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化石入门101

Fossils 101 | National Geographic

Like buried treasure,
如埋藏的宝藏般
they lie hidden from sight.
化石埋藏地底 不见天日
Echoes of an ancient past,
它们是古老过往的回声
they whisper secrets
它们窃窃私语
and tell tales once lost to time.
诉说曾经被时间遗忘的故事
化石
Fossils are remnants or impressions of ancient organisms
化石是指在石头中自然保存下来的
that are naturally preserved in stone.
古生物的遗体或遗迹
While there are hundreds of fossil types,
化石的类型有上百种
they are often grouped into two major categories,
通常被分成两大类
Body fossils,
实体化石
which are the preserved remains of plants and animals.
是指保存下来的动植物的遗体
and trace fossils,
以及遗迹化石
which are records of an animal’s behaviors such as footprints.
指某动物行为的记录 如脚印化石
Together, they form the fossil record,
它们共同形成了化石记录
a primary account that tells the story
一种透过石头
of life on Earth through stone.
讲述地球上生命故事的原始记录
Fossilization or the process of preserving organisms in stone,
石化或在石头中保存生物体的过程
can occur in countless ways.
可能会以无数种方式发生
These methods are largely grouped depending on whether the organisms are altered
根据生物体在石化过程中是否被改变
during the fossilization process.
大致可以将这些方式分成两类
Fossilization that does not alter a specimen
不改变标本的石化方式
can help to preserve its original form and texture.
有助于保存标本原始的形态和质构
Among many methods, this group includes organisms
在众多石化方式中 这一类包括
that have been frozen, preserved in tar pits, and mummified.
被冰封 保存在焦油中以及木乃伊化的生物体
One special case involves trapping organisms,
生物包体是一个特例
oftentimes insects, in amber.
通常是琥珀中的昆虫包体
This process begins when an organism is covered in tree sap.
当有生物被树液包裹时 该过程就开始了
The sap or resin forms a protective seal
树液或树脂在被困住的生物附近
around the entrapped organism.
形成保护性密封
Over time, the soft resin hardens
随着时间的推移 树脂变硬
and turns into amber with the organism suspended within.
然后变成里面浮着生物的琥珀
This process creates a biologically inert tomb for the organism
该过程形成了内部生物的惰性坟墓
allowing its soft tissues to be remarkably preserved.
使该生物的柔软组织可以被完整保留下来
Other fossilization methods change the specimen
其它的石化方式在保存标本过程中
as it is being preserved.
会使其发生改变
For instance, carbonization transforms soft tissues
例如 碳化使柔软组织转变成
into thin black films of carbon.
薄薄的黑色碳层
In fact, countless layers of carbonized plant material
事实上 无数层碳化的植物
create a well known fossil fuel, coal.
形成了一种众所周知的化石燃料 煤炭
But one of the most common types of fossilization
而一种最普遍的使标本发生改变的石化
that changes a specimen is called permineralization.
被称为过矿化作用
Permineralization begins when minerals from water or the ground
当水中或地下的矿物质进入到
enter the pores of dead plant or animal material.
死亡动植物体内孔洞时 过矿化就开始了
Over time, the minerals attach themselves,
随着时间进行 矿物质彼此吸附
clinging onto cellular walls
附着在细胞壁上
and building a crystalline network in the empty cavities.
并在空腔中形成晶体网络
This mineralization hardens the bone
矿化过程使骨头变得坚硬
and turns it into stone,
并将其转变成石头
thereby preserving its original structure in fossil form.
由此得以化石的形式保存其原始结构
When conditions are right,
当条件合适时
fossilization can preserve crucial information about an organism.
石化可以保存有机体的关键信息
Permineralized wood often contains enough information
过矿化木头通常包含足够多的信息
to identify its tree genus
可以确认其树龄
and sometimes its species.
有时还可以鉴别其种类
Insects encased in amber have been so well preserved
琥珀中的昆虫保存得相当完美
that their genetic material was extracted
以至于它们的基因物质都可以被提取到
and partially sequenced.
并且可以被部分测序
And footprints left behind by ancient hominids
还有远古人类留下的脚印
help paint a picture of what life was like
帮助人们描绘出了
for early human ancestors millions of years ago.
百万年前早期人类祖先的样貌
With every fossil uncovered,
通过每一块被发掘的化石
the planet’s ancient past becomes clearer,
这颗星球古老的过往变得更加清晰
helping shape our understanding of our world today.
从而帮助我们塑造了对当今世界的理解

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视频概述

化石,地球变迁的见证者,默默无闻的记录者。今天,我们通过化石了解地球的古老过往。那么,化石是如何形成的又是如何告诉我们这一切的呢?本视频或将给出答案

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bRuSmxJo_iA

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