have
died violently in battle. These men were the professional or trained conscript armies of
但是伴随着他们的死去和望不到头的战争 交战国
Europe, but with their passing and with no end of the war in sight, the warring nations
开始派遣未经训练的部队 甚至少年和中年人
were now forced to send untrained recruits, even teenagers or middle aged men, to die
in battle like lambs to the slaughter.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎来到“伟大战争”栏目
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
我们上次讲到 我们看见德军从华沙撤退 奥地利军队在伊万格罗德
When we left off, we saw the Germans retreating from Warsaw, the Austrians launching and losing
发起但输掉了对俄军的一场大规模进攻 英军和德军在伊普尔
a big attack on the Russians at Ivangorod, the British and Germans suffering enormous
遭受了严重损失 比利时军队在伊塞河一线布防 日本军队封锁了
losses at Ypres, the Belgians holding the line at the Yser, and the Japanese blockading
德国的港口青岛 这里是接下来发生的事情:
the German port of Tsingtao. Here’s what happened next:
在西线 德军总参谋长法金汉集结了一支由新兵组成的部队
On the Western Front, German Army Chief of Staff Falkenhayn had assembled an army of
在佛兰德斯的伊普尔作战 正当这些新兵与英国职业军人作战时
new recruits to fight at Ypres in Flanders , and as novices in battle up against the
他们中有数千人 在机枪和来复枪的扫射下 死于行军路上
British professionals, they had died by the thousands marching in large masses up against
machine guns and rapid rifle fire. But there were thousands more German recruits coming,
这周 这支新的生力军企图在北部地区获得更多进展
and this week the new reserve recruits managed to gain some ground further north. On October
10月24日 他们渡过了伊塞河
24th, they crossed the Yser River.
德军最终推进到了海边 这对比利时军队来说实在是个坏消息
This was really bad news for the Belgians, as the Germans could finally reach the sea.
比利时的指挥官提出撤退 但国王阿尔贝一世拒绝了这个提议
The Belgian commanders proposed retreat, but King Albert refused. The situation called
尽管情势需要一些激进的行动 但在超过20000比利时人在战争中牺牲之后
for something drastic though, and after a further 20,000 Belgians were lost in battle,
激进的行动已然平息 纽波特紧闭的闸门向汹涌的海水敞开
something drastic was done. The lock gates at Nieuport were opened at high tide to flood
淹没了周边的土地 数日之后 比利时的村野乡间被
the surrounding land with seawater, and after a few days the Belgian countryside was flooded
宽达一英里远至迪克斯梅德的洪水淹没 无路可行之下 德军被迫撤退
a mile wide as far south as Dixmude. This was impassable and the Germans were forced
现在同盟的左侧翼安全了 阿尔贝一世不仅是国王
to withdraw. The allied left flank was now secure and Albert was now not only king, he
was a national hero.
这里要提到的是 在纽波特及其周边地区 有一名救护车司机
As a side note here, one of the ambulance drivers around the Nieuport area was British
是英国贵族多萝西·菲尔丁 她因她在西部前线的贡献成为第一位
aristocrat Dorothie Fielding, who, for her work on the western front became the first
获得英国英勇勋章的女性 她也因她的服务获得了法国军功十字章
woman to win the British Military Medal for Bravery. She also received the French Croix
de Guerre and the Belgian Order of Leopold II for her service. I just thought she deserved
a mention here.
看回来 德军到达海边的梦想到此破灭 而英军希望让德军深陷
Looking back, German hopes of reaching the sea were by now as vain as British hopes of
比利时的想法亦是如此 再往南 我们发现战斗从在伊普的突出部进行
pushing the Germans deep into Belgium, and we see further south that the battle ON the
Ypres salient was now the battle FOR the Ypres salient.
法金汉依然对突破此处呈乐观态度 并在27日在新查佩尔差点就这么做了
Falkenhayn was still optimistic about breaking through here and nearly did so at Neuve Chappelle
the 27th, but was beaten back in hand to hand combat by Indian troops the next morning,
but German reinforcements were being brought up along the whole sector and Falkenhayn’s
next offensive would soon begin.
看 对他而言 盖勒维特的占领是基本的 这还是最终占领伊普尔和海岸的前奏
See, to him, the capture of Ghevault was essential and a prelude to the eventual capture of Ypres
作为回应 法国将军福煦同意从南面派遣部队支援被围困的英军
and the sea. In response, French General Foch agreed to send support from further south
to help the beleaguered British, but it would take a few days to arrive. The Germans moved
德军部署到位 我想暂时先看看这些英国军队
into position. I’d like to take a look at those British
当战争爆发时 英国的常备军是欧洲唯一一支
troops now for a minute. When the war broke out, the British regulars were the only fully
全专业化部队 但由于他们规模小 他们一开始受到轻视
professional army in Europe, but because of their small size they’d initially been mocked.
然而 在过去的三个月中 他们不断在战场上展现他们的实力
However, over the past three months, they’d repeatedly shown their capability in the field,
but the race to the sea and the First Battle of Ypres would mark the end of the British
以及征兵时期的开始 这些都因为以下这些数字:
regular army[ab] and usher in a period of conscription because of the following numbers:
三个月前 英军指挥官约翰·弗伦奇率领了84个营的部队 每个营有近1000人
Three months ago, British Commander John French led 84 battalions with nearly 1,000 men each.
到十一月初 仅有35个营剩余200人以上 31个营人数在100人到200人之间
As November began, only 35 of those battalions had more than 200 men remaining, 31 had between
100 and 200, and 18 battalions were down from nearly 1,000 to fewer than 100 men.
But it certainly wasn’t just the British who were forced to recruit new and often untrained
在伊普尔和伊塞河战役中 德军派遣了数万名
soldiers. In the battles of Ypres and the Yser, the German army had sent tens of thousands
毫无战场经验 缺乏训练的新兵前往战场
of raw recruits into battle with no experience of battle or training and their losses were
在今天朗格马克附近的德国志愿者联盟公墓里 25000名学生士兵
At the cemetery of the German volunteer corps today in nearby Langemarck, the bodies of
的遗体长眠于一个巨大的墓穴内 这里的墓碑上刻有诸如
25,000 student soldiers lie in a mass grave. There are gravestones that read such names
“步兵布朗”和“志愿者施密特”之类的名字 在墓穴之上包括一些遗体
as “Musketeer Braun” and “Volunteer Schmidt”over graves that contain several
每一个上面写有证明“伊普尔被杀害的婴孩” ——在伊普尔被屠杀的无辜人
bodies each, a testament to the “kindermord bei Ypern”- the Massacre of the Innocents
这是一次在绝望下对突破的尝试 德军派遣
at Ypres, which it was, when in a desperate attempt to break through, the Germans sent
men who had no business being on a battlefield against the best trained soldiers in Europe,
the British regulars.
现在 英军 正如我们所见 具有暂时的优势 即调动整个帝国来增强部队
Now, the British, as we’ve seen, had the occasional luxury of reinforcing their troops
但是他们并不是唯一这么做的 俄国已从西伯利亚和中亚
from their whole empire, but they weren’t the only ones. Russia had been bringing troops
征募来充实军队 而且他们两周前就已到达
from Siberia and Central Asia to fill out her ranks, and they had been arriving for
the past two weeks, turning the tide in the east against the Germans.
德军已从他们流产的进攻华沙行动中撤退 意识到此刻
The Germans had been retreating from their aborted attack toward Warsaw, realizing that
the sheer number of Russians was simply too much to attack for the moment.
在更南面 激烈的战斗正在进行 在朗格罗被俄军重创之后 奥地利军队
There was heavy fighting further south though, as the Austrian army was disengaging and falling
开始脱离战场并撤退 到目前为止 奥地利军队受困于弹药短缺
back from their huge loss to Russia at Ivangorod. Austria was by now in the grip of an ammunitions
shortage, with artillery rations were down to only four shells a day per piece, and there
was a big defeatist mood among the Austrian army.
这些伴随着一场霍乱在军队中爆发 疫病在本月杀死了近四千名奥地利人
This was compounded by an outbreak of cholera among the troops, which killed nearly 4,000
并使得更多的人变得虚弱 由于疫苗的研制和分发需要一段时间
Austrians this month and weakened many more. Since it took time for the vaccine to be authorized
and then distributed, many Austrian soldiers faked the symptoms to get away from the front
lines. Austria further had the problem of Slavic soldiers defecting join the Russians,
他们视俄国 而非多民族的奥匈帝国 为真正的祖国
seeing them as their true nation and not the multi-national Austro-Hungarian Empire..
所以维斯瓦河战役 或称华沙战役结束了 它带来了
So the battle of the Vistula, also called the battle of Warsaw ended, and it did with
俄军的完胜 德军和奥地利军队被击退至他们
a ringing Russians victory. The Germans and Austrians were pushed back to the original
数周前发起进攻的位置 而俄国 较之两月前德国
positions from which they’d begun their offensives weeks ago and Russia had made up
对它的打击 收获颇丰
a lot for her losses to the Germans two months ago.
但俄国面对的不仅仅是德国和奥匈帝国 未来还有更多的事情需要处理
But Russia would have more to deal with in the future than merely the Austrian and German
因为10月29日 奥斯曼帝国海军轰炸了数个俄国
empires it seemed, for on October 29th, the Ottoman Imperial navy bombed several Russian
位于黑海的港口 俄国很快有第三个与之作战的帝国了
ports on the Black Sea. Russia might soon have a third empire to fight.
本周有许多在海上进行的事件 “无畏号”——英国最新的
There was a lot going on at sea this week, actually. The Audacious, one of Britain’s
超无畏级战列舰之一 在爱尔兰海岸被一枚德国水雷击沉
most modern “super dreadnoughts” was sunk by a German mine off the Irish coast. Since
由于她花费了12个小时才沉没 所以所有的船员都得以撤出
she took about 12 hours to sink, all crew was evacuated, but this was a real blow to
但是这确实是对英国舰队的一个重大打击 她在现实中不如纸上那么强大
the British Fleet- who were much stronger on paper than in reality- and the sinking
这次沉没并未报道直至战后 显然这考虑了士气原因 而无畏号
was not officially reported until after the war, apparently for morale reasons, and Audacious
仍然出现在舰队名单上 然而 舰上有美国船员拍到了这艘船的照片
still appeared in the fleet lists. However, there were American sailors on board who took
photos of the ship and the sinking appeared in the American and subsequently world press,
所以掩盖并未奏效 反而引发了英国官方的公共关系问题
so the cover-up didn’t do the British authorities a whole lot of PR wonders.
也是在本周 德国轻巡洋舰“埃姆登号”在槟城(现属马来西亚)
Also this week, the German light cruiser Emden attacked allied ships at Penang, what is now
攻击了协约国的舰队 在快速的袭击下 “埃姆登号”击沉了一艘俄国巡洋舰
part of Malaysia. In a quick raid, the Emden sank a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer
和一艘法国驱逐舰 随后逃离了战场 “埃姆登号”在此区域内只此一艘
before fleeing. The Emden was alone in the area, the rest of the German East Asia Squadron
德国东亚舰队的其余船只在战争开始时即已回国 而“埃姆登号”在接下来的十天
had left for Germany at the beginning of the war, and she continued her raiding adventures
继续她的袭击冒险 直到她被澳大利亚战舰“悉尼号”击伤 后搁浅
for another 10 day[ax]s until being damaged by the Australian warship Sydney and being
在她的袭击过程中 “埃姆登号”占领或击沉了超过20艘民用船只
run aground. During her raids, Emden had captured or sunk over 20 civilian vessels and become
the scourge of the local seas.
现在 在我梳理今天的内容之前 我想在此说一个与此无关的一方的一个故事
Now, before I wrap things up today I’d like to tell an unrelated side story here that
因为我不知道还有什么其他地方能说 我是从马克思·黑斯廷斯的《惨败》一书
I don’t know where else to put. I got this from Max Hastings’ book “Catastrophe”-
中读到的 在此刻的伊普尔 罗纳德·科尔曼腿部受伤 而战争对他而言已经结束了
at this time in Ypres, Ronald Colman was wounded in the leg and the war for him was over, but
接着他成为了一名好莱坞影星 有趣的是他的团里还包括了巴兹尔·拉斯伯恩
he went on to become a Hollywood star. Funny thing is his regiment also contained Basil
克劳德·雷恩斯和赫伯特·马歇尔 他们也都成为了好莱坞影星
Rathbone, Claude Rains, and Herbert Marshall, who all also became Hollywood stars. What
are the odds of that?
所以在这周周末 比利时人用洪水阻隔住了德军的步伐 在更南面
So at the end of the week, the Belgians are flooding away the Germans, further south the
英军在等待法军的支援 而德军在佛兰德斯正准备新一轮的进攻
British are awaiting French help while the local Germans get ready for a huge new offensive
俄军正处在反击德奥联军的最顶峰 但俄国的
in Flanders. The Russians are on top now against both the Germans and the Austrians, but Russian
港口刚刚被奥斯曼土耳其人炸毁 也是大约在1914年的这一周
ports have just been bombed by the Ottomans. It was also around this week in 1914 that
the term no-mans land appeared describing the space between the rival trenches.
所以战争何时才能停止?这是一个好问题 既然已有数十万人战死疆场
So when would it stop? It was a good question. Now that hundreds of thousands of men had
died and the warring nations were recruiting teenagers and students to send into battle,
何时才是个尽头?何时我们才能取得胜利?好吧 战争
when would it all stop? When would we win? Well, it wouldn’t stop for another four
直到四年后 令人震惊的新兵陷入泥潭或葬入深海中的死亡人数 方才使之停止
years after a shocking number of those new recruits died violently in the mud or drowned
因为正如乔治·奥威尔所言 如此简洁:迅速结束
beneath the seas because, as George Orwell so simply put it: the only way to swiftly
end a war is to lose it.
And even though this war had took the lives of hundreds of thousands of men, like any
就如任何一场战争 它也有相当一部分虚构的英雄 他们的故事将
war, it also had its fare share of mythical heroes whose stories would fascinate or terrify
使双方的普通士兵既着迷又恐惧 这些超出普通生活的人物中有一位就是
common soldiers on both sides of the trenches. One of these greater than life figures was
曼弗雷德·冯·里希特霍芬 又名“红色男爵” 查看这部我们制作的关于他的
Manfred von Richthofen aka The Red Baron. Check out this special video we made about
him as a first part in our new ongoing series about special individuals in The Great War.