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食物浪费是全世界最傻的问题

Food waste is the world's dumbest problem

麻省理工学院以开发了多项惊人的技术而出名
MIT is known for developing a lot of impressive technology.
MIT is known for developing a lot of impressive technology.
But hidden in the kitchen of MIT’s Media Lab is, perhaps,
但我最喜欢的麻省理工的发明
But hidden in the kitchen of MIT’s media lab
大概就是藏在麻省理工厨房里的——
is perhaps my favorite MIT invention.
my favorite MIT invention: the FoodCam.
食物摄像头(FoodCam)
the FoodCam
Okay, so it may not look like much but it’s actually quite brilliant.
好 你别看他长得很小
OK. So it might not look like much
其实它非常绝妙
but it’s actually quite brilliant.
Let’s say you have some leftover food.
假设你有些吃剩的食物
Let’s say you have some left over food.
You put it under the camera and you hit the button.
把食物摆在摄像头下面 按下按钮
You put it under the camera and you hit the button.
食物摄像头就会把照片上传到推特、Slack软件和邮箱上
FoodCam post a photo to twitter, slack and a mail xxx,
FoodCam posts a photo to Twitter, Slack, and a mailing list.
并都会附带简单的一句话:
all with a simple message
All with a simple message: Come and get it!
“快来吃了它!”
“Come and get it!”
It looks like a pretty good box of donuts.
—好像是一大盒甜甜圈—是的
–It looks like a pretty good box of doughnuts.–Yeah.
Yes.
—食物摄像头 把它拍得看起来很好吃—的确是
–It looked yumyum, FoodCam –It does.
It looks yummy under FoodCam.
实际上 这些食物还挺抢手的
And the food can actually be pretty good competitive.
It does.
Getting the food can actually be pretty competitive.
By the time we got here, just 30 seconds after it was placed,
我们来到这
By the time we got here
把食物放下30秒之后
just 30 seconds after it’s placed
就有一群人涌进整栋大楼 食物瞬间一块都不剩
the whole building has swormed in all the pieces of it.
the whole building had swarmed and all the pizza was gone.
有一群人疯狂地从各个入口冲这里来
There’s a mad raich of people that come from, like, every entry in here
There’s a mad rush of people that come from, like,
every entryway in here to get the pizza.
就为了拿一块…
xxxxxx
—所以你们必须走开 迅速的跑开—对 就像游戏
–So you’ve got to kind of move, pretty quickly.–Yeah. It’s a game.
So you got to kind of move pretty quickly.
Yeah, it’s a game —\u00a0it’s like the Hunger Games.
像饥饿游戏
It’s like the hunger games.
你们去哪…
Where…
威廉·约翰先生早在1999年就发明了食物摄像头
William John invented the FoodCam all the way back in 1999.
Will and Jon invented the FoodCam all the way back in 1999.
This was before Facebook.
正如我们所知 这比脸书、gmail和其他社交媒体更早出现
This is before Facebook, before gmail, before social medias we know it.
Before Gmail.
Before social media as we know it.
这个想法最初是为了解决整栋楼剩余食物的问题
The idea came from a building wife’s leftovers problems.
The idea came from a building-wide leftovers problem.
这个简单的发明也可能以某种方式解决浪费粮食的问题
And in some ways, this simple invention gets in the big problem of food waste.
And in some ways, this simple invention gets at the big problem of food waste.
I mean that’s sort of the serious part of what you have done, really, right?
所以这是你的发明想要解决的严肃的问题 是吧
I mean, that’s sort of a serious part of what you have done really, right?
毫无疑问 摄像头成功地减少了实验室食物浪费的现象
There’s no doubt that this completly helped reduce food waste at the lab.
There is no doubt that this completely helped reduce food waste at the lab.
几乎所有就餐的人都知道
Almost all the catering people know
Almost all of the catering people know that if they have spare food from their event,
如果他们的项目那有剩余的食物
that if they have spare food form there event,
他们只需按下按钮 就会有人来吃掉那些食物
they can just hit the butten and people will consume that food.
they can just hit the button and people will consume that food.
And those are not even Media Lab events that are now fueling the FoodCam.
现在项目以外的剩余食物也会放在摄像头下
And those are not even media lab events that are now filling the FoodCam.
当我们说到破坏地球的东西时
When we picture the stuff that’s hurting our planet,
When we picture the stuff that’s hurting our planet, what do we think of?
脑中会浮现什么画面 我们常常想到的是
what do we think of? We think of like smoke stacks,
We think of, like, smokestacks, cars, oil spills.
成堆废气、汽车和油泄漏
cars, boil spills,
We don’t really think about all the food we throw away.
我们不会想到所有那些被扔掉的食物
we don’t really think about all the food we throw away.
在美国 生产的食物大约有40%没有被食用
In the US, roughly 40% of the food we produce never gets eaten.
In the US, roughly 40% of the food we produce never gets eaten.
相当于每天浪费了3.65亿磅食物
That’s over 365 million pounds of food each day.
That’s over 365 million pounds of food each day.
而与此同时
While that’s happening, about 1 in 8 Ameicans still don’t have a steady supply of food to their tables.
While that’s happening, about one in eight Americans
每8个美国人里就有一个人不是每顿都有饭吃
still don’t have a steady supply of food to their tables.
另外 所有这些浪费的食物也是气候变化的重要原因
And all these waste of food is a huge contributing to climate change.
And all of this wasted food is a huge contributor to climate change.
如果把全球浪费食物总量看做一个国家
If global food waste were a country,
If global food waste were a country,
it would be the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases,
它相当于世界上第三大温室气体排放国
it would be the third largest admitter of greenhouse gases,
仅次于中国和美国
just behind China and the United States.
just behind China and the United States.
所以这真是非常严重的问题
So it really is an enormous problem
So it really is an enormous problem and one of the easiest ways
但也是气候变化问题中最容易解决的方面
and one of the easiest ways to address climate change.
to address climate change.
生产食物需要大量的资源
It takes a ton of resources to produce food.
It takes a ton of resources to produce food.
除此之外 还要花大量资源保鲜食物
On top of that, you have all the energy it takes to keep it cold,
On top of that,
you have all of the energy it takes to keep it cold and transport it around the country.
并运输到全国各地
and to.transport it around the country.
食物腐坏之后不仅会发臭
And when food decomposes, it isn’t just stinky.
And when food decomposes, it isn’t just stinky.
It releases potent greenhouse gases.
还会释放大量的温室气体
It releases poten greenhouse gases.
Basically,
可以这么说 我们破坏地球生产了没人吃的食物
Basically, we are trashing our country to grow food that no one eats.
we’re trashing our planet to grow food that no one eats.But here’s the thing: No one
问题是 没人真的喜欢浪费食物
But here’s a thing: no one actually likes wasting food.
actually likes wasting food.
It’s just something that we haven’t been paying much attention to.
只是我们对这个问题的关注度不够高
It’s just something that we haven’t been paying much attention to.
在所有的难题之中
Of all of the challenging problems out there,
Of all of the challenging problems out there, reducing the amount of food
减少食物浪费是最容易解决的
reducing the amount of food we are wasting is one of the easiest.
we’re wasting is one of the easiest.
In the US, consumers collectively make up the largest portion of food waste.
在美国 所有消费者加起来是浪费食物最多的一个群体
In the US, consumers collectivly make up the largest portion of food waste.
A family of four spends about $1,500 on food that they never eat.
一个四口之家花了将近15000美元在并没有吃的食物上
A family of four spends about 15,000 dollars on food that they never eat.
我们买肉类食物的比例较低
Meat is the lesses percentage of what we buy,
Meat is less as a percentage of what we buy but when you consider it in particular,
但因为肉类是温室气体密集型产品
but when you consider it imparticulars a greenhouse gas intensive product,
as a greenhouse gas intensive product, meat waste actually
肉类食物浪费产生的温室气体实际上冲击最大
meat waste actually has the highest greenhouse gas impact.
has the highest greenhouse gas impact.
而且 不是专家我们也都知道
And you.don’t have to be an expert to understand why food is going to.waste in our homes.
And you don’t have to be an expert to understand why food is going to waste in our homes.
为什么家里总会浪费食物
我们总是忙个不停
We’re all busy and on the go.
We’re all busy and on the go.
有时候我买食物也不会想:“我是不是真的需要?”
Sometimes I buy food without thinking, “Do I really need that?”
Sometimes I buy food without thinking,
“Do I really need that?”
还有实验表明当食物
There’s even been a little bit of research to show that once something goes in the refrigerator
There’s even been a little bit of research to show that once something goes
被买了放在冰箱之后
in the refrigerator it’s actually worth less to us than before.
我们变得没有买之前那么需要它了
it’s actually worth less to us than before.
研究者的一个问题是 假设你刚从百货店回来
Researchers ask people how they would feel if they got home from the grocery store and drop a cart of eggs.
\u00a0
Researchers asked people how they would feel if they got home
假设你刚从百货店回来
from the grocery store and dropped a carton of eggs.
就把一盒鸡蛋打碎了 是什么感受
然后再问 如果鸡蛋是被放在冰箱六个月没有食用
And then they asked, well if your eggs are in your refrigerator for six weeks and then you did’t use them,
And then they asked, well if your eggs sat in your refrigerator for six weeks and then
you didn’t use them, how would you feel about that?
又会有什么感受
how would you feel about that?
他们对于前者比后者要懊悔得多
And people felt a lot less for remorse.
And people felt a lot less remorse.
I think a lot of the waste in our society does
我觉得社会中的许多浪费现象都源于
I think a lot of the waste in our society does come down to
come down to choice and wanting to have the option to eat something at any time,
选择
choice,
以及任何时候都有各种食物选择的欲望 不管是否真的想吃
and wanting to have the option to eat something at anytime, whether or not we use it.
whether or not we use it.
我们常常买过多食物 部分原因是
Part of the reason why we over buy food
Part of the reason we over-buy food is that we’ve got tons of space to store it in.
我们有很大的空间等着存放
is that we’ve got tons of space to store it.
冰箱容积与70年代相比增加了15%
Refrigerators have grown about fifteen percent since the 1970s.
Refrigerators have grown about 15% since the 1970s.
One of the things we found in our research is that people are uncomfortable with
研究的其中一个发现表明
One of the things we found in our research is that
存放食物的空间空出太多 人们会产生不适感
people are uncomfortable with wide space when it comes to food.
white space when it comes to food.
So we love it in buildings, or in design,
我们喜欢留空的建筑和设计产品 但对存放食物的空间
So we love it in buildings are in design, but when it comes to food
but when it comes to food, we do not want to see empty space in our refrigerators,
我们不想看到冰箱、碟子上留出空白空间
we do not want to see empty space in our refrigerators, on our plates…
on our plates, and so I really believe that in some
所以 我认为我们会下意识地把各种东西填进去
And…So I really believe that in some sublimital way or just filling everything
subliminal way we’re just filling everything.
所以如果我们的冰箱比较小 食物都装得满满的
and if we had smaller refrigerators that let us see every thing that was in there,
And if we had smaller refrigerators, that let us see everything that was in there,
这本身就可以减少不少浪费的家庭食物
that in itself would lead to quite a bit less waste in our homes.
And it isn’t just our refrigerators that have gotten bigger.
变大的不仅是我们的冰箱
The average dinner plate has grown by 36% since 1960.
于60年代相比 餐盘平均增大了36%
当你的盘子很大时
When you have a big plate, you tend to put a lot of food on it —\u00a0
你会倾向放更多的食物上去
无论你是否都吃得完
whether or not you can eat it all.
This is something Jill Horst noticed at UC Santa Barbara.
这是吉尔·奥尔斯特女士在圣芭芭拉加州大学的一个发现
当你有14*18英寸大小的托盘时
You have a tray that’s 14-by-18 inches and you feel you need to load it up with food.
你总觉得上面需要放满食物
You would see students that had four glasses: water, juice, soda, milk —
有些学生托盘上放了四杯饮料
矿泉水、果汁、汽水、牛奶
and you’d go to the tray return and they would still be full.
在回收托盘处你会发现四杯还是满满的
从2009年开始 饭堂不再使用托盘
In 2009, the dining halls stopped using trays.
食物学生依然可以想拿多少拿多少
Students can take as much food as they want, but there isn’t a tray to pile it onto.
只是没有一个托盘把它们都装一起
结果每人每托盘浪费食物的量减少了50%
The food waste per person, per tray, reduced by 50 percent.
I mean so that was huge.
这个数字是非常大的
Let’s say that the average student wastes six ounces of food per meal.
假设每个学生每顿饭浪费食物的量是6盎司
看起来似乎不多
That may not seem like a lot —\u00a0but UC Santa Barbara serves 13,000 meals per day.
但圣芭芭拉加州大学每天要供应13000份餐食
So that’s nearly 5,000 pounds of wasted food.
那么浪费食物总量就是5000磅
相当于每天把350只感恩节火鸡
It’s like throwing 350 Thanksgiving turkeys into the garbage every single day.
扔到垃圾桶
And when you take the trays away and it becomes three ounces, that’s a significant impact
不提供餐盘之后 每人浪费的量减少到3盎司
这带来的影响是很大的
不仅减少的食物浪费
to help with not only the food waste, but food cost.
而且降低了消费食物的成本
So, it turns out that something very small — like removing a tray or changing the
所以其实一些很小的举措
就像取消使用餐盘
或是改变餐碟大小
size of a plate — can have this profound impact on our behavior.
可以给我们的行为带来如此深远的影响
而且不怎么费劲 因为效果
And it doesn’t take much effort, because the effect is subliminal.
是潜意识行为产生的
圣芭芭拉加州大学注意到的另一个问题是
The other thing they’re paying attention to at UC Santa Barbara is portion size.
是食物分量大小
每碟都按分量装好
Each plate is portioned one portion for a student.
是一名学生的分量
虽然学生想拿多少碟都可以
They can take as many portions as they like,
but we are actually plating the right size, the right amount that we should be eating.
但实际上我们已经
按一餐所需分配好了最适宜的分量
We’ve gotten used to these gigantic portion sizes at restaurants.
我们习惯了餐馆里大分量的食物套餐
And in a subtle way, it encourages us to overeat and throw away a lot of food.
它让我们不知不觉吃得过多
并扔掉大量食物
周围看看
If you look around, there’s not a whole lot of food waste on the plates
餐碟上浪费的食物没有那么多了
多亏合理食物分量的分配
because of the proper portioning.
I mean that’s somebody’s meal.
看 这是某位学生的午饭
That’s all they have left.
他的剩菜就这么多
None of us are perfect.
我们都不是完美的
减少食物浪费不会一蹴而就
Wasting less food isn’t just going to happen overnight.
但是如果我们能时时留意就能浪费得更少了
But just having it on our radar can really help us waste a lot less.
如果我们真的有多余的食物
\u00a0
And if we do have extra food, then let’s at least try to get it to people who could
至少也让它们流向有需要的人
的手中
use it.
真的有太多高质量的剩余食物被浪费了
There is so much high-quality surplus that’s wasted,
我们需要找到最需要这些食物的人
that just needs to find the people that need it the most.
科迈尔是Copia公司的创始人
Komal is the founder of Copia, a startup that’s trying to recover all of this perfectly good
它是一个创业公司 旨在重新分配高质量食物
food.
想象一下 把世界上最大的露天体育场堆得满满的
If you imagine the world’s largest football stadium filled to its absolute brim
that’s how much food goes wasted every single day in America —
这就是每天美国浪费食物的总量
and I’m not talking about last night’s pad thai or this morning’s half-eaten pastries,
这还不包括昨晚的通心粉、
或者今天早上吃到一半的糕点
而是所有全新、没被吃过 完全可食用的东西
but untouched, uneaten, perfectly edible food.
\u00a0
所以我们不用买或生产更多的食物
So we don’t need to purchase or make more food.
只需要想办法把食物给需要的人
We just need to figure out how to get it to the people who need it.
麻省理工的食物摄像头很好地实现了食物再分配
MIT’s FoodCam is great at recovering food.
但是要把这个设计从一栋楼
But when you start scaling this up from one building to an entire city or an entire country,
拓展到整座城市甚至整个国家
就变得困难多了
it becomes much more difficult.
Let’s say you’re a small company and have 200 sandwiches left over from an event.
假设你是一个小公司
在某项目中公司剩余了200个三明治
That’s a lot of food — but it takes time and effort to figure out how and where to
这个数量相当大
但是如何把它们捐出?捐到哪里?
这是个费时费力的过程
donate it.
大部分人都不愿意这么做
Most people really don’t want to deal with all this.
It shouldn’t be this hard to do a good thing.
做好事不应该这么困难
Like, how cool would it be if people who have food could say, hey, we have food,
能不能这样呢:比如有剩余食物的人
喊一声说:“这里有食物!”
需要食物的人就应一声“嘿!我们需要!”
and people who need food could say, hey we need food,
然后我们把两边联系起来 清理市场
and we could connect these two people and clear the marketplace?
科迈尔正尝试把食物捐献变得简单直接
So Komal is trying to make food donation easy and intuitive.
If you have some food, you type your info into the Copia app.
如果你有多余的食物
把具体信息输进Copia
A driver will then come pick up your food and deliver it to shelters that need it.
就会有司机过来收集食物
分发到有需要的收容所
在50届美国橄榄球超级大赛
And during big events, like Super Bowl 50, there’s a ton of extra food.
这样的大活动之时
会有成吨的剩余食物
问题是食物的保质期都特别短
The issue is that it has a short shelf life.
想象一下 有四个16英尺大的冰箱卡车
Imagine four 16-foot refrigerated trucks filled to their absolute brim —
装了满满的食物
that’s how much food we recovered.
这是我们所消耗的食物的量
We fed 23,000 people in two days.
在2天里 我们要为23000名工作人员提供餐食
每个人都要照顾到
Nobody slept.
而且提供的食物不是热狗、爆米花之类的
And it’s not you know hot dogs and popcorn.
而是龙虾卷、猪肉三明治以及
It was lobster rolls and pulled pork sandwiches and $300 cheeses.
以及300美元的奶酪
都是优质食品
High-quality food.
如果我们可以把本将浪费掉的食物
If we can get food that would otherwise be wasted to people who need it,
送给有需要的人
we’re not only fighting hunger, but we’re actually slowing global warming.
我们不仅可以应对饥饿问题
我们实际上还减缓了全球变暖进程
这真的是一个双赢的做法
It really is a win-win.
科迈尔不仅想解决加利福尼亚的饥饿问题
And Komal doesn’t want to solve hunger in just California.
She wants to solve world hunger — period.
她想要解决全球饥饿问题
就是这样
It’s not about optimism or pessimism.
我觉得这不关乎
乐观想法或悲观态度
I think it’s just that we’re hell-bent on making it happen.
我认为我们是在帮助它成为现实
就不会一夜之间就成功
This isn’t going to be an overnight thing.
需要去改变政策
It’s got to be policy change.
It’s going to be other entrepreneurs.
需要企业家们、
It’s going to be really big companies and institutions also taking a stand
需要大型公司和机构也参与进来 说出那句:
and saying that you know what?
你知道吗 我们不能眼睁睁地看着
We don’t tolerate perfectly great food being wasted.
新鲜油脂的食物就这么被浪费
Look, no one likes throwing out food.
看吧 没人喜欢扔掉食物
我们提供了简单的窍门助你减少浪费
So we made a simple guide to help you waste less.
To find out more go to climate.universityofcalifornia.edu.
欲收看更多内容
请点击climate.universityofcalifonia.edu

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视频概述

生产储存食物需要大量的资源,许多食物却被浪费了。实际上减少食物浪费是对抗饥饿问题和减缓气候问题的最简单的方案

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

陈榆木

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6RlxySFrkIM

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