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慢镜头拍摄下的光速影像 – 译学馆
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慢镜头拍摄下的光速影像

Filming the Speed of Light at 10 Trillion FPS

Today, we’re at Catch.
今天 我们来到了加州理工学院
Because in a building overthere,
因为在那栋建筑里
is a camera that absolutely blows my mind.
有一台令人十分惊奇的摄像机
and we’ve filmed at some very high frame rates.
我们一般拍摄一些高帧率影像
We’re talking up to about half a million, which is…
比如50万帧率 也就是说
– Not to be sniffed at. – Serious frame rates.
-不要小瞧它 -相当高的帧率
Their camera, puts ours to shame,
但在他们的摄像机面前 我们相机就弱爆了
and does 10 trillion frames per second.
每秒居然能拍摄10万亿帧
That’s 13 zeroes.
1后面有13个0
For reference, that is 20 million times faster
相比而言 这比我们频道用过最快的摄像机
than the fastest we’ve ever filmed on this channel.
甚至还要快上两千万倍
And there’s not much you can’t film with half a million frames a second,
几乎所有的事物都可以用50万帧率来拍摄
but one of those things is the speed of light.
除非物体的移动速度达到光速
– Not a bad subject. – No.

– 真是个不错的观察对象 – 没错
– Let’s get in there. – All right.
– 那我们就进去看看 – 好的
加利福利亚州 帕萨迪纳
加州理工学院
Even the shoe cover technology is cool.
这儿甚至连穿鞋套的技术都很酷
I kind of want one of theseat home, actually.
事实上 我有点想带一个回家了
– Just for people. – All right, let’s go in.
– 只是给客人用的 – 好了 我们进去吧
See what this CUP is all about.
看看这个CUP到底是什么
CUP 压缩超快摄影
– Nice to meet you. – Nice to see you.
– 很高兴见到你 – 很高兴见到你
– How’s it going? – Good.
– 怎么样 – 很好
So, what’s actually– what are we doing here?
那么我们现在究竟要做什么?
This looks all very complicated.
这些设备看起来好精密啊
Oh, this is the world’s fastest camera.
这是全球拍摄速度最快的摄像机
Oh okay. Yeah. This is the world’s fastest camera.
哦 好吧 这是 世界上最快的摄像机
There you go. Just as easy as that.
看吧 像这样 多简单呀
How big is the actual camera part?
摄像机本体有多大?
I can show you.
来我给你看一下
That big box is the camera itself.
那个大盒子就是摄像机的本体
And here is the optics that we designed
而这个是我们设计的光学设备
– to make the thing work. – Very cool.
– 用来辅助摄像机工作 – 真酷
So a lot of times in our YouTube comments,
我们的油管评论中多次提到
we get asked to film the speed of light.
让我们拍摄光速
And I have to always reply to people, letting them know
我每次都不得不回复他们
that the speed of light, it’s almost incomprehensibly fast
告诉他们光的速度快到几乎无法想象
and even our cameras, under a million frames a second
就算我们的摄像机能达到每秒100万帧
will never see anything like that.
也拍不出那种东西
Is this camera capable of filming the speed of light?
这台摄影机能拍摄光速影像吗?
Yeah, that’s basically what we are gonna see.
没错 我们马上就会看到了
For the example, I’m going to show
比方说 等下我会展示
the light will move about the length of this bottle.
这个光移动大概一个瓶子的长度
In time, how long does it take
光从瓶底传输到瓶口
for light to start here and end here?
需要花费多长时间呢
It takes about 2,000 picoseconds.
大约2千皮秒
– That’s pretty quick. – Pretty quick.
-那太快了 -非常快
So for the audience, it goes milliseconds, microseconds…
所以对于观众来说 它持续几毫秒 几微秒
-…nanoseconds, – picoseconds, femtoseconds. – Yes.
– 可能是纳秒 皮秒 飞秒 – 对
So we’re on the sort of pico/femto scale with this stuff.
所以我们是在用皮秒/飞秒衡量它
– We’ve never done that before, for sure. – Yeah, no.
– 可以肯定地说这是史无前例的实验 – 是的
This is completely on another level.
这完全是在另一个数量级
So, shall we set up the first experiment?
那么我们可以开始第一个实验了吗?
– Sure, yeah. – Start with the bottle?
– 当然 – 从这个瓶子开始?
– Everyone should wear laser goggles. – Goggles?
– 每个人都要戴激光防护镜 – 防护镜?
– Okay. – We have some.
– 好的 – 我们有一些
– Do I look good?
– 我看起来帅吗?
– You’ve got side panels in your glasses.
– 你的眼镜有侧板
– You look like you’re about to – You look bad-ass.
-你看起来就像…… -你看起来像个混蛋
It looks like you’re about to go skiing with a welding torch.
你看起来就像准备拿着焊枪去滑雪
It’s just…
简直了……
So, I assume because we’re trying to film light,
让我猜猜 因为我们要拍摄的是光
it’ll be useful to turn all the lights off in here, right?
所以需要关闭这里所有的灯光 对吧?
– Yes. – Otherwise, we’ll just get…
– 是的 – 不然的话 我们就会
Yeah, it got all the ambient light comes.
没错 被周围的光干扰
Right, yeah, okay.
好的
So get ready for lights off.
准备关灯
Yeah.
好的
– Can you hold this for me? – I’ll hold this.
– 你能帮我拿着这个吗? – 好的
Yeah, thank you.
谢谢
I’m excited. I get giddy by this frame rate stuff.
这么快的帧率让我激动到快晕过去了
We want to see the light propagation from the side,
我们想从侧面看到光的传播
so we need to make sure that
所以我们需要确保
the light is scattered out of the plane of view
光穿过内部的牛奶分子
through the milk molecules inside,
从视平面中散射出来
then you can see light scatter from the side.
然后你才能从侧面看到光的散射
So, this is a bottle full of water with a bit of milk in?
所以这瓶子里都是水 然后掺了点牛奶是吗?
So, I am going to turn on the laser.
我要打开激光
So all you do is just move mirrors and lenses around
所以你只需要移动镜子和周围的镜片
and then it goes to different areas?
光就会照射到不同区域?
We use that to move the laser.
我们用那个移动激光
The laser’s too big.
激光发射装置太大了
See, the light hits the bottom of the bottle.
看 光到瓶底了
So it goes through the bottle.
光穿过瓶子了
Is it a powerful laser?
这是强力激光吗?
It’s very powerful.
没错 强力激光
It can basically burn any, like, papers.
它基本上可以点燃任何东西 比如纸
– I will stay away from that. – Yeah.
– 我要离它远点 – 对
– Whoa, that’s cool. – You can see its glow.
– 哇喔 太酷了 – 你可以看到它的光
The first thing I’m going to capture
我要拍摄的第一个东西
is the static image
是这张静态图片
as our reference.
以此作为我们参照物
For today, I’m going to try
今天 我要先尝试一千亿帧每秒
one hundred billion [frames] per seconds
一千亿帧每秒
– Excellent. – Yeah, yeah.
– 棒极了 – 没错
I mean, I remember when I was excited when we started shooting,
我记得我刚刚开始摄影的时候也很激动
we moved from 1,000 frames a second
我们从每秒拍摄1000帧
to 28,000 frames a second.
增加到每秒28000帧
That was a big jump.
那是个巨大的飞跃
So, we’re pretty much done with the water bottle.
我们已经不需要这个水瓶了
I’d like to take a photo of this.
我想给它拍张照
So, as you can see, we can only see the light.
正如你所见 我们只能看到光
So, we cannot see the bottle and the label on it.
并不能看到瓶子和它上面的标签
– Yeah. – So, finally, in the movie,
– 对 – 所以 最后 在这个视频里
we may want to overlap
我们想要
both the bottle itself and the light.
把瓶子和光的影像组合起来
– See, like composite a real picture. – Yeah, yeah.
– 组合成还原后的真实图片 – 是的
So you just take a photo on your phone
所以你只需要用手机拍张图片
and that you can do that?
就能完成这个?是的
Yeah, you can just use software to overlap these two things.
你只需要用软件就能组合这两样东西
– Neat. – You’re in the photograph.
– 挺好的 – 你被拍进去了
Just photo-bombing the bottle.
麻烦对焦好瓶子就行 好了
Okay, let’s watch back our bottle.
好 让我们回来看看这个瓶子
This took eight hours to process.
图片处理花费了8小时
During which time I grew a slightly longer beard.
这期间我胡子都长长了一些
I had a haircut as well.
我连头发都理过一次了
All right, here we go.
好了 我们开始吧
All right. Can so we’re seeing here is the,
好的 我们现在能看到
the bottle has been comped in basically.
瓶子的图像和拍摄的视频基本上已经合成完毕
Yeah, so this camera only detects the light itself
对 所以这个摄像机只检测到
which is like a blue-ish laser light,
看上去是蓝色的激光
which is why you don’t really see anything else
这也是为什么除了这光之外
other than the light looking like that.
你什么都看不到的原因
And then we comp in the picture of the bottle.
接下来我们用电脑把瓶子的图像合成进来
In the room with my actual eye
在房间里 用我的肉眼看
It looked like it was constantly lit up.
瓶子貌似一成不变地躺着
But here we are able to follow the light moving through the bottle.
但在这儿我们能够看到光穿过瓶子的样子
It may not look like it, but this is actually real.
虽然看起来难以置信 但事实确实是这样
It’s refracting the photons and that’s why you can see it.
你可以看到的原因是光子被折射
But when it’s just going through the air,
但当光只在空气中传播时
there’s nothing to actually reflect the light.
没有东西能折射光
Yeah, it’s only showing up in the bottle.
是的 它只会在瓶子里出现
It is interesting.
太有趣了
It almost looks like sort of an’80s film effect.
它像极了80年代的电影特效
It does, doesn’t it?
是的 难道不是吗?
– It looks like… – Like some sort of ghost flying into the room.
-它看起来像…… – 像某种幽灵飘进了房间
But actually, that is light.
但实际上 那是光
Isn’t that weird? Look at the scale.
那不是很奇异的吗?看这个数值
So, every frame seems to be ten picoseconds.
每一帧都是10皮秒
And we’re just sort of casually watching this light
而且 我们只是平淡无奇地看着这束光
go left to right through the bottle.
从左向右穿过瓶子
But in reality,
但实际上
the light is moving a million times faster than a bullet.
光正在以比子弹快一百万倍以上的速度移动
– What a mental subject. – Yeah.
– 多么疯狂的实验 – 是的
Okay, so we’ve shot light through milk.
所以我们已经拍到光通过了牛奶
– Next experiment? – Yep. All right.
– 进行下一个实验吗? – 是的
For this experiment, we designed a special cavity.
为了这个实验 我们特制了一个空腔
We call it a chaotic cavity.
我们称这个空腔为混沌腔
So, when light comes in the cavity,
当光进入这个空腔中
the bounce back and forth multiple times
它会被空腔中周围的镜子
by the mirrors surrounding in the cavity.
来回反弹多次
– You’re almost trapping light inside the– – Yeah. Yeah, exactly.
– 你几乎将光困在了里面 – 是的 很准确
What’s the purpose of this? This egg thing?
这么做的目的是什么?这个蛋状物是做什么?
This is to create a water vapor surrounding the environment
这是为了在周围环境中产生水蒸气
so that light scatters out.
从而使光散射出去
The same thing, like —
跟上一个实验一样 像
Oh, so you can sort of see a little bit.
噢 所以你可以看到一点点
Makes sense.
有道理
Yeah, so this is how the system works.
对 这就是这个系统的工作方式
– Turn it on. – All right, let’s go do the”experimon.”
– 打开它 – 好吧 让我们做实验
How long did it take you to learn to use this?
你学习使用这个花了多长时间?
Uh, maybe a few months to get used.
嗯 可能用了几个月
– A few months to get used to it. – Yeah.
– 花几个月适应它 – 嗯
Because it’s a really complicated system.
因为这确实是一个复杂的系统
Yeah, It’s really complicated, I hadn’t noticed.
没错 我之前没注意到这确实很复杂
-May -Pretty much done
– 也许吧 – 差不多完成了
Okey so this is the chaotic cavity at 100 billion frames a second.
所以这是每秒1亿帧的混沌腔
Just like nothing.
就像什么都没有
Once again, the duration of this video is
再来一次 这个视频的时长是
you can’t even get your head around
你甚至无法想象
how short an amount of time it is.
这么短的时间
That is amazing.
太令人震惊了
When we were in the room,
当我们在这个房间里时
it looked like the whole thing was glowing.
我们看到好像整个东西都在发光
But now we can see the individual
但是现在我们可以看到
pulse of light bouncing around this thing.
周围的东西反射着单个的光脉冲
Looks like a weird version of “Pong”.
看起来像乒乓球的怪异版本
This is one femtosecond of laser pulse.
这是一飞秒的光脉冲
So it’s as if you just went like…
所以它就像你……
– with a laser. – A femtosecond pulse.
– 用激光一样 – 以一飞秒的脉冲
Yeah.
没错
And if you pause it,
如果你让它暂停
you can see it’s just a dot of light.
你可以看到它只是一个小光点
And it’s comped in the shape of the mirrors.
它被困在镜面的形状内
Yeah, I wonder if you could actually build
没错 我想知道是否可以
like a big maze to get it around.
把形状做成像大迷宫一样 让光在其中
Do like a little maze and try to get it in.
做成像迷宫一样 试着把它弄进去
– World’s fastest maze completion. – Yeah.
– 世界上最快通过的迷宫完成 – 是的
– ( trills ) – Light.
– 嘟噜噜噜 – 光
Oh, it almost went in the corner there.
它几乎进那个角落了
It is. It’s like the DVD screensaver, isn’t it?
这看起来像DVD屏保 难道不是吗?
You just want it to go straight in the corner.
你只想让它直接到角落
Nearly.
差不多
– So this one is 100 billion? – Yeah.
– 所以这个速度有1000亿? – 是的
Should we see what 500 billion looks like?
我们应该看看5000亿是什么样?
– All right, so the area is quite small. – Yes.
– 好吧 这个地方相当小 – 是的
No way that we can stand
所以我们不能
in and be filmed by this camera.
站在里面被拍下来
But alternative solution– little mini-figurines of us.
但是可以用我们的小雕像代替
Wait, why is mine– oh, for goodness sake.
等一下 为什么是我的雕像 哦 看在上帝的份上
– Again, every time. – So we’ll put them on there.
– 又是这样 每次都是这样 – 所以我们把它们放进去
– Flipping heck. – All right.
– 见鬼 – 好吧
So, in this experiment, instead of shooting lightfrom the side,
所以在这个实验中 我们不是从侧面拍摄光
I’ve changed the beam path to bounce back this mirror
而是改变了光速的路径 从这面镜子反射
this mirror, and use a concave lens
并且使用一个凹透镜
to expand the beam to shoot at an angle.
来扩展光束 以一定角度拍摄
So this is more about scattering light on the surface of the figurines?
所以会有更多的光线散射到小雕像上?
Yes, you’re sweeping across the surface of the figures.
你正在扫过人物表面
Because we’re obviously not see-through, so…
因为显然我们不能透视 所以……
Yeah.

So, this is the static image of the two figures.
这是两个雕塑的图片
Now I’m doing 500 billion frames a second
现在我正在用2进制编码
with the two by two coding.
每秒处理5000亿帧
So two by two and a casual half trill.
所以二进制和普通的5000亿
– ( both laugh ) – Yeah.
-(笑) – 对
I think we’re pretty much done with this one.
我想我们已经完成了
This is 500 billion frames a second of our little figures
这是用一秒钟5000亿帧
with a resolution of 549 by 439.
分辨率为549×439下拍摄的小雕像
The footage is played back at 20 frames a second,
素材以每秒20帧的速度回放
therefore it’s slowed down by a factor of 25 billion times.
因此速度降低了2500亿倍
I do like that I was able to successfully photobomb this picture.
我真的很喜欢我能够成功地拍摄这张照片
I like how it shows up on your nose so.
我非常喜欢光打在你鼻子上
All right, I knew you’d say something about that.
对的 我就知道你要说这些
It does– it really does get caughtby my nose, doesn’t it?
它真的到了我的鼻子 对吗?
Yeah.
是的
It is interesting to see the light scatter
看光散射在一些东西的表面
on the surface of something as opposed to go through our body.
而不是穿过我们的身体很有意思
Yeah, so again.
没错 再来一遍
All they’ve done here is pretty much comp in our bodies with the light.
他们做的一切只是用
So the camera would have got this blue light.
所以摄像机会捕捉到这个蓝光
And they’ve just taken a picture and comped in us
他们只是拍了一张人物雕像的照片
and matched it up to where the light hit.
然后与光线照射到的位置进行匹配合成
You look miserable in that.
你在那看起来很痛苦
You look like I’ve just said something awkward
你看起来像是我说了尴尬的话
and you’re like “Ooh.”
然后你像是在说 ‘’哦‘’
– Should we do these poses? – Yeah, sure.
– 我们应该摆这些姿势吗? – 肯定的
And you can see on the time scale,
从时间角度 你可以看到
it’s a much slower progression of picoseconds,
与五亿帧每秒相比
– Because where film is faster. – as opposed to half a trillion frames a second.
-因为我们用更快摄像机拍摄 -皮秒要慢很多
All right, that’s 500 billion done.
好的 已经完成5000亿帧率了
– Child’s play. – Child’s play.
– 小儿科 – 小儿科
– Let’s crank it up. – All the way?
– 让我们燥起来 – 直接开到最大?
– Yep. – All right.
– 对的 – 好吧
Let’s do 10 trillion frames a second.
让我们做每秒万亿帧
So, Peng, we’re at a different camera now.
所以Peng 我们要用不同的摄像机了
– Is that correct? – Yeah.
– 对吗? – 是的
And this one can do up to 10 trillion frames a second?
这个可以做到每秒拍摄10万亿帧?
– Yeah. – Yeah.
-没错 -是的
So, this is the 10 trillion frames a second.
这是可以每秒拍10万亿帧摄像机
That’s the maximum speed that we can do.
这是我们能做到的最快拍摄速度
So here we have a sample which contains diluted milk
这里有一个包含稀释牛奶的样品
about a few millimeters long.
大约几毫米长
That’s all that the camera’s looking at
那是摄像机所要看到的所有东西
is a few millimeters long?
几毫米长?
Yeah, that’s how long the light propagates within 30 picoseconds.
是的 那是光在30皮秒内传播的距离
Okay, wow.
好的 哇
So here is the same software
这个软件和
that we use to capture the image.
我们曾用来捕捉图片的一样
So for this one we’re allowed to keep the lights on?
所以这次我们可以开着灯?
Because we are doing ultra fast images
因为我们正在极短的时间内
within a very narrow time scale.
进行超快速的图像拍摄
There’s a minimum amount of light that comes through the ambient light.
所以穿过环境光的光量最小
– In comparison to the powerful laser. – Laser, yeah.
– 与强激光相比之下 – 激光 对
– It’s all relative, I suppose. – Yeah, much brighter.
– 我认为它都是相对的 – 对 明亮多了
– All right, cool. – Yeah, this is how it works.
– 好的 酷 – 这是它工作的原理
So this is a much smaller scale,
这次的规模小的多
cause we’re using a higher frame rate capturing a very much smaller amount
其实是因为我们正在使用更高的帧速率
of the space and time, essentially.
来捕获非常少的空间和时间
– Yes. – All right.
– 是的 – 对的
This is the light traveling through the milk vial
这是穿过牛奶瓶的光
at 10 trillion frames a second.
在每秒10万亿帧下
– This is the reason we came here. – Yeah.
– 这是我们来到这里的原因 – 是的
– So cool. – So on the bottle video,
– 太酷了 – 所以在穿过瓶子的视频中
the light seemed to have gained the same speed.
光看起来有相同的速度
But then you got to remember that the scale of this is much smaller.
但是你要记住 这个瓶子要小得多
So this is one millimeter, says here,
所以这是光一毫秒传播的长度
is the distance whereas before an entire bottle
而之前是瓶子的长度
which showed it we have some recording light
这实际上表明我们记录了
traveling through such a small amount of space.
光穿过一个小空间
And it’s so slow now that our picosecond
因为我们的皮秒是百分之一飞秒
has a decimal place to the hundredth femtosecond.
所以光看起来这么慢
That’s blowing my mind for a start.
这太让我震撼了
When Peng turned on the laser,
当Peng转到激光
I didn’t see anything at all.
我看不到任何东西
But now we can actually see how it moves.
但现在 我们可以看到光如何移动
On this scale of time,
在皮秒的尺度上
if we fired a bullet through this frame,
如果我们在这种帧下射出子弹
it would take years to go from one side to the other.
它需要花费几年时间穿越这个长度
And the light is just going, biu.
但光线就只要“biu”的一下就穿过了
That really puts it into perspective as well, doesn’t it?
这样看来感觉未来简直有无限可能 不是吗?
I just feel like no human should ever have seen this.
我认为我们是第一个看到它的人类
It’s like looking at the base of the universe.
这就像在看构成宇宙的基础
I’ve heard that in the future
我听说在将来
the CalTech team actually intends to increase the speed
加州理工学院的团队打算
up to one quadrillion frames per second.
提高到每秒10^12帧率
It’s a bit mind-blowing, to be honest.
讲真的 有点让人震撼
We have to leave now and go back to our old,
我们现在得回去继续使用
measly hundreds of thousands of frames a second.
我们那个每秒几十万帧的破玩意儿了
Measly pathetic hundreds of thousands.
少的可怜的几十万
Well, thank you very much, Peng, for showing us your amazing kit.
Peng 非常感谢你向我们展示惊人的设备
– Thank you. – Yeah, thanks.
– 谢谢你 – 对 谢谢你
– Thank you. – Learned a lot.
– 谢谢你 – 学到了很多
Yeah. Well.

To me, that’s some of the most mind-blowing footage ever.
对我来说 这是有史以来见过最震撼的镜头之一
I mean, visually, it’s just a blob
我的意思是 表面上
going from left to right.
它只是一个斑点从左移到右
But to know that that’s light.
但要知道那可是光
I would say it was actually one of the most
我想说这是我有史以来
mind-blowing things that we’ve seen.
见过最震撼的东西之一
Yeah, I feel very accomplished.
我感觉非常成功
Hopefully, you enjoyed watching light move through the airin slow-mo.
希望你喜欢用慢镜头看光在空气中传播
Feel free to check out other episodes
欢迎浏览《星球慢镜头》其他剧集
from”Planet Slow Mo,” and join us in part two
和继续看看我们视频的P2部分
where we’ll be learning a lot more about how this camera works.
你可以学到更多这台摄像机的工作原理
You can subscribe, too, if you want.
如果你愿意 你也可以订阅支持
We’d appreciate it.
我们会万分感激
Still not sure I’ll be able to understand it after part two.
看完P2我可能还是理解不了它的工作原理
– We’ll do our best. – All right.
-我们会尽力的 -是的

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视频概述

加州理工大学实验室里的高速摄像机,能够以令人震惊的帧率拍摄到光的轨迹,让我们去一探究竟吧。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

徐听蝉

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ys_yKGNFRQ

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