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送去火星的飞机长什么样? – 译学馆
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送去火星的飞机长什么样?

First Flight on Another Planet!

I’m at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena,
我现在位于帕萨迪纳的喷气推进实验室
and I’m here to see the first drone
我来这里看第一架
that’s gonna fly on another planet.
即将飞往另一个星球的无人机
It’s the Mars helicopter. Come on!
它是火星直升机 过来!
So this is our baby.
所以 这就是火星直升机
No way!
不会吧!
Yeah.
就是它
That thing right there is the actual machine
那架飞机确实就是
that is going to take off and land on Mars.
即将起飞并着陆于火星的机器
It’s going with the Mars 2020 mission.
它将在2020年带着任务飞往火星
That is the Mars helicopter.
那就是火星直升机
This will be the first powered flight in another planet.
这将会是其他星球中首个由动力驱动的飞行器
– How awesome is that? – I mean this is…
-太棒了吧 -我的意思是…
Now it’s necessary to say first powered flight,
现在 有必要来谈谈首架动力飞行器了
because in 1985, the Soviet Vega missions
因为在1985年 苏联织女星计划的任务是
deployed two helium balloons on Venus.
在金星上部署两个氦气球
They transmitted data for over forty six hours
它们在金星海拔54km的
while floating at an altitude of 54 kilometers in Venus’s dense atmosphere,
超过地球大气压90倍的高密度大气层中漂浮
which at the surface has a pressure of over 90 Earth atmospheres.
并传输了超过46小时的数据
In contrast, Mars has very little atmosphere, only around 1 % of Earth’s.
相反 火星气压非常稀薄 大约只有地球大气压的1%
Flying this kind of helicopter is equivalent to flying a similar helicopter
开这种直升机就相当于
on Earth at a hundred thousand feet.
在距地球十万英尺的高空开飞机
So you don’t know,
因此你无法想象
you don’t hear about many helicopters at a hundred thousand.
你没听说十万英尺高的直升机吧
I think forty thousand feet is probably the record.
我想4万英尺可能是最高纪录了
I checked.
我查过了
Forty thousand feet is the record altitude reached by helicopters on Earth.
直升机在地球上所能达到的海拔纪录是4万英尺
85,000 feet is the highest a plane has ever flown.
飞机最高可到达85000英尺
On Mars, the air is even thinner than that.
火星的空气比地球85000英尺高的大气压更加稀薄
Right. In terms of density is 1 % of what you have in this room.
对 火星的空气密度是 你所处这个空间空气的1%
So in this room,
所以在这个空间里
a cubic meter of air is about a kilogram.
一立方米空气大约有一千克
– Yeah. – The same cubic meter on Mars will be
-对 -同样体积的空气
about 15 grams to 18 grams.
在火星上却只有15至18克
– So that much – So you have to push a lot of air down.
-只有这么多 -所以不得不推入大量空气
Yes. You gotta get a lot of air flowing.
是啊 这样才能获得更多空气浮力
And so the obvious trick, if you will,
如果这样做 显然能
is to spin the blades faster.
使桨叶转得更快
It can spin between 2300 rpm and 2900 rpm.
它的转速可达每分钟2300-2900转
That is fast.
这也太快了
That is fast. Yes.
这很快 没错
Here I’m trying to work out exactly how fast that is.
现在 我要试图弄清桨叶到底有多快
So I looked it up,
所以我查了一下
and on Earth helicopters typically spin their rotors at around 500 rpm.
在地球上 直升机桨叶的转速一般是每分钟500转
So the Mars helicopter will have to
因此 火星直升机桨叶不得不
spin its blades five times faster.
以地球的五倍速转动
But there are some limits you know,
但其中有一些局限性
you really don’t want to get the tips of
你肯定不希望了解
the blades breaking the speed of sound,
突破音速的桨叶
Cause then you have shockwaves and all sorts of
因为要有冲击波和各种
and you get all kinds of funky aerodynamics and
各种热门的空气动力学知识
you know the transonic flows and things like that,
以及了解超音速和类似的东西
so you don’t want to go there.
所以你不会想涉及这些知识
So we, in our designs,
所以 我们设计
keep the tip Mach numbers down to below about 0.7.
将叶尖的马赫数降低到大约0.7
So 70% the speed sound actually did
所以 70%的音速实际上就可以
Yeah. It was very conservative.
对 这非常保守
One advantage of flying on Mars is that gravity is
火星飞行的优势之一是
only 38 % of what it is on Earth.
火星重力只有地球的38%
Even so, making the craft lightweight was essential.
即便如此 减轻飞船重量也很重要
Keeping the mass of this vehicle contained during the entire design process
控制整个设计过程中运载工具容纳量
has been the major challenge.
已经成为了主要挑战
Every single part had to be considered.
要考虑每一个部分
The entire vehicle is less than 1.8 kilograms
整个飞船还不到1.8kg
Woah!
哇哦!
So, less than four pounds.
所以 不到四磅
That’s about the same as this laptop.
那就跟这个笔记本电脑一样重
The blades are a foam core with carbon fiber layup.
这个桨叶是带碳纤维叠层的泡沫芯层
Each of them is about 35 grams.
每片桨叶大概有35g
Yes, it’s quite light. Yes.
对 它很轻 没错
35 grams is the mass of six quarters.
这块东西的3/2就是35g
Think about that: two 35 gram blades lifting an 1800 gram helicopter
想一下 两片35g的桨叶在1%地球大气压下
by spinning 40 times per second in just 1% of Earth’s atmosphere.
每秒转动40次就可以抬起1800g的直升机
How long can it fly for?
它能飞多久呢?
It’s designed to fly up to 90 seconds.
设计是可飞行90秒
A minute and a half of flight.
一分半钟的飞行
To me that sounds like forever,
对我来说像是永恒的
when you’re talking about another planet, flying autonomously by itself
当你还在谈论别的行星时 它就在1%地球大气压下
in 1/100 earth atmosphere, I mean, come on!
自动起飞了 我的意思是
Like, that’s a long time!
这是一段漫长的时间!
That is. Yeah.
是的 对
One of the questions I had was,
我有个问题
why didn’t they use a quadcopter design?
为什么他们采用了四旋翼的设计?
Well, because on Mars, the blades have to be so long
因为在火星上 桨叶要很长
that the whole craft would barely fit on the rover.
才能使整个飞船和巡视器勉强适配
Two counter-rotating propellers provide the simplest design.
两个反向旋转的螺旋桨提供了最简单的设计
They also generate lift more efficiently
当它们堆叠在一起时
when stacked on top of each other.
也能更有效地产生提升力
The bottom rotor sees the sort of the more compactified flow.
底部的转子可以看到更紧密的气流
The top one pulls it,
顶部的气流逃逸
the bottom one sees sort of a more concentrated flow.
底部的气流则更集中
So the bottom rotor actually can do better
所以 底部转子实际可以比
than if they were separated apart.
两者分离时做得更好
But how do you test a helicopter designed
但要怎么测试设计出来的直升机
for conditions on Mars or on Earth?
适合火星还是地球呢?
What would happen if you just took your Mars helicopter
如果你乘上火星直升机
and you tried to take off on Earth?
并试着从地球上起飞 会发生什么呢?
It would just make a lot of noise.
那将会产生很多噪音
Really?
真的吗?
And it probably wouldn’t get the full head speed either.
而且可能也无法全速飞行
because of how much atmosphere we’ve got.
因为取决于我们所处大气压的高低
Exactly, it’s like trying to swim in a thick soup.
确实 这就像试图在浓汤里游泳
We have a really amazing chamber here on lab
我们实验室有个非常棒的房间叫
called the 25-foot space simulator.
25英尺空间模拟器
And in that chamber you could
你在这个房间里可以
simulate any kind of atmosphere you want.
模拟各种想达到的大气压
You can go to Martian pressures,
可以感受火星气压
you can stay at Earth pressures, whatever you want.
也可以处于地球气压 无论你想要什么气压都可以
But that only took care of half of the problem,
但这只关注到问题的一半
that was the aerodynamics aspect of it.
就是它的空气动力学
There’s the other part which is the gravity.
问题的另一半是重力
We needed a way to fake Mars’ gravity here on Earth,
我们需要一种在地球上伪造火星重力的方式
and the best way that we could figure out
而我们能想出的最佳方案
to do that was a gravity offload.
是重力卸载
Gravity offload just means pulling up on the helicopter,
重力卸载就意味着往上拉直升机
so it only has to support about 38 % of its weight
所以只需要支撑直升机38%的重量
just like it will have to do on Mars.
就像它在火星上将会发生的过程
And effectively it was a high-tech fishing reel,
实际上这是一个高科技鱼线
so taking a brushed DC motor,
取一个有刷直流马达
a reaction torque sensor, and a pulley,
一个反应扭矩传感器和一个滑轮
mounting that a couple stories in the air
在几层楼高的空中
and then attaching a fishing string
然后将钓鱼环
to the top of the helicopter
系到飞机的顶端
that would tug the necessary force required
这将会拖拽必需的力量
to offload the differences in gravity.
来卸载重力的差异
An actual fishing line?
真的是鱼线?
Yeah, real fishing line.
对 如假包换
But isn’t that stretchy,
但那不是很有弹性吗?
like don’t you want something that’s perfectly rigid so as soon
你想要的不是一个完全刚性的东西吗?
as you apply the torque it gets applied to the craft?
只要一施加扭矩它就会被施加到飞行器上
Right right, and we did a lot of testing with different vendors
对 我们与不同的小贩为了找出
to find out which fishing line had the best spring constant for us.
弹性系数最好的鱼线 而做了很多测试
What does the helicopter sound like?
这架直升机的声音听起来怎么样?
I imagined that in 1 % of Earth’s atmosphere,
我模拟了1%地球大气压的环境
the helicopter would be pretty quiet.
直升机会变得非常安静
Yeah you’re still at 1%, but it’s still, real loud.
是的 你仍处于1%的地球大气压 但持续下去真的很吵
Really?
真的?
Yeah, we have audio recordings of it too.
对 我们也有它的录音
But it’s it’s, I would characterize its
但是 我认为它
more like a ‘baaaaah’, something sound like that.
听起来更像“砰”
When gravity offload systems working and the chamber was pumped down,
当重力卸载系统运作 房间会被抽空降压
the helicopter thought it was on Mars.
直升机会模拟处于火星的情况
It felt like it was on Mars.
感觉就像在火星上
How do you actually steer this thing around and drive it?
实际上你是怎么操纵并驾驶它的?
So the way helicopters work is they have
所以直升机的运作方式是
something called collective and cyclic.
它们有所谓的集合体和循环体
So what collectives do is they change the pitch on the blades uniformly.
集合体能均匀改变桨叶上的倾斜度
So throughout the entire revolution you will move the collective,
因此 通过整个循环 你将推动集合体
the blades will change,
桨叶将会改变
you can change your angle of attack, you’ll get more lift
你可以改变作用角度 这样就能
so that’s basically what you would provides you height control.
获得更多的主要提供控制高度的升力
Right?
对吧?
You pitch more you go up,
倾斜得越多就越往上
pitch less you come down.
倾斜得越少就越往下
But then, there’s something called a cyclic on helicopters,
不过 直升机上还有循环体
which basically what it does is
基本上它的作用是
it modulates the pitch
在直升机运转时
as it goes around,
调整倾斜度
so it can pitch it a little bit more here, less here,
所以 它可以在这边更倾斜一点 这边更平缓一点
so it kind of like modulates.
因此有点像在调整
So what that does is it provides an asymmetric torque, right?
所以它能提供一个不对称的转矩 对吧?
When you pitched it up there you get that additional torque.
当直升机上仰时能得到额外的转矩
Now you get it,
现在知道了吧
depending upon the stiffness system you actually get it,
使用会发生回转滞后的系统
with that a gyroscopic lag that can happen afterwards.
转矩取决于实际获得的刚度系统
So once you get an asymmetric torque,
所以 一旦遇到不对称力矩
the vehicle wants to start pitching or rolling. Right?
飞行器会开始倾斜或转动 对吧?
So once it pitches and rolls,
而一旦它俯仰或转动
you’re doing it stably.
你就要平稳地操作
You are now pointed in a direction
你现在被指向一个方向
and your thrust vector now has a component
而推力矢量现在有一个
that’s horizontal in the direction that you pitched. Right?
在倾斜方向上的水平分量 对吧?
So then you start translating in that direction.
然后你开始向那个方向平移
I’ve heard that
我听说
initially someone tried to fly it with a joystick?
最初有人试图用操纵杆驾驶
– Yes. – Was it an early prototype?
-对 -是早期的原型吗?
If you were sitting right there on Mars
如果在火星上坐着直升机
and you were trying to joystick it,
并试图操纵它
what is it like?
会怎么样呢?
And it’s almost unflyable.
答案是它几乎不能飞
And the reason for that is the
原因是空气动力学
aerodynamics of when you want to command a roll to the left
当你因为看到自己开始向右移动
because you see yourself starting to move to the right
而想向左行驶时
and you start commanding a roll to the left.
你会开始向左行驶
There’s a delay aspect.
这样会有方向延迟
So that that delay effect makes it very very difficult
所以延迟效应使人
for a human to try and pilot it.
很难试着驾驶它
You can’t fly this from Earth.
直升机无法从地球起飞
Because of the twenty-minute kind of time delay,
由于有20分钟的延迟
so you have to resend sequences.
你不得不重新发送序列
So essentially you’re gonna push a button,
因此实际上 你只要按下按钮
and like 20 minutes later it’ll take off and do its thing
20分钟后飞机起飞运转
and then you will find out.
然后你就会知道
The way this flies autonomously,
这种自动飞行的方式
it has onboard gyros, onboard accelerometers and onboard camera,
有内置陀螺仪 机载加速器和机载摄像头
an altimeter and an inclinometer;
高度计和倾斜仪
and so using that sensor suite, real-time measurement,
以及传感器套件的使用 实时测量
you know against terrain
你知道 根据地形
and of course the gyros and the accelerometers sensing onboard
当然 陀螺仪和感应
the real-time estimation of the state of the vehicle
实时预测飞行器状态的加速器
is made continuously again at hundreds of Hertz
是以几百赫兹连续制造的
and then that’s fed into the closed-loop control algorithm,
然后输入到闭环控制算法中
that takes the estimated state
获取预测状态
and then generates the correction that’s needed at the blade level,
产生桨叶水平所需的校正
and then the blades are continuously being controlled.
桨叶被不断控制着
So when you see video tapes of our ‘successful flights’, see, right?
所以 当你看到我们“飞行成功”的录像带 对吧?
And the vehicle looks dead calm, it’s coming up,
飞行器看起来非常平稳 向上飞
and hovering, and going laterally, coming back;
盘旋 侧向行驶 返回
you know the machines are working very very fast and
你要知道 机器们正飞速且艰难地运转
very very hard it just looks very calm,
而使它看起来很平稳
but yes, so that the blades are being continuously controlled.
所以 桨叶是被连续控制着的
That is amazing.
太惊人了
How will it handle a gentle breeze?
怎么处理遇到微风的情况?
– A lot of the movies depict – Dust storms?
-许多电影描述说 -沙尘暴?
The big dust storms as being very aggressive on Mars.
大的沙尘暴在火星上非常具有侵略性
The truth of the matter is that with 1 % Earth’s atmosphere,
事实真相是处于1%大气压下
there is very little matter actually hitting you.
几乎没有什么东西能真的伤到人
You mean, you’re using that to lift yourself.
你是说 你可以利用微风把自己举起来
Exactly, so there’s enough to lift, right?
没错 那种环境的风力足够把人举起来 对吧?
But we also need to spend at 2200 rpms to
但我们还是需要花费2200转/分钟的力量
be in the ballpark of lifting ourselves.
才可以差不多把自己举起来
We built our own wind tunnel
我们建造了自己的风洞
that we put inside this 25 foot chamber.
并将它放在25英尺房间里
How many fans was it, Teddy?
Teddy 有多少风扇?
960 computer fans.
960个电脑风扇
So, but it does sound like a like a jet engine taking off.
但这听起来像是喷气发动机起飞
So we built a fan wall array,
所以我们造了一个风扇墙阵列
it’s called an open cross-section wind tunnel,
被称为开放式典型性风洞
where you don’t need the walls,
那里不需要墙壁
just the fact of having an array of fans
只是需要大量风扇的事实
we are very confident of being able
我们非常有信心能够
to go at 11 meters per second,
以每秒11米的速度
in this vehicle.
行驶这架飞行器
if I had known that
如果我知道
somewhere along the way I’d be building a wind tunnel to do this,
途中我会建个风洞
I would have probably not taken the job on, right?
我可能不会接受这个工作 对吧?
How long does it take to recharge?
它需要充电多久?
We recharge the whole day.
要充上一整天
So, the whole day at Mars.
在火星上的一整天
Right. But does that mean that
对 但意思是
you could do one flight a day kind of thing?
你可以一天飞一趟 类似这样吗?
In theory, yes, by design it can.
理论上通过设计可以做到
What is the size of the battery?
电池的规格是什么?
Between 35 and 40 watt hours total.
总共在35到40瓦时之间
That’s equivalent to just three smartphone batteries.
相当于三块手机电池
And get this-most of that energy isn’t even used for flying.
而获得这块电池 大部分能量甚至都不用于飞行
It has to survive temperatures as low
晚上它不得不经受
as about minus 80 to minus hundred degrees C at night.
零下80到零下100摄氏度的低温
So we keep the batteries warm
所以 我们要给电池保暖
and we surround the batteries with our electronic boards
并用电子板裹住电池
so the electronic boards also stay warm.
这样也能给电子板保暖
We take approximately two-thirds of energy
我们使用大约三分之二的能量
just keeping things warm and warming things up to operate.
只为了保暖和制热以便操作
Only one-third of the energy is available for flight.
只有三分之一的能量用于飞行
Do you have insulation on there to keep it warm?
直升机上有保暖层进行保暖吗?
Yes. When you look at that helicopter, right,
有 当你看那架直升机时
you have the solar panel on top with antenna,
你能看到顶部带有天线的太阳能板
and then next is the rotor system,
接着是转子系统
and then bottom what you see this cube,
底部看到的这个方块
is what we call the fuselage,
我们称之为机身
you are seeing it now actually uncovered
现在看到的实际上是裸露的
because you’re seeing the last day of final.
因为你正在看的是完成前一天的成果
We’re recovering for delivery to be integrated onto the rover.
我们正在覆盖机身 为发射到巡视器上做准备
Okay, so usually you won’t be seeing that.
好的 所以你通常看不到机身
So the center of the cube is the ring of batteries, okay.
立方体的中心是电池圈
There is space between the battery
看到的电池和
and the circuit boards that you are seeing.
电路板之间有空隙
And then there will be a shell
然后我们装上的外壳
that we put on called the fuselage shell,
称为机身外壳
and that will close like CO2, the gas, around.
它会封闭周围像二氧化碳之类的气体
And so the enclosure itself,
而这个包围体本身
we’re using the CO2 gas as the insulation material.
我们会使用二氧化碳气体作为机身材料
Oh wow! No aerogel?
哦哇 没有气凝胶?
No aerogel.
没有
We did consider it.
我们确实有考虑气凝胶
It was in the game,
本来有在比对中
it was in the consideration in the beginning,
一开始本来有考虑
and it turns out that just the CO2 as insulator itself
结果只有二氧化碳作为机身时
was sufficient for us to close our thermal model.
才足以封闭热模型
And so guess why we wouldn’t want to
那么来猜一下 如果有选择
use aerogel if we have a choice.
我们为什么不使用气凝胶呢?
Weight.
重量
Yep, there you go. Welcome to our team.
对 太聪明了 欢迎加入我们团队
Now before the helicopter can experience the frigid conditions on Mars,
现在直升机在火星经受严寒之前
first it has to get there.
它首先会获取保暖层
And that’s a reminder that not only this is an aircraft,
这也暗示着它不仅是一架飞机
it’s also a spacecraft.
还是一艘宇宙飞船
It has to survive launch.
必须成功发射
It has to survive launch loads which,
必须经受很容易就超过大约
you know,
你懂的
easily exceed about 80G
80倍重力的发射负载量
You know, because of the vibration. Vibrational loads are 80G.
这是震动的原因 震动负载量就是80倍的重力
Yeah.

Then it has to survive the seven-month trip,
是的 然后直升机必须完全在辐射下
complete with radiation.
经历七个月的旅程
And finally after pulling nine Gs on entry into the Martian atmosphere
最终在推入9倍重力 到达火星大气层入口后
the helicopter needs to be deployed.
直升机需要被展开
This is gonna be on the rover,
直升机将会放到巡视器上
before you take off, does the rover like
在起飞前 巡视器会像这样
pick you up and put you down somewhere?
接上你和放下你吗?
We’re gonna be stowed underneath the rover
我们会被安置在巡视器底下
on the belly pan on our side.
跟我们同侧的引擎导流板上
And there’s gonna be several sequences of
那边会有一些
firings of explosive devices to actually
发射引爆装置
rotate us right side up and then drop us on the surface.
使我们旋转到对的一侧并着陆
For example the very last thing the rover does
比如说 巡视器最后做的是
is this got us by this bolt,
用螺栓接我们
it’s holding us about this high,
它托着我们到这么高
and then it goes has to drop us, right?
然后必须放下我们 对吧?
– Yeah. – So how do you undo a bolt on a spacecraft?
-对 -所以你怎么在宇宙飞船里撤销一个螺栓呢?
You blow it up.
会毁掉的
You blow it up.
是的
Basically its materials, you know, undergoes a phase transition
基本上它的材料会经历相变
which suddenly increases the stress in the metal part of the thing and
就是突然在金属部分加压
makes the bolt break. It’s gonna frangible.
使螺栓被破坏 变得脆弱
Then once we’re on the surface,
我们一旦到地面上时
the rover drives over us,
巡视器就会作为驱动器
it gets about 100 meters away,
它会到100米远的地方
and then we have about a two-hour counter internally,
然后我们内部有一个
where we’ll wake up after 2 hours,
让我们在两小时后醒来
wait to hear some RF transmissions,
等待听到射频传输的两小时计数器
and if we do get that link with the rover then great.
而如果我们能将它和巡视器连接起来 那么
Our base station on the rover would issue the ‘fly now’ command.
我们在巡视器上的基站会发出起飞命令
First flight will probably be a mutual selfie, you would think.
你可能会想 第一次飞行可能会互相自拍
This is after all the selfie age.
毕竟是全民拍照的时代
I like that as the goal of the first flight.
我喜欢第一次飞行的目的
Yes, it is.
是的
In fact, it is good to know the best time to fly.
事实上 这有利于了解最佳飞行时间
This is at 11 o’clock in the morning local time on Mars,
就是火星本地时间的上午11点
and that the reason for that is,
理由是
we would have come out of the night,
我们在夜晚出来时
where we would have
消耗了很多
spent a lot of battery power trying to, you know, stay warm.
试图起保暖作用的电池能量
By 11 o’clock, the state of the charge
到11点时
would have gotten to the point where you could fly without
充电状态已经达到可飞行
risking a brownout on the battery and then, you know,
不会断电 且可以
dropping the whole craft to the ground.
使整个飞船着陆的阶段
Also 11 o’clock is where the sun would have warmed up things,
11点也是太阳能温暖万物的时候
so we don’t quite have to heat up as much.
所以我们不需要过多加热
And also it’s not late afternoon, where because of the warmth,
这时也不是
the density has begun to drop.
由于太阳温度 密度下降
Okay? and the winds have begun to pick up.
懂吗? 而且已经开始起风的黄昏
Now, what we will investigate is
现在 我们要调查的是
after we get the first couple of flights under our belt,
在我们完成前几次飞行之后
I’m sure we will try to fly in the afternoon
我相信我们会尽量在下午飞
and you know do more exploratory things.
你知道 做更多探索性的事情
But the most conservative thing we can do
但我们能做的最保守的事情是
is to sort of pick a mid-morning flight.
选择上午的航班
So, what is the purpose of this mission?
那么这次任务的目的是什么呢
The Mars helicopter is first and foremost a technology demonstration
火星直升机首先是一项技术演示
to prove that we can fly on another planet.
证明我们可以在另一个星球上飞行
The helicopter can take color photos and videos,
直升机可以拍摄彩色照片和视频
but its purpose is not to make scientific discoveries.
但它的目的不是进行科学发现
Instead it is to help engineers figure out
而是帮助工程师们了解
how to design and build aircraft for future missions.
如何为未来的任务设计和制造飞机
You can imagine something that’s about 30 kilograms
你可以想象 一个携带着2公斤科学载荷
carrying you know a 2 kilogram science payload,
的30公斤重的东西
doing exploration, acting like a scout, like a small vehicle,
在做探索 像侦察员一样行动 像个小交通工具
like this, scouting ahead for some future rover;
像这样 寻找未来的巡视器
or it could be a
或者它可以是
gadget that goes and picks up some kind of samples
一个用来收集样本
and brings it back to a central lander for more sophisticated analysis;
并将其带回中央着陆器进行更复杂分析的小装置
or it could be a completely standalone craft,
或者它可以是一艘
and maybe more than one
也许不止一艘
that are exploring places where
正在探索人类和巡视器
humans and rovers can’t get to easily:
无法轻易到达的地方的完全独立的飞船
polar ice caps, you know
极地冰盖
sides of cliffs and so forth.
悬崖的侧面等等
So the real emphasis here is to try
所以这里真正的重点是
to get back all the engineering data
试图获得所有的工程数据
so that it can inform that future design.
以便指导未来的设计
Flying on other planets will provide a new dimension in space exploration.
在其他行星上飞行将为太空探索提供一个新的维度
An aircraft is faster and capable of
飞机比巡视器更快
covering more ground than a rover
覆盖更多的地面
and it can provide higher resolution imagery than an orbiting spacecraft.
且可以提供比轨道航天器更高分辨率的图像
So maybe one day,
也许有一天
aircrafts will be the companions of future rovers
飞机将成为未来的巡视器甚至
or even astronauts exploring other worlds.
探索其他世界的宇航员的伙伴

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译制信息
视频概述

主要讲述了因火星的大气压特征和重力因素,设计前往火星的飞机的原理

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

゛Suma¨墨染°

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhsZUZmJvaM

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