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前中央情报局首席伪装官:这才叫伪装! – 译学馆
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前中央情报局首席伪装官:这才叫伪装!

Former CIA Chief Explains How Spies Use Disguises | WIRED

说到伪装 我们总是把它当作一颗洋葱
We always talk about disguise as though it’s an onion,
不管是戴上还是卸下伪装
whether you’re building it or whether you’re peeling it off,
每一层的伪装都是近乎透明的
its almost transparent layers.
戴上了够多层的伪装后
And when you get enough of them going,
你就会消失 而房间里会出现另一个人
you disappear, and this other person is in the room.
我叫乔娜·蒙德斯 是中央情报局的前首席伪装官
My name is Jonna Mendez and I was chief of disguise in the CIA.
作为首席伪装官
In my role as a chief of disguise,
我的主要职责是无时无刻保护人们
my major concern was always protecting people.
保护那些即将进入危险处境的特务
Protecting our case officers who were going into situations that might be dangerous.
更重要的是 要保护与他们接触的外国线人
But importantly protecting the foreign people that they were meeting with,
他们经常是冒着生命危险的
who were very often risking their lives.
如果你在欧洲执行任务
If you were working in Europe,
在咖啡厅与线人会面
and you were meeting with a clandestine source at a cafe,
你最担心的可能会是你的隔壁邻居
your biggest concern might be that your next door neighbor,
他可能会在那一刻走进咖啡厅
who’s gonna wander into that cafe at that moment,
然后喊出你的真名
and say “hi Bill’ when you were Bill.
人与人的巧遇是个问题
And that kind of casual stumbling upon people was an issue.
所以你要戴上所谓的淡伪装
And so you’d wear what we call the light disguise.
淡伪装很简单 比如假发
Light disguise can be something as simple as a wig,
胡子 眼镜 也没什么的
maybe some facial hair, maybe some glasses, not a big deal.
另一个极端就是高深伪装
The other extreme is advanced disguise,
这适用于长时间的近距离接触
that you would use for up-close and personal, for an extended period of time,
与你交谈的人完全不会知道
for the person you were talking to would have no idea
这不是你真实的脸孔
that you were not in true face.
我担任首席伪装官时负责的另一个项目
One other thing that was going on when I was the chief of disguise
是新型高深伪装系统的一项大型研究计划
was an enormous research program into a new advanced disguise system.
基本上 我们用的是面具
It was basically the masks
人们总是在猜想我们用的是不是面具
that everybody always wondered if we used masks,
这就是计划的开始
and this was the beginning.
在这一系列照片中
This is a series of photographs of,
我在椭圆形办公室与老布什总统开会
when I met George H.W. Bush in the Oval Office,
我告诉他 我是戴着面具向他汇报的
and revealed to him that I was briefing him wearing the mask.
当你帮一个人做伪装时
When you go to disguise a person,
一般概念是这样的
the general idea
你要戴着这副伪装去见一个人
is you’re gonna meet with someone in this disguise.
与你会面后 对方会写一份关于你的备忘录
And they’re gonna write a memo of the person that they just met with.
我们希望备忘录对你的每一项描述都是错的
We want every item in that memo that describes you to be wrong.
当我们看到一个人 想要改变他的样貌
If we’re looking at a man and we want to change the way he looks,
我们就从头顶做起 首先就是头发
start at the top, and the first thing that comes up is hair.
他是什么发型 你要怎样处理
What’s he got and what you want to do with it.
如果他是卷发 你就要把它弄直
If he has curly hair you’ll want to go straight,
如果他是乌发 你就要让它变淡
if he has dark hair you might want to go light,
如果他年轻 你就要加些灰发
If he is young you might to want throw in some grey,
如果他年长 你就要把灰发遮住
if he is old you might want cover up the grey.
你有没有胡子
Do you present with facial hair,
没有的话 就要给你加点胡子
if you don’t, maybe we’re going to give you some,
如果你要出差一段时间 你就要去长胡子
if you’re gonna be somewhere for a while, maybe we’re gonna have you grow some.
我们也会制作假体
We have made prostheses,
你还可以换颊骨
on occasion you could actually change cheek bones,
你可以在这里加些东西 加点额头 弄个鼻子
you can add something here, you can add a forehead, you can do a nose.
我们可以制作假牙
We can do what we call dental facades
我们可以用适合的假牙来改变你的脸形
We can change actually the shape of your face with the right dental facade.
这个东西叫“饱满器”
This piece is called the ‘plumper’,
因为它会让牙龈变得更饱满
because it increases the plumpness of your gum.
这样 脸孔的轮廓就会变
Then when it does that, it changes the profile of your face.
最后就是假颚
The last thing is artificial palates,
我们会复制你口腔的顶部
we take an impression of the top of your mouth.
它会改变你的发音
They can change your enunciation,
只要戴上它 每个人的发音都会变得稍微模糊
they can cause a slight lisp, it’s a little bit different for everybody who wears one.
但只要足以改变发音 它就很有用
But if it’s enough, it’s very useful.
我们经常发现
We very often discover that
人们通常觉得相比年轻人而言 老年人的威胁性更小
older-looking men are considered less threatening than younger-looking men,
所以我们喜欢老年人形象
so we like the aged person.
帮女性做伪装时 你能做到的事就更多了
With women you have a broader range of what you can do,
你有多一个选择
you also have one extra step,
就是你可以把女性伪装成男性
and you can turn a woman into a man.
顺便一提 把男性伪装成女性是几乎不可能的
I would mention that it’s almost impossible to turn a man into a woman.
因为伪装只能加 不能减
What we do is always additive.
我们能让你长高 增重 变老
We can make you taller, we can make you heavier, we can make you older,
但是反过来就不行了
we can’t go the other direction.
你要能够走进电梯
You wanna be the person that gets on the elevator,
做到离开电梯后没人记得你曾来过
and then gets off, and nobody really remembers that you were even there.
在中央情报局的伪装实验室 这是设计目标
That is a design goal, at the disguise lab in CIA.
伪装不只是局限在脸部
Disguise isn’t just all about the facial level,
它也涉及到了穿着
it’s about how you dress,
还有你在公开场合的表现
how you present yourself in the public environment.
美国人完全不懂得
Americans are oblivious to what it is
陌生人群和外国情报员
that reveals them to a foreign crowd or a foreign intelligence service
怎样在公开场合看穿自己
when they are out in public.
在行为方面
In terms of behaviors,
我们的很多小动作会使我们露马脚
there are a lot of small actions that give us away.
我们的吃相
The way we eat:
欧洲人用左手拿叉子
Europeans use the fork in the left hand
叉子不会在左右手之间来回移动
and it doesn’t travel back and forth to the right hand.
美国人则会反复放下餐刀 把餐具来回移动
Whereas we’re constantly putting down our knife, moving utensils back and forth.
我们抽烟的样子
The way we smoke:
美国人用食指和中指夹住香烟
We put it between our first two fingers,
欧洲人则用拇指和食指拿住香烟
they tend to hold the cigarette between the thumb and the first finger.
美国人站立的时候
When an American stands,
会用一只脚支撑身体
they tend to support themselves on one foot or the other.
欧洲人则会站直起来
In Europe they stand straight up,
不倚靠任何物体 用双脚支撑身体
they don’t lean on anything, their weight’s equally on their feet.
要想改变走姿 就要调整一下你的动作
Changing the way that you walk requires some amendment to what you’re doing.
你要用到实体设备 才能改变走姿
You’re gonna need a physical apparatus to make you walk differently.
你不可能说变就变成跛脚
You can‘t possibly say “OK, now I’m going to limp.”
若要改变走姿 我会在鞋子里放颗小石子
To change my walk, I put a little piece of gravel in my shoe.
让这小小的东西扭住我的脚趾
Just a little thing that pinches my toe,
不管我想不想要 它都会改变走姿
and it changes my walk whether I want to or not.
你可以用绷带把膝盖包住
You can put a bandage around the knee,
用物体限制动作 就能改变走姿
something that restricts you will change your walk.
你在日常生活中可能用得到伪装
Disguise could be applicable to you and your everyday life
出国旅游时 伪装能保障自身安全
in terms of travelling around the world and, and staying safe.
以巴黎为例
I would use Paris as an example.
每当你走近圣母院
Anytime you approach Notre Dame Cathedral,
或者塞纳河上的桥
or those bridges across the Seine,
那些地方有成群结队的人
those are places where there are groups of people
他们不是想要扒你口袋
that either wanna pick your pocket
就是想要滋事捣乱
or they’re gonna make some kind of trouble,
他们会聚集在这些阻塞点
and they cluster at these choke points.
假如你的运动鞋
And if they can tell from your sneakers,
你的棒球帽
and if they can tell from your baseball hat,
或者你的行为 让他们察觉到你是美国人
or a lot of other behaviors that we exhibit that you’re an American,
你就会成为目标
you become a target.
你要以安全为重
You just wanna play it safe.
你可以在当地的商店买些当地的衣服
There is nothing wrong with stopping at a local store and buying some local clothes.
抽烟的话 就买些当地的香烟
If you smoke, get some local cigarettes.
你可以戴副眼镜
You can always add a pair of glasses,
你可以戴顶高帽
you can always add some kind of hat.
总之 你要脱离美国人的那种形象
Just back yourself off from that American imprint
因为我们在很多方面会暴露出来
that we all carry with us in so many ways.
你知道 我们这些动作都是潜意识的
You know all these things we do are unconscious,
而且很难改变
and they are hard to change.
你要找一些考虑周到的朋友
If you have some friends who are thoughtful,
与他促膝而谈 问问他
you can probably sit down with the friend and say:
“我在什么地方会露马脚呢”
“What is it about me that is just a dead giveaway?”
他们会告诉你 “哦 是你的笑声”
And they’re gonna tell you things like, “Oh, it’s your laugh,”
或“是你的坐姿 因为你老爱瘫坐在椅子上”
or “It’s the way you sit, ‘cos you always slouch down in the chair.”
他们可以看出你的性格在什么地方表露出来
They can help you find those pieces of your visual personality,
意识到它的存在后 你可以轻易把它摆脱掉
that will be easy to get rid of once you know they’re there.
人们对你已经有了先入为主的想法
People have expectations of what you’re going to present to them when you’re being you.
所以我们会尝试把它们消除掉
We try and brush those away.
快速变装 是你偷偷改变样貌的能力
Quick change is the ability to clandestinely change your appearance.
一般来说 当你在街上的时候
Typically when you’re out on the street,
你是在把人群当作掩护
you’re using the crowd as a mask.
变装时 我们会用步数来计时
When we’re doing this we measure it in the number of steps,
而且变装者也要排练
and then we rehearse whoever is gonna do it.
你要找个间隙变装
You gotta go in a gap,
并在37秒的时间内完成变装走出来
you have 37 seconds to come out with those changes.
快速变装的目的就是消失
The goal of the quick change is to disappear.
如果你被跟踪 对方却发现你失踪了
If you had surveillance and they discovered that you were gone,
你的目标 不是让他们以为你逃脱了
you didn’t want them to think that you had escaped.
而是让他们以为自己把你跟丢了
You wanted them to think that they had lost you,
这样就变成了他们的错
which is their fault.
归根结底 变装手法要看情境和所在地
But in the end it’s situational, depends on where you are,
你必须了解当地人之间的共同点
you need to understand what the commonality is there,
你要融入的是什么样的人群
what this tribe is that you want to join.
一旦融入这个人群 你一般就可以自由活动
And once you join that tribe you can typically move around freely
因为没有人会怀疑你
because there is no suspicion.
你不可能在活动中途开始做伪装
You can’t summon up a disguise in the middle of an event.
但是前往活动现场之前 你可以告诉自己
But going to the event, you can say to yourself,
“我看我还是把棒球帽和运动鞋
“I think I’ll leave my baseball cap and my sneakers
全都留在房间里好了”
and I’m gonna leave all that in my room.”
你会发现 以美国人的形象出现在街上
And you can realize that being out on the street as an American
有时候是很危险的一件事
is sometimes dangerous.
在美国大使馆工作的特务
One of our officers, probably working out of the American embassy,
每天24小时都会受到监控
would have surveillance 24 hours a day.
他们会被好几组人员跟踪
They had teams of people following them,
但是他们有公事要办 要偷偷地与人沟通
but they had work to do, they had to communicate with people, clandestinely.
我们帮他们做伪装时用到的极端手法
And the extremes that we would go to, to disguise those people,
是这份工作中最有趣 最困难的一部分
was the most interesting and most challenging part of the job.

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视频概述

前中央情报局首席伪装官:这才叫伪装!

听录译者

拟态

翻译译者

搬那度

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JASUsVY5YJ8

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