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古罗马四姐妹

Four sisters in Ancient Rome - Ray Laurence

今天我们要从一个小女孩的视角
we’re going to look at the world of Rome
来看古罗马
through the eyes of a young girl.
她在这儿 在她父亲巨大房子的中庭里
Here she is, drawing a picture of herself
正给自己画像
in the atrium of her father’s enormous house.
她叫Domitia 只有5岁
Her name is Domitia, and she is just 5 years old.
她有个十四岁的哥哥
She has an older brother who is fourteen,
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus,
以她父亲的名字命名的
named after her dad.
女孩没有男孩那么长的名字
Girls don’t get these long names that boys have.
更糟的是 她的父亲
What is worse is that Dad insists
坚持叫自己所有的女儿Domitia
on calling all his daughters Domitia.
“Domitia!”
“Domitia!”
他喊在柱子上画画的Domitia
His call to Domitia drawing on the column,
Domitia III
Domitia III.
她有个姐姐 Domitia II 七岁
She has an older sister, Domitia II, who is 7 years old.
还有Domitia I 十岁
And then there’s Domitia I, who is ten.
本来还有个Domitia IV
There would have been a Domitia IV,
但妈妈在三年前生她时去世了
but mom died trying to give birth to her three years ago.
糊涂了吧?
Confused?
罗马人都这样
The Romans were too.
他们可以通过男性好听的三重名
They could work out ancestry through the male line
来认寻其先辈
with the nice, tripartite names
例如 Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
such as Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus.
但是当他们要记录
But they got in a real mess
像是哪一个Domitia嫁给了谁
over which Domitia was married to whom
还有她是谁的伯母
and was either the great aunt
或是谁的继母还是什么的
or the great stepmother and so on to whom
则是一团糟
when they came to write it down.
Domitia III不只是在柱子上画画
Domitia III is not just drawing on the pillar,
她同时也在注意大家的一举一动
she’s also watching the action.
你看 一早的时候
You see, it’s early,
此时 她父亲的客户和朋友
in the time of day when all her dad’s clients and friends
来到家里拜访他并向他致意
come to see him at home to pay their respects.
17岁的Lucius Popidius Secundus
Lucius Popidius Secundus, a 17 year old,
他想在未来5到7年内
he wants to marry Domitia II
娶Domitia II为妻
within the next five to seven years,
也来到了这里
has come as well.
他似乎不是向未来的妻子求爱
He seems to be wooing not his future wife,
而是寻求她父亲的青睐
but her dad.
可怜的Lucius 他并不知道 Domitia的父亲
Poor Lucius, he does not know that Domitia’s dad
觉得尽管他和他家族很有钱 但始终是Subura城来的下等人 毕竟
thinks he and his family are wealthy but still scumbags from the Subura. Afterall,
那是罗马城内聚集理发师和娼妓的地方 突然
it is the part of Rome full of barbers and prostitutes. Suddenly,
所有人都和父亲一起离开了
all the men are leaving with Dad.
已经两个小时了 他该去参加朝会了
It’s the second hour and time for him to be in court
在那会有忠实的听众
with a sturdy audience
为他的辩论演说鼓掌 还会对他的对手投以嘘声
of clients to applaud his rhetoric and hiss at his opponent.
房子里现在安静多了
The house is now quieter.
男人们7小时之内不会回来
The men won’t return for seven hours,
直到晚餐时间
not until dinner time.
但这7小时内房子里会发生什么事吗?
But what happens in the house for those seven hours?
三位Domitia都会做什么呢?
What do Domitia, Domitia, and Domitia do all day?
这不是个简单的问题!
Not an easy question!
所有我们今天看到罗马人的记录
Everything written down by the Romans
都是男人们写的
that we have today was written by men.
这让我们难以了解当时女性的日常起居 然而
This makes constructing the lives of women difficult. However,
罗马的历史不可能只有男人
we can’t have a history of just Roman men,
所以故事是这样的
so here it goes.
我们从中庭说起
We can begin in the atrium.
那里有一台巨大的织布机 最小的太太正坐在那织一套新的罗马袍
There is a massive loom, on which Dad’s latest wife is working on a new toga.
Domitia Domitia还有Domitia则被叫去
Domitia,Domitia, and Domitia
整理毛线
are tasked with spinning the wool
这些毛线会用来缝那件
that will be used to weave this mighty garment,
30多英尺长 看上去呈椭圆形的大袍子
30 or more feet long and elliptical in shape.
罗马人喜欢妻子们干针线活这个主意
Romans loved the idea that their wives work wool.
我们可以从众多的罗马妇女的
We know that because it’s written on the gravestones
墓碑上知道这一点
of so many Roman women.
和希腊的女性不一样
Unlike women in Greece,
罗马女性会走出家门 到城中走走
Roman women go out the house and move about the city.
她们会在早晨去浴场洗澡
They go to the baths
以避免和男人共浴
in the morning to avoid the men
或者只去单独的妇女的浴场
or to separate baths that are for women only.
公元七十年代确实有些追求过这种新潮:
Some do go in for the latest fad of the AD 70s:
裸体与男性一起洗澡
nude bathing with men present.
有男人的地方就没有他们的地方 比如:
Where they have no place is where the men are:
神庙上 法院上
in the Forum, in the Law Court,
或参众两院上
or in the Senate House.
她们可以去公共区域的门廊
Their place in public is in the porticos
那里有花园 有雕像 还有进入的通道
with gardens, with sculpture, and with pathways for walking in.
当Domitia Domitia还有Domitia想要
When Domitia, Domitia, and Domitia want
出去走走时
to leave the house to go somewhere,
比如去里维亚柱廊
like the Portico of Livia,
她们必须要先梳妆打扮
they must get ready.
Domitia II和Domitia III已经准备好了
Domitia II and Domitia III are ready,
不过Domitia I已经订婚了
but Domitia I, who is betrothed to be married
两年后要嫁给心爱的Philatus
in two years to darling Philatus,
她还没准备好
isn’t ready.
她不是动作慢 只是有比较多的事要做
She’s not slow, she just has more to do.
订婚了意味着她要戴订婚的标志:
Being betrothed means she wears the insignia of betrothal:
求婚戒指 还有所有Pilatus给她的礼物–珠宝
engagement rings and all the gifts Pilatus has given her – jewels,
耳环 项链还有垂饰
earrings, necklaces, and the pendants.
她甚至会带她的金花冠
She may even wear her myrtle crown.
所有这些首饰明示
All this bling shouts,
“我就要嫁给那位
“I’m getting married to that 19 year old
送我这些礼物的19岁青年”
who gave me all this stuff I’m wearing!”
在等待的时候
While as they wait,
Domitia II和Domitia III在玩儿她们的娃娃
Domitia II and Domitia III play with their dolls
模仿她们的姐姐
that mirror the image of their sister
要出嫁的样子
decked out to be married.
在她们的婚礼当天 这些娃娃会被献给
One day, these dolls will be dedicated
家庭守护神 好了 我们准备好了
to the household gods on the day of their wedding. Okay, we’re ready.
女孩们走上由奴隶们抬的轿子
The girls step into litters carried by some burly slaves.
她们也会有侍女随行
They also have a chaperone with them
有位姑妈会在里维亚柱廊内和她们会合
and will be meeting an aunt at the Porticus of Livia.
这些奴隶将轿子高举在肩上
Carried high on the shoulders of these slaves,
女孩们从帷幔中
the girls look out through the curtains
偷看下方拥挤的街道
to see the crowded streets below them.
她们会穿过城市 通过罗马竞技场
They traverse the city, pass the Coliseum,
爬上小山通往
but then turn off to climb up the hill
里维亚柱廊
to the Porticus of Livia.
这是由里维亚所建造的
It was built by Livia,
她是开国君主奥古斯都的妻子
the wife of the first emperor Augustus,
就在骑士Vedius Pollio的房子附近
on the site of the house of Vedius Pollio.
Vedius Pollio不是什么好人
He wasn’t such a great guy.
有一次 他就要
He once tried to feed a
把奴隶丢去鱼塘里喂鳗鱼
slave to the eels in his fish pond
只因为奴隶摔破了一个盘子 幸亏
for simply dropping a dish. Luckily,
国王也在这顿晚宴上
the emperor was at the dinner
止住了他的脾气
and tamed his temper.
轿子放到了地上
The litters are placed on the ground
女孩们出来了
and the girls get out and arm
手拉着手 两个两个地
in arm, two by two,
走上台阶 走进那许多石柱的封闭庭园
they ascend the steps into the enclosed garden with many columns.
Domitia III跑出去 正在往一个柱子上画画
Domitia III shot off and is drawing on a column.
Domitia II也走了过去 但是她在看
Domitia II joins her but seeks to read
刻在柱子上高处的文字
the graffiti higher up on the column.
她看到斗士的图像
She spots a drawing of gladiators
并试着想象他们打斗的样子
and tries to imagine seeing them fighting,
这是永远不会允许她去做的事
something she will never be permitted to do,
除非从体育馆的最后面
except from the very rear of the Coliseum.
从那里她才能看见
From there, she will have a good view
50000名观众
of the 50,000 spectators
但几乎看不到血腥
but will see little by way of blood and gore.
如果她真想看到不错的景像
If she really wanted a decent view,
她可以成为一个维斯塔贞女 这样她就可以坐在最前面
she could become a vestal virgin and would sit right down the front.
但是守护维斯塔女神的圣火
But a career tending the sacred flame of Vesta
并不是每个人都喜爱的工作
is not to everybody’s taste.
Domitia I遇到了另一个10岁的女孩
Domitia I has met another ten year old
她也穿戴着全套的订婚标志
also decked out in the insignia of betrothal.
回家时间到了
Home time.
当他们在8点后到家的时候
When they get there after the eighth hour,
有事情发生了
something is up.
地上有一个摔碎的盘子
A smashed dish lies on the floor.
所有奴隶都被集合在中廊
All the slaves are being gathered together in the atrium
等待主人的到来
and await the arrival of their master.
父亲要发疯的
Dad is going to go mad.
他不会打他的孩子 但像许多罗马人一样
He will not hit his children, but like many other Romans,
他相信奴隶必须受惩罚
he believes that slaves have to be punished.
鞭子已经准备好了
The whip lies ready for his arrival.
谁也不知道是谁打碎了盘子
No one knows who smashed the dish,
但是必要的话
but Dad will call the undertaker to torture it
父亲会叫管事人来折磨他们
out of them, if he must.
看门的人把前门打开了
The doorkeeper opens the front door to the house.
一片寂静笼照着焦虑的奴隶
A hush comes over the anxious slaves.
但走出来的不是主人 是一个怀孕的年轻人
In walks not their master but, instead, a pregnant teenager.
她15岁 是主人最大的女儿
It is the master’s eldest daughter, age 15,
她已经对结婚和生小孩了如指掌
who is already a veteran of marriage and child birth.
猜猜看她的名字
Guess what her name is.
有5%到10%的可能性
There is a five to ten percent chance
她将无法活着生下她的孩子 但
she won’t survive giving birth to her child, but,
现在 她要来和家族吃晚餐
for now, she has come to dinner with her family.
作为一个十几岁的母亲
As a teenage mother,
她已通过为丈夫抚养孩子和后代
she has proved that she is a successful wife
证明自己是一个成功的妻子
by bringing children and descendants for her husband,
这些子嗣未来会继承父亲的名字
who will carry on his name in the future.
全家人来到餐厅
The family head off to the dining room
享用晚餐
and are served dinner.
似乎父亲接到邀请 去别的地方吃饭了
It would seem Dad has had an invite to dinner elsewhere.
晚餐结束后 女孩们穿过中庭
With dinner concluded, the girls crossed the atrium
和她们的姐姐告别
to bid farewell to their older sister
姐姐会被轿子接回家
who is carried home in a litter,
并由父亲的贴身保镖护送
escorted by some of Dad’s bodyguards.
回到家里 女孩们走过中庭
Returning to the house, the girls cross the atrium.
奴隶们不分男女老少
The slaves, young and old, male and female,
还在等他们主人回来
await the return of their owner.
当他回来的时候 他有可能施暴
When he returns, he may exact vengeance,
他对奴隶的权力
ensuring his power over the slaves
是通过暴力和恐怖来维持的
is maintained through violence and terror,
这会让所有奴隶都更服从 但是
to which any slave could be subjected. But,
对女孩们来说 她们要做的就是上楼过夜
for the girls, they head upstairs for the night,
准备睡觉
ready for bed.

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视频概述

从一个女孩眼里看看古罗马人的生活。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

甪里

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQMgLxVxsrw

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