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薯条不会真的“杀了你” – 译学馆
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薯条不会真的“杀了你”

French Fries Aren't Really Going To Kill You

如果你养了猫 或者你只是一位喵星人视频的爱好者 你可能想知道
If you’re a cat owner, or even just a lover of cat videos, you might have wondered
这些生物为何如此可爱
how these cuddly creatures came to be.
例如 为什么这些柔软的小家伙喜欢坐在你的膝盖上而不是用爪子把你撕成碎片
Like, why’s little Fluffy happy to sit on your lap, and not tearing you to shreds with its claws?
我们知道的有关猫的驯化的知识大多来自一次性的研究
Most of what we know about cat demestication has come from one off studies
但是这个星期 科学家们在《自然生态革命》杂志上发表了第一篇有关猫咪
But this week, scientists reported the first large-scale paleogenetic study of cats
大规模遗传的研究报告
in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution.
通过分析从数百份猫的木乃伊中提取的DNA
By analyzing the ancient DNA in hundreds of cat mummies
以及其他的考古发现比如骨骼和牙齿
and other archeological finds like bones and teeth,
现在 研究者们对猫这种动物是怎样进化并繁衍到全球的有了更全面的认识
researchers now have a better sense of how these animals evolved and spread around the globe.
现在的家猫和野猫不是完全不同的
The modern domesticated cat isn’t all that different from a wildcat,
尤其是利比亚亚种
especially the subspecies Felis silvestris lybica.
事实上 这两个不同的品种对于研究者来说还是挺复杂的
In fact, the two still breed, complicating things for researchers.
研究发现尽管现在它们是宠物猫
The study found that our pet cats, though, can trace their history back 9,000 years
猫的历史可以追溯到9000年以前的五种利比亚猫
and to 5 lineages of silvestris lybica.
但是有两种大型猫却是来自近东和埃及
But the two big players are from the Near East and Egypt.
家猫首先在亚洲西部肥沃的新月地带繁殖
Domesticated cats first got started in the Fertile Crescent,
那里地处中东 植物与农作物茁壮生长
the area of the Middle East where plants could actually grow and farming began.
在这里 猫咪们把啮齿类动物 比如老鼠 驱逐出了粮仓
Here, cats kept rodents in check and out of grain stores.
到了公元前4400年 这些老鼠杀手们到达了欧洲
By at least 4400 B.C., these mice-killers made it to Europe,
到达那里的原因之一可能是它们对于人类的帮助很大 所以消息传播了过去
probably because the word spread about their helpfulness.
然而 当你想到猫咪和古人类时 你还是会想到埃及
But when you think cat and ancient civilization, you might think Egypt.
科学家们猜测埃及猫为了和人类相处的更舒适而进化了
And these scientists suspect that the Egyptian cat had evolved to be more cozy with humans,
形成了另一个种类
making it another favorite.
研究者们从新千年的土耳其西部抽样调查的大多数猫
Most of the cats the researchers sampled from western Turkey in the first millennium
拥有埃及血统
were from the Egyptian lineage.
到公元700年 埃及猫咪已经到达了波罗的海的维京港口
By the 700s, Egyptian kitties had even made it to a Viking port on the Baltic Sea.
时光飞逝 各种血统的猫都混杂在了一起
As time passed, other lineages got into the mix.
也许是通过丝绸之路 亚洲的猫咪们在土耳其繁衍昌盛
Cats from Asia popped up in Turkey, possibly through the Silk Road.
就像第一世纪的海洋探险家们一样 近东的猫咪们到达了非洲东部
And the Near East cats landed in East Africa, likely as first century seafarers.
这份研究也暗示了 人们在猫咪的历史研究中
This study also suggests that, for most of cat history, people didn’t care about the
只在意它们能捉老鼠而且不咬人
appearance of their animals so long as they caught mice and didn’t bite.
它还显示一些家猫身上的虎斑斑纹直到中世纪才产生
It revealed that tabby markings—the blotches on some house cats—didn’t come along until the Middle Ages.
在那之前 所有血统的猫看起来都像是身上有着更多清晰条纹的野猫
Before then, all domesticated cats likely looked like wildcats and had more defined stripes.
放眼望去 我们的猫咪朋友们在每一个大洲上都繁荣昌盛 当然 除了南极洲
Looks aside, our kitty companions flourished and ended up on every continent except Antarctica.
这些关于猫咪的研究占据了几乎一半的网络
And of course, they own about half of the internet.
而另一半 至少在这个星期 是关于消灭薯条的
That other half—at least this week—was about killer fried potatoes.
你可能看到过一些警告你放下薯条的标题
You may have seen the headlines warning you to put down the french fries,
这是因为 在这个月的早些时候 美国日报上刊登了一篇关于临床营养学的论文
because of a paper in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition earlier this month.
研究发现 那些每星期吃炸薯条炸土豆两到三次的人的死亡率
The study found that people who eat fried potatoes, like french fries or potato chips,
是那些只允许自己每月吃一次薯条的人的两倍
two or more times a week were twice as likely to die as those indulging just once a month.
这也许只是一种鲁莽的断言
Which is … a bold claim.
炸土豆不是最健康的食物
Fried potatoes aren’t the healthiest foods.
但这也不是绝对的 研究结果并没有说炸土豆会要你的性命
But, to set the record straight, the study’s not saying that fried potatoes are going to kill you.
为了洗清土豆的冤屈 研究者们借助了另外一个与其毫无关系的
To dig up this dirt on potatoes, the researchers actually piggybacked on another, totally unrelated study
关于膝关节骨性关节炎的研究基础上
about knee osteoarthritis called the Osteoarthritis Initiative.
参加者们把他们经常食用的一些食物也作了数据记录
Participants had reported the types of food they usually eat as part of the data collection.
这个研究持续了八年 在此期间 已经有人去世了
And the study has been running for eight years, during which some people died.
这意味着营养学家们可以为了研究食物和健康之间的有趣联系保留这些数据
That meant these nutritionists could mine the data for interesting correlations between food and death.
他们没有发现土豆对致死率有任何影响
They didn’t find any effect on mortality by all potatoes,
但是当数据分析家们把炸土豆当做一个子目录来看的话
but when the statisticians looked at fried potatoes as a sub-category …
(嘭)(表惊讶)
wham!
这就是“两倍死亡率”说法的来源
That’s where the ‘twice as likely to die’ comes from.
在你开始恐慌之前 这里有一些
Before you panic, there are a couple of things to keep in mind here—and they’re true
关于营养学研究的事情你需要了解一下
for a lot of nutritional studies.
其中之一是 人们食用的土豆量是自己计算出的 且距今已经有八年了
For one, the amount of potatoes people ate was self-reported, just once over the 8 years.
你还记得你上个十一月吃了多少土豆吗?
And do you have any idea how many potatoes you ate last November?
记忆常常不准确 人们可能不会承认自己每个星期都会吃掉一袋薯片
Memories aren’t always accurate … or people might not admit to eating a whole bag of potato chips every week.
所有这些人们都患有或者有患关节炎的危险
All of these folks also had, or were at-risk for, arthritis in their knees.
所以 这些研究不能适用于每一个人
So it’s not a given that these findings would translate to everyone.
而且 这仅仅是一种联系 所以 除了炸土豆之外的一些研究也可能是错的
And because this is just a correlation, something besides fried potatoes could be at fault.
举例来说 有些人吃很多薯条 同时也可能吃很多汉堡
Someone who eats lots of fries, for instance, might also eat lots of burgers.
或者他们会经常去锻炼
Or they might not make it to the gym that often.
科学家们尽力控制这些使人们烦恼的因素
The scientists tried to control for as many factors like these as they could, but you
但是你也不可能做到面面俱到
can never account for everything.
所以 薯条还是那个冷面杀手吗?
So, are fried potatoes stone-cold killers?
这个想法只是无稽之谈
The idea is plausible …
它们经常和脂肪还有盐联系在一起 这些会让你发胖
They’re usually loaded with fat and salt, which could put you at higher risk for obesity,
还会诱发心血管疾病
diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
但是事实是 这些研究不能明确地告诉我们
But the reality is that this study can’t tell us for sure, which is pretty typical
什么是典型的营养学
of nutrition studies.
它们经常以发现若有若无的联系作为结尾 然后由研究者们决定
Usually, they just end up finding possible links, and then it’s up to researchers to follow up
哪个可能是真实的
and see which ones might be real.
谢谢观看SciShow科学秀
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特别鸣谢各位赞助商
patrons on Patreon who make this show possible.
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薯条虽好,可不要沉迷哦,不过薯条的危害也有些言过其实了

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

jameschan

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLS1X_awn7Y

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