October 30, 1914. In the last three months and two days since
the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia, hundreds of thousands of men have
died violently in battle. These men were the professional or trained conscript armies of
Europe, but with their passing and with no end of the war in sight, the warring nations
were now forced to send untrained recruits, even teenagers or middle aged men, to die
in battle like lambs to the slaughter.
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
我们上次讲到 我们看见德军从华沙撤退 奥地利军队在伊万格罗德
When we left off, we saw the Germans retreating from Warsaw, the Austrians launching and losing
a big attack on the Russians at Ivangorod, the British and Germans suffering enormous
遭受了严重损失 比利时军队在伊塞河一线布防 日本军队封锁了
losses at Ypres, the Belgians holding the line at the Yser, and the Japanese blockading
the German port of Tsingtao. Here’s what happened next:
On the Western Front, German Army Chief of Staff Falkenhayn had assembled an army of
new recruits to fight at Ypres in Flanders , and as novices in battle up against the
他们中有数千人 在机枪和来复枪的扫射下 死于行军路上
British professionals, they had died by the thousands marching in large masses up against
machine guns and rapid rifle fire. But there were thousands more German recruits coming,
and this week the new reserve recruits managed to gain some ground further north. On October
24th, they crossed the Yser River.
This was really bad news for the Belgians, as the Germans could finally reach the sea.
The Belgian commanders proposed retreat, but King Albert refused. The situation called
for something drastic though, and after a further 20,000 Belgians were lost in battle,
something drastic was done. The lock gates at Nieuport were opened at high tide to flood
淹没了周边的土地 数日之后 比利时的村野乡间被
the surrounding land with seawater, and after a few days the Belgian countryside was flooded
宽达一英里远至迪克斯梅德的洪水淹没 无路可行之下 德军被迫撤退
a mile wide as far south as Dixmude. This was impassable and the Germans were forced
to withdraw. The allied left flank was now secure and Albert was now not only king, he
was a national hero.
这里要提到的是 在纽波特及其周边地区 有一名救护车司机
As a side note here, one of the ambulance drivers around the Nieuport area was British
aristocrat Dorothie Fielding, who, for her work on the western front became the first
woman to win the British Military Medal for Bravery. She also received the French Croix
de Guerre and the Belgian Order of Leopold II for her service. I just thought she deserved
a mention here.
看回来 德军到达海边的梦想到此破灭 而英军希望让德军深陷
Looking back, German hopes of reaching the sea were by now as vain as British hopes of
比利时的想法亦是如此 再往南 我们发现战斗从在伊普的突出部进行
pushing the Germans deep into Belgium, and we see further south that the battle ON the
Ypres salient was now the battle FOR the Ypres salient.
Falkenhayn was still optimistic about breaking through here and nearly did so at Neuve Chappelle
the 27th, but was beaten back in hand to hand combat by Indian troops the next morning,
but German reinforcements were being brought up along the whole sector and Falkenhayn’s
next offensive would soon begin.
看 对他而言 盖勒维特的占领是基本的 这还是最终占领伊普尔和海岸的前奏
See, to him, the capture of Ghevault was essential and a prelude to the eventual capture of Ypres
and the sea. In response, French General Foch agreed to send support from further south
to help the beleaguered British, but it would take a few days to arrive. The Germans moved
into position. I’d like to take a look at those British
troops now for a minute. When the war broke out, the British regulars were the only fully
全专业化部队 但由于他们规模小 他们一开始受到轻视
professional army in Europe, but because of their small size they’d initially been mocked.
然而 在过去的三个月中 他们不断在战场上展现他们的实力
However, over the past three months, they’d repeatedly shown their capability in the field,
but the race to the sea and the First Battle of Ypres would mark the end of the British
regular army[ab] and usher in a period of conscription because of the following numbers:
三个月前 英军指挥官约翰·弗伦奇率领了84个营的部队 每个营有近1000人
Three months ago, British Commander John French led 84 battalions with nearly 1,000 men each.
到十一月初 仅有35个营剩余200人以上 31个营人数在100人到200人之间
As November began, only 35 of those battalions had more than 200 men remaining, 31 had between
100 and 200, and 18 battalions were down from nearly 1,000 to fewer than 100 men.
But it certainly wasn’t just the British who were forced to recruit new and often untrained
soldiers. In the battles of Ypres and the Yser, the German army had sent tens of thousands
of raw recruits into battle with no experience of battle or training and their losses were
At the cemetery of the German volunteer corps today in nearby Langemarck, the bodies of
25,000 student soldiers lie in a mass grave. There are gravestones that read such names
as “Musketeer Braun” and “Volunteer Schmidt”over graves that contain several
bodies each, a testament to the “kindermord bei Ypern”- the Massacre of the Innocents
at Ypres, which it was, when in a desperate attempt to break through, the Germans sent
men who had no business being on a battlefield against the best trained soldiers in Europe,
the British regulars.
现在 英军 正如我们所见 具有暂时的优势 即调动整个帝国来增强部队
Now, the British, as we’ve seen, had the occasional luxury of reinforcing their troops
from their whole empire, but they weren’t the only ones. Russia had been bringing troops
from Siberia and Central Asia to fill out her ranks, and they had been arriving for
the past two weeks, turning the tide in the east against the Germans.
The Germans had been retreating from their aborted attack toward Warsaw, realizing that
the sheer number of Russians was simply too much to attack for the moment.
在更南面 激烈的战斗正在进行 在朗格罗被俄军重创之后 奥地利军队
There was heavy fighting further south though, as the Austrian army was disengaging and falling
开始脱离战场并撤退 到目前为止 奥地利军队受困于弹药短缺
back from their huge loss to Russia at Ivangorod. Austria was by now in the grip of an ammunitions
shortage, with artillery rations were down to only four shells a day per piece, and there
was a big defeatist mood among the Austrian army.
This was compounded by an outbreak of cholera among the troops, which killed nearly 4,000
Austrians this month and weakened many more. Since it took time for the vaccine to be authorized
and then distributed, many Austrian soldiers faked the symptoms to get away from the front
lines. Austria further had the problem of Slavic soldiers defecting join the Russians,
他们视俄国 而非多民族的奥匈帝国 为真正的祖国
seeing them as their true nation and not the multi-national Austro-Hungarian Empire..
所以维斯瓦河战役 或称华沙战役结束了 它带来了
So the battle of the Vistula, also called the battle of Warsaw ended, and it did with
a ringing Russians victory. The Germans and Austrians were pushed back to the original
数周前发起进攻的位置 而俄国 较之两月前德国
positions from which they’d begun their offensives weeks ago and Russia had made up
a lot for her losses to the Germans two months ago.
But Russia would have more to deal with in the future than merely the Austrian and German
empires it seemed, for on October 29th, the Ottoman Imperial navy bombed several Russian
ports on the Black Sea. Russia might soon have a third empire to fight.
There was a lot going on at sea this week, actually. The Audacious, one of Britain’s
most modern “super dreadnoughts” was sunk by a German mine off the Irish coast. Since
she took about 12 hours to sink, all crew was evacuated, but this was a real blow to
the British Fleet- who were much stronger on paper than in reality- and the sinking
这次沉没并未报道直至战后 显然这考虑了士气原因 而无畏号
was not officially reported until after the war, apparently for morale reasons, and Audacious
仍然出现在舰队名单上 然而 舰上有美国船员拍到了这艘船的照片
still appeared in the fleet lists. However, there were American sailors on board who took
photos of the ship and the sinking appeared in the American and subsequently world press,
so the cover-up didn’t do the British authorities a whole lot of PR wonders.
Also this week, the German light cruiser Emden attacked allied ships at Penang, what is now
攻击了协约国的舰队 在快速的袭击下 “埃姆登号”击沉了一艘俄国巡洋舰
part of Malaysia. In a quick raid, the Emden sank a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer
和一艘法国驱逐舰 随后逃离了战场 “埃姆登号”在此区域内只此一艘
before fleeing. The Emden was alone in the area, the rest of the German East Asia Squadron
had left for Germany at the beginning of the war, and she continued her raiding adventures
继续她的袭击冒险 直到她被澳大利亚战舰“悉尼号”击伤 后搁浅
for another 10 day[ax]s until being damaged by the Australian warship Sydney and being
run aground. During her raids, Emden had captured or sunk over 20 civilian vessels and become
the scourge of the local seas.
现在 在我梳理今天的内容之前 我想在此说一个与此无关的一方的一个故事
Now, before I wrap things up today I’d like to tell an unrelated side story here that
I don’t know where else to put. I got this from Max Hastings’ book “Catastrophe”-
中读到的 在此刻的伊普尔 罗纳德·科尔曼腿部受伤 而战争对他而言已经结束了
at this time in Ypres, Ronald Colman was wounded in the leg and the war for him was over, but
he went on to become a Hollywood star. Funny thing is his regiment also contained Basil
Rathbone, Claude Rains, and Herbert Marshall, who all also became Hollywood stars. What
are the odds of that?
所以在这周周末 比利时人用洪水阻隔住了德军的步伐 在更南面
So at the end of the week, the Belgians are flooding away the Germans, further south the
British are awaiting French help while the local Germans get ready for a huge new offensive
in Flanders. The Russians are on top now against both the Germans and the Austrians, but Russian
ports have just been bombed by the Ottomans. It was also around this week in 1914 that
the term no-mans land appeared describing the space between the rival trenches.
So when would it stop? It was a good question. Now that hundreds of thousands of men had
died and the warring nations were recruiting teenagers and students to send into battle,
when would it all stop? When would we win? Well, it wouldn’t stop for another four
直到四年后 令人震惊的新兵陷入泥潭或葬入深海中的死亡人数 方才使之停止
years after a shocking number of those new recruits died violently in the mud or drowned
beneath the seas because, as George Orwell so simply put it: the only way to swiftly
end a war is to lose it.
And even though this war had took the lives of hundreds of thousands of men, like any
就如任何一场战争 它也有相当一部分虚构的英雄 他们的故事将
war, it also had its fare share of mythical heroes whose stories would fascinate or terrify
common soldiers on both sides of the trenches. One of these greater than life figures was
曼弗雷德·冯·里希特霍芬 又名“红色男爵” 查看这部我们制作的关于他的
Manfred von Richthofen aka The Red Baron. Check out this special video we made about
him as a first part in our new ongoing series about special individuals in The Great War.