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为何巴黎圣母院这样的历史古建筑很容易发生火灾 – 译学馆
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为何巴黎圣母院这样的历史古建筑很容易发生火灾

Fire Expert Explains Why Old Buildings Like Notre Dame Burn So Easily

若你着眼这些历史建筑发生的火灾
When you start looking at fires in historic buildings,
会发现它们有很多共通之处
a number of common themes start to come through.
其中之一就是可燃性材料的问题
One is looking at the combustible materials and the interior finishes
像室内装修 可燃材料的整体布置
and the overall structure being of combustible materials.
这就对消防员如何保护这些建筑
It creates a lot of challenges for firefighters to really
带来了很多挑战
be able to protect these buildings.
【#音乐】
[MUSIC]
我是Chris Marrion
My name is Chris Marrion.
一名火灾管理顾问
I’m a fire and disaster management consultant.
不错 对于历史建筑和建筑物来说
In terms of, yes, fires in historic buildings and structures,
火灾是很常见的-不仅仅是着火本身
they are fairly common – not just in terms of there being a fire,
还有因火灾发生而造成的全面损失
but overall the extent of damage that then results once a fire does get started.
最近我们看到格拉斯哥艺术学院发生了火灾
And we’ve seen recently the Glasgow School of Arts fire,
以及修复过程中发生的二次火灾
the second fire there that was during restoration.
我们在其他建筑上也看到过火灾的发生
We’ve seen it on a number of other buildings:
圣彼得堡的特雷茨基大教堂
Troitsky Cathedral in Saint Petersburg,
不丹的旺度波德朗堡
Wangdue Phodrang Dzong in Bhutan.
一方面 从构建元素的角度来分析整个建筑
One part is just looking at the overall construction in terms of the structural elements.
比如木桁架 屋顶面板
The wood trusses, the roof decking, for instance,
仅是这些建筑的常规内部装饰
just regular interior finishes throughout these buildings
经常都是木质的
that are a lot of times of wood.
当我们第一次看到这些建筑时
When we first see some of these buildings they look like, you know,
它们看起来石造建筑 是不可燃的
stone-masonry-type construction that is noncombustible.
一旦进入室内 你就会发现大多的室内装修
Once going inside you can see a lot of times the interior finishes.
很多都覆盖着木质材料
A lot are covered in woodwork.
地板 教堂里的长椅等等
The floors, the pews and churches and so forth
都是木质的可燃性材料
are all wood and combustible materials.
随着时间的推移
And then over time,
建筑物内各种材料不断累积—有艺术品的地方就有纸制品
buildings continue to accumulate materials-papers, whether it’s artwork,
还有其他各种各样的东西 都是可燃的
all types of different things that are actually combustible,
它们随着时间的推移不断积累
and they just continue over time to build up
散布在建筑物的不同区域
and get placed throughout different areas of the building.
我们还会碰到其他问题
Some of the other things that we run into
比如说防火隔离问题
is just looking at fire separations, for instance.
也许没有防火隔离
There may not be a fire separation.
而是一个无间隔的大空间
It may just be a large uncompartmented space
火势在此空间不断蔓延
that would allow the fire to spread within that space
并不受约束地持续燃烧
and to continue on kind of unchecked.
实际上建筑师有时会设置防火墙
They may have actually put in fire walls at times,
但历经数年或几个世纪
but then over the years and centuries and so forth,
防火门可能由于各种原因被移除
doors may be removed for various reasons.
还有一点也要明白
One of the other things just to keep in mind too,
你知道的 消防员很难进入到那些地方
you know, it’s challenging to send emergency responders into those spaces.
能提供给他们去灭火的区域很有限
There’s limited areas that they have to fight a fire from.
水源 水管以及其他此类设施装备也有限
They have limited water supplies and hoses and those types of things.
所以往往只能从外部灭火
So it’s typically an externally fought fire.
当你观察这些建筑 如你所见
And when you look at that, you know
这些老建筑物的屋顶
a lot of these roofs in these older buildings are,
都是板岩 铅 铜以及其他不同类型的材料
you know, of slate, or lead, or copper, or different types of materials,
都是用来防水进入的
which are intended to keep the water out.
所以 你知道的 往屋顶喷水
So, you know, spraying water on the tops of these roofs,
水实际上并不能渗入上层的阁楼空间
they’re not actually, you know, penetrating into those upper attic spaces.
大多数情况下 你看到的历史建筑性火灾
A lot of times when you do see fires in historic structures,
很多都发生在修复阶段
it is a lot during restoration periods.
比如 俄罗斯托洛茨基大教堂
For instance, Troitsky Cathedral in Russia,
前几年在施工期间发生火灾
several years ago there was a fire during construction.
不丹的旺度波德朗堡
Wangdue Phodrang Dzong in Bhutan had a fire
前几年发生的火灾也是如此
just a few years ago as well too.
修复期会引入隐患 很多火灾发生于此
There’s a lot that’s going on during that time that introduce hazards.
你知道的 其中有临时电力
We have, you know, a lot of temporary electrical,
临时照明
temporary lighting in those.
我们还要进行高温作业-
We have hot works going on-
切割炬和焊接作业 诸如此类
cutting torches and welding operations, and those types of things.
所以就有相当多的新的火源点
So there’s a fair amount of new ignition sources
这些都是临时引入的
that are introduced there on a temporary basis.
修复现场还引入许多的可燃性材料
We also can have a lot of combustible materials introduced to the site
包括整体所需的建筑性材料 以及脚手架
in terms of overall construction materials, potentially the scaffolding,
这类可能会被带入施工现场的设施
those types of things that could be introduced on site.
所以 你知道的 就火灾而言
So in terms of the fire, you know,
起火的可能性将会增加
the ignition potential could be increasing.
为了预防火灾
On the mitigation side,
你知道的 通常我们会安装检测系统
we often, you know, the detection system may be being installed,
也许系统会被遮罩
or it may be covered over
以免粉尘误触警报
so that the dust and debris is creating nuisance alarms.
防火隔离区也是如此
And then on the fire separation side as well too,
有时 防火门会被移除修复
at times, doors are taken off to be restored,
它们就会被带到别处
and they’re brought somewhere else.
我认为确实可以采取一些手段
I think there’s definitely things that can be done
来帮助改进对这些建筑物的防护
to help improve the protection of these buildings.
我想这些年来 人们在这些建筑物里生活 工作
I think over the years, people have been living, working,
你知道的 在这些建筑物里服务多年
you know, going to services in these buildings for years,
这些建筑物有的已历经世纪沧桑
and these buildings have lasted for centuries at times,
就给我们一种这样的错觉
And there kind of gets this perception that,
“嗯 我们的建筑物没有发生火灾 所以 是安全的”
Well, we haven’t had a fire. Therefore, we’re safe,
保护地很好 没事儿
and this is protected, and we’re OK.
但是你知道的 哪怕只有一个火源
But you know, it really is just having an ignition source
靠近建筑物中的易燃物
close to something that’s combustible
建筑物就有可能会起火
and just having that opportunity that something does ignite
火势就有可能会蔓延
and has the opportunity to expand from there.
所以只是因为没有发生而已
So just because it hasn’t happened,
但这并不意味着它是防火的 可能一瞬间就……你懂的
doesn’t mean that it is, you know, fireproof for instant, magically,you know
我觉得我们需要铭记这点
and I think we need to remember that.

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视频概述

巴黎圣母院的大火给我们敲响警钟:为什么这样的历史古建筑如此容易发生火灾?我们又该怎么样排查预防呢?来听听消防专家的分析。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGIPMoUl3pg

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