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综合评估的五大要点 – 译学馆
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综合评估的五大要点

Five Keys to Comprehensive Assessment

琳达: 美国现在正是处于一个可以改变他的评估系统的时候
>>Linda: The United States is at a moment where it could really transform its assessment systems.
我们大多数的测试都是选择题
Most of our testing is multiplechoice tests, pick one answer
在五个选项中选择一个 而这是一个
out of five, which issomething you will never do
你永远不会真正在生活中用到的能力
in applying knowledgein the real world.
我们应当对那些真正有用的能力进行评估
Our assessments need toevolve to reflect the skills
(这些有用的能力)才是我们学校应该传授的
and knowledge that we actuallyvalue and that we need schools
学生应该学习的
to teach and ourchildren to learn.
5个综合评估的关键
有意义的目标和衡量方法
人类是天生的学习者
>>Human beings arenaturally learners.
我们每时每刻都在学习
We are learning everymoment of every day.
在学校 我们有特定的东西要学习
In school, we have particularthings to learn and we know
而且我们发现当目标明确的时候
that students learn moreeffectively when we’re clear
学生学习会更有效率
about what the goals are.
我更喜欢脑子里有个目标
> > Chinasa: I kind of like,
我更喜欢脑子里有个目标
I want like a goal in my head
比如说要怎么处理我获得的信息
about like what to do withinformation that I get.
所以如果他们教我
So if they’re going to teach me
处理一整页的等式
how to do a one page equation,
我会想要知道这有什么用
I want to know whatcan I do with that?
艾琳:在新年伊始我会思考
I look at the beginning of the year and I say,
在这一年 我想教给学生们的中心思想是什么
what are the big ideas thatI want students to know in the whole year
我想让他们学会什么重要技能
and what are the major skills I want them to be able to do
然后我再倒回去
And then I backwardsmap those skills
把这些知识技能分块
and ideas into little chunks.
我尽量让每天都有一个明确的 可衡量的成果
I try to have a really clearlearning outcome every day
所以在课程结束时 学生就可以说
that’s measurable, so at theend of class, students can say,
我离今天的目标又近了一步
“This is how close I got to meeting the outcome for the day.”
我们使用“刚起步” “有所提高”
We use the language,emerging, developing,
“熟练掌握” “运用自如”这样的词语
proficient or advanced.
如果他们能够自行判断
If they know where they are
处于哪个阶段 我就不需要
on that rubric, then I don’t have
观察每个学生的能力 这真的很棒
to own that for every student and I think that’s really powerful. >>Linda:
评估应当及早并且经常进行
Assessment shouldoccur early and often
贯穿始终
and throughout the process. >>Lisa:
我经常进行形成性评估
I do a lot offormative assessments,
形成性评估不是积累性的
so formative assessmentsmeaning, it’s not summative,
这并不是每周或单元
it’s not a test at the end
结束时的测试
of the week or the end of a unit.
你将会和学生们做许多的互动
You’re doing a lot of smallcheck ins with the students
以明确他们学到哪儿了
to see where they’re at and to see
看到他们的成长
that they’re growing a lot. >>Teacher:
你是怎么知道的呢?
How do you know that? >>Student:
学生:我是在这本土星书里学到的
Because I readit in the Saturn book. >>Teacher:
土星书……所以你在做一个?
In the Saturnbooks, so you’re making a? >>Student:
连接
Connection. >>Teacher:
老师:从文本到?
From text to? >>Students:
学生:提示
Tips. >>Teacher:
老师:真棒
Very good. >>Sheela:
他们被非常温和有策略地引导着
They are beingsteered very gently
而形成性评估的信息收集过程
and very strategically, and theformative assessment gathering
对此至关重要
process is essential to that.
你真的需要清楚学生们知道什么又不知道什么
You really have to know whatkids know and don’t know. >>Linda:
很多时候 我们对学生们写的东西给了书面反馈
In a lot of cases, wegive students written feedback
紧接着
on the paper that they’vewritten but then we move
我们进行下一阶段
on to the next thing and
却没有给他们
we don’t give them the opportunity
真正重写文章的机会
to actually rewrite that paper.
研究结果已十分明确:
And the research evidenceis extremely clear that one
一个最能对未来成就产生积极影响的事情
of the strongest positiveinfluences on achievement occurs
发生于学生们获得这种
when students getformative feedback
他们可以即时应用的形成性反馈时
that they immediately can apply.
琦娜莎:我想学生们不那么喜欢做的事之一
> > Chinasa: I think that’s one of the things that the kids don’t really like,
是做反思
is doing the reflecting,
但我认为这其实是一个对我们
but I think it’s actually one
帮助很大的事情
of the things that helps us a lot.
做这个能
I think doing it kind of
某种程度上 帮我们从更大的方向上着眼
like helps you see the bigger picture,
因为如果我不做反思的话
because I don’t thinkthat if I didn’t do reflecting,
我不会认真思考什么是我欠缺的
I wouldn’t really think aboutwhat I’m struggling with.
我只会想去学别的
I would just kindof want to move on. >>Linda:
积累性评估
琳达:积累性评估意味着
Summative assessmentjust simply means an assessment
我们可以在当下判断
from which we candraw a judgment
某个人是否已经学到了某些知识
about whether somebody has,at that moment, learned.
在美国 最近出现了一个错误的想法
A false distinction hascropped up in the United States
认为外部的积累性评估
which seems to suggestthat it’s okay
只有选择题就够了
for external summativeassessments to just be multiple
choice tests.
在其他国家
In other countries,
定期的积累性评估是通过文章
summative assessments that occur periodically are essays and oral examinations
口试和特定项目进行评估
and project based assessments,so that what you’re able to see
从而你可以通过观察学生的表现来评估
about what studentscan do reflects more
你想要他们在学校之外的世界中
of what you actually wantthem to be able to do
拥有的技能的掌握情况
in the world beyond school. >>Jill:
吉尔:今晚是展览会
So tonightis exhibit night.
每九周我们举行一次关于学习的盛大庆典
Every nine weeks, we have thisbig celebration of learning
礼堂中会挤满学生和家长
and the halls will be filledwith parents and children
他们来这庆祝他们的孩子在过去的九周中
who are all here to celebratewhat their children have
所取得的进步
accomplished in thepast nine weeks.
我们也会通过展览来评估学生们的学习成果
We also use exhibits to assessthe learning of our students.
我会走向学生
I like to go up to
让他们给我解释他们的展品
students and have them explain an exhibit
这样我就能知道
to me so that I understand,
他们是否领会到了主要思想
did they get the big idea?
他们是只完成了一项工作
Did they just do a project
还是真正了解自己做的东西
or do they really understand what they did,
为什么要做
why they did it
以及从大处着眼这意味着什么
and what it means in termsof the bigger picture?
而我们也发现
What we find is
因为学习内容十分丰富有意义
that because the learning is so rich and it’s
所以我们的学生在标准测试中
so meaningful, that ourstudents do very well
表现得也很棒
on standardized tests. >>Linda:
表现评估
琳达:许多我工作过的学校都有毕业作业
Many schoolsthat I’ve worked with have graduation portfolios
学生们需要完成作业
where students haveto complete projects.
他们需要高效的和别人合作
They often need to collaboratewith others effectively as part
才能完成他们的展示品
of the work thatthey’re going to present.
他们需要以不同形式进行交流
They need to communicatein multiple forms.
他们需要用判断力和创造力解决问题
They need to be criticaland creative problem solvers
因为他们一定会遇到各种障碍
because they’re going to runinto barriers and obstacles
他们得解决这些问题 才能完成这个大项目
and they have to solve them in order to complete this major project.
所以这些认知性和非认知性的技能的混合
So the blend of the cognitiveand the non-cognitive skills
让学生们能将自己的作品展示给外部评估员
that result often in themdefending their work to a panel
从而很好地掌握
of outside evaluators, reallyprepares them for the range
他们离开学校之后
of abilities they’regoing to need to have
需要拥有的技能
when they leave theboundaries of school.
我认为将这些
And I think it’s possible
非认知技能和学术成就
to value these non-cognitive skills throughout school
放在同样重要的地位是可能的
in the same way we valuethe academic skills. >>Erin:
我们邀请社区中的人
We try to bring inpeople from the community
来观看评价他们的展示
to watch or judgetheir presentations
正如你在工作中
and then just do things that’s like, in your life, in a job,
你可能要说服你的老板
you might have to make apresentation to your boss
你的提案为何行得通
about why your proposalshould work. >>Student:
学生:我调查过的91%的人表示
So ninety-one percentof the people I surveyed said
一套15美元是一个很好的价格
that fifteen dollars forone unit is a perfect price for them
女人: 真的是个很棒的演讲
>>Woman: Really nicelydone, good presentation
我真的很喜欢你的产品
and I really like your product.
艾琳: 所以根据真实生活来设计评估方式真的很重要
> > Erin: So trying to model assessments after real life experiences, I think is really important.
我相信 没有人在工作中会需要在标准测试中填答题卡
No one in their job, Idon’t think, has to bubble in a standardized test.
学生(承担学习)责任
有130个学生意味着
>>Having a hundred and thirtystudents means it’s really easy
你很难知道学生的学习进度
to have no idea if yourstudents are learning anything
因为人真的太多了
because there’s so many of them.
在最近几年 我才意识到
That’s when in the last coupleof years, I’ve realized,
学生们对自己学习的掌控越强
the more that I can getthem to take ownership of their learning,
我就越不需要管理学生
then I don’t have to own that for every student. >>Student:
学生:我擅长在书 采访和文章中
Something that I’mgood at is researching in books
搜索信息来确保他们的准确性
and interviews andarticles and to make sure
搜索信息来确保信息准确
that the informationis accurate. >>Linda:
琳达:理想的评估对学生们来说很重要
Ideally, assessmentis primarily for the student
他们应当承担评估过程主要部分的责任
and the student should own bigparts of the assessment process.
这可以通过几个方法来实现:
That can happen ina variety of ways:
一个是不断鼓励他们用一些评估准则
one is that they are continuallyengaged in self assessment
评估自己和其他同学
and peer assessment,using rubrics. >>Student:
学生甲:写作能力强
So writing strengths. >>Student:
学生乙:发言很好
Creating good claims. >>Student:
学生甲:然后是成长空间
And then,areas for growth. >>Student:
学生乙:我需要深度分析我的论据
I need toanalyze my evidence in depth. >>Linda:
当孩子们有了这些机会后 他们逐渐重视评估
When kidshave that opportunity, they begin to value assessment.
对我来说 评估能帮助我获得反馈
Assessment is for me, asa way to get the feedback
成为我理想的那个人
that allows me to becomethe person I want to be.
如果我们做的好的话
> > If we do this well,
这些孩子们应当会成为一个能够自我学习
the kind of learner we should produce is someone who is self-initiating
自我激励 真正地理解学习标准
and self-motivated, understandsthe standards internally
不停让自己变得优秀
and is continuallydriving towards excellence,
不停提升自己的学习技能的人
is continually developingtheir own learning skills,
并且最后能够独立自主学习
and is able ultimately to learnon their own, independently
并且在这个未来难以预测的社会中
and collaboratively withothers, in a world that is going
和别人有效合作
to be very unpredictable and in
在这样的社会中 这些技能都会成为通往成功的关键因素
which those learning skills are going to be the most important determinant of success.

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视频概述

介绍了综合评估的五大要点及优点

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFimMJL3Wz0

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