ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

橄榄球头盔的科学 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

橄榄球头盔的科学

Football Helmets: The Last Line of Defense?

Ray: Football. There’s nothing like it.
Ray:橄榄球 独一无二
Hail-mary passes. Bone-rattling hits.
孤注一掷的长传 激烈的身体对抗
And likely some bonehead calls by the refs.
还有一些笨蛋裁判的哨子声
We cheer for the hits, but we’re learning more about the impacts
我们为对抗而欢呼 但是我们也要了解
those brutal tackles have on the brain.
这些粗鲁的阻截对大脑产生的影响
Players always wear their helmets.
球员们全程都带着头盔
But are these helmets enough?
但是有头盔就够了吗
[Reaction Splash INTRO]
《化学反应》
In the early 1900s, football players were dying from head injuries
20世纪初 许多橄榄球运动员因头部受伤而死亡
including skull fractures and bleeding inside the brain.
包括头骨破碎和内颅出血
That led to the first helmets, made from leather and sometimes cloth padding,
第一代头盔应运而生 它由皮革或衬布制成
which made football a lot safer.
让橄榄球运动安全性大大提高
But by the 60s, deaths from head injuries started to raise again,
但到60年代 头部创伤造成的死亡人数再次上升
lengding to mandatory use of hard shell football helmets
迫使人们强制使用硬质橄榄球头盔
and standards to certify that the helmets actually prevened injury.
相关标准证明 这类头盔确实可以减少受伤
Football helmets have stayed pretty much the same since then.
从那以后 橄榄球头盔基本没有太大变化
They have a hard outer shell, a thick lining of foam padding,
这类头盔有着坚硬的外壳 厚厚的泡沫内垫
and a grill of bars to protect the face.
和用来保护面部的金属网架
So, the idea behind helmets is to decrease the force the skull and the brain feel on impact.
目的是减少撞击给头骨 大脑带来的力量
How much of an impact? Let’s ask this scientician.
撞击到底有多强呢 让我们来问问科学家
Ray: Well, see you’re on a roller coaster,
Ray:想象你在坐过山车
you might feel yourself being pushed down into your seat
你会感受到一股约有5倍重力
at about 5 times the force of gravity, or 5 Gs.
的力量将你压在座椅上
A fighter pilot feels twice that in a tight turn.
飞行员在紧急转弯时能感到10倍重力
What about two football players crashing together at full speed?
如果两个橄榄球运动员全速撞击呢
It could be thirty times that — 150 Gs. And that’s just the big hits.
可能是30倍 150倍重力 这正是一次剧烈的碰撞
Even routine collisions are about 30 or 40 Gs.
即使是普通碰撞也会产生30到40倍重力
All those hits are bad news for your brain.
所有这些撞击都会伤害你的大脑
Our skull is a good solid protective shell,
即使头骨是一个坚固的保护壳
but the brain is vulnerable because isn’t locked in place—
大脑还是很容易受到伤害 因为它并不是固定的
it sort of floats around inside your skull.
可以说是悬浮在头骨内
When you get hit in the head,
当头部受到撞击
your brain sloshes around, hitting the inside of skull,
大脑会左右晃动 撞击头骨的内侧
which can cause a concussion.
这有可能造成脑震荡
The immediate results can include dizziness, confusion and feeling sick.
早期症状是头晕 意识模糊 恶心呕吐
Longer term consequences of concussion are only beginning to be understood,
然而人们才刚刚认识到脑震荡的长期后果
but many former football players report scary effects
许多退役橄榄球运动员都有严重的症状
like personality changes and impaired brain function.
比如性格变化 脑功能受损
So how does a helmet help?
那么 头盔是如何发挥作用呢?
Ray: A good helmet can limit the force the brain feels.
Ray:一个好的头盔能降低脑部承受的力量
The hard shell stops anything from actually hitting the skull, which prevents fractures.
坚硬的外壳能阻止任何对头骨的真实撞击 进而避免骨裂
Early plastics used for the shell were brittle and would crack.
早期的塑料头盔外壳 易碎开裂
But newer polymers like the polycarbonate blends found in bulletproof glass
但是 像防弹玻璃中的聚碳酸酯等新型复合物
can absorb a lot of force, and don’t crack under the pressure.
可以吸收大量的冲击力 而且也不会受到压力而碎裂
But the real value of a modern football helmet is in smoothing out the impact.
现代橄榄球头盔的真正价值是消除撞击力
With a helmet on, the duration of the collision is spread out,
带上头盔 撞击力的持续时间会减少
meaning less damaging force at a given instant.
也就是撞击瞬间的破坏力减少
You can thank the foam inside the helmet for this dispersion of force.
可以理解为 头盔里的泡沫分散了撞击力
Ray: These foams are made out of chemicals like vinyl nitrile or ethylene vinyl acetate.
Ray:这些泡沫由乙烯硝基或醋酸乙烯类等化学品制成
You might recognize these chemicals from those awesome foam fingers.
从那些炫酷的泡沫手指中找到出这些化学物
So if padding helps cushion the blow, why not just add more padding?
既然泡沫垫能缓冲打击 为什么不多放一些呢?
Well, too much soft padding can mean the impact
填充过多的海绵意味着撞击力
moves through the cushy padding until it finds a weak point.
会穿过内垫 直到找到一个弱点
That weak point? Your neck.
弱点就是 脖子
Ray: There was also the scientifically dubious idea of putting a liner of kevlar inside the helmet.
Ray:有个科学假设是 用凯夫拉的芳纶纤维做头盔内垫
That makes the helmet’s shell stronger,
头盔外壳会更坚固
but does nothing to cushion the brain.
而且对大脑不会带来任何影响
One researcher likens it to an egg: a stronger shell
一名研究员把这比喻成鸡蛋 坚硬的蛋壳
won’t stop the yolk inside from getting scrambled.
并不能防止蛋黄在内部晃动
The real answer, unfortunately, seems to be that football is a dangerous sport.
很遗憾 现实是橄榄球是一项危险的运动
Bones break, tendons tear, knees go kaput.
骨折 肌腱断裂 膝盖损伤
Head injuries may be inevitable.
头部损伤都是不可避免的
Some players accept the risk, while others leave the field
有些球员接受风险 然而另一些球员选择离开球场
Without changing the way the game is played,
游戏规则不会改变
the best we can do right now is rely on new materials
我们现在能做的是依赖新型材料
and a growing understanding of brain injuries
逐步了解大脑损伤
to protect and inform our players as best we can.
尽可能地为球员提供保护和防护知识
Hopefully your top fantasy player won’t get hurt this season.
希望你最爱的运动员在本赛季不会受伤
Let us know who you’re rooting for down below in the comment section,college or pro,
在下方评论区 写下你支持的球队或队员
we wanna know.
我们真心想知道
If you haven’t guessed from my Philly accent,
如果你还没从我的费城口音中
which I don’t think exists, I’m an Eagles fan.
听出我是老鹰队的粉丝 那是不存在的
So,bring it, Cowboys. We’re ready for you.
来吧 伙计们 我们在这等你
Be sure to like, share and subscribe.
希望你能喜欢 分享和订阅该频道
And hey thanks for watching!
感谢观看

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

头部撞击会对运动员造成很大影响,所以本文通过对头盔的讲解,让我们了解头盔的重要性。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

浮生若梦

审核员

审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=meWQ2K2p0c8

相关推荐