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感到焦虑?听听鸟鸣吧

Feeling Anxious? Try Listening to Birds

This episode of SciShow News is supported by Fabulous,
本期科学秀由Fabulous赞助
an app that helps you start building your ideal daily routine.
这是一款能帮助你塑造理想日常生活的APP
The first 100 people who click on the link in the description down below
点击下方简介内链接的前100名用户
will get 25% off a Fabulous subscription.
可享Fabulous25%的订阅优惠哦
[♪ INTRO]
[♪片头]
When life gets a bit too stressful,
生活压力过大时
you might feel like running off into the woods,
你可能想跑进树林
befriending a deer, and living off berries.
以鹿为友 以浆果为食
And science might actually think that’s a good idea,
实际上 科学可能支持这种想法
at least as a way to destress.
这至少是种好的减压方法
Hanging out in a forest does seem to help your mental health.
去森林逛逛似乎确实有益于心理健康
There’s even a Japanese term for this.
对此 日本甚至有专业术语来形容
it’s shinrin-yoku, or forest bathing.
叫shinrin-yoku 或者森林浴
But forests have a lot to offer.
但森林能提供很多东西
They aren’t just a bunch of trees to look at.
森林不单是大量可供观赏的树
They’re full of smells and sounds.
还充满气味和声音
And last week, a study published in Scientific Reports proposed that
上周《科学报告》发表的一项研究提出
listening to birdsong may help your mental health, as well.
倾听鸟鸣或许也有益于心理健康
Past research had already demonstrated that
以往的研究已经表明
listening to birds could help people feel less stressed,
倾听鸟鸣有助于缓解人们的压力
but this new study went a little further.
而这项新研究更为深入
It looked at the impacts of sounds
它调查了声音
on subclinical anxiety, depression, and paranoia,
对亚临床焦虑 抑郁和偏执的影响
in other words, those little negative feelings that we all get,
换言之 即那些即使未确诊心理疾病
even if we don’t have a diagnosable mental disorder.
我们也会有的轻微负面情绪
First, the participants had to answer a questionnaire
首先 实验参与者需填写调查问卷
to assess their levels of depression, anxiety, and paranoia.
以评估他们的抑郁 焦虑及偏执程度
Plus, take a test on how many numbers and letters they could memorize.
接着做单词与数字的记忆测试
Then, each participant listened to six minutes of
然后 每位参与者听六分钟录音
either singing birds or urban traffic sounds.
内容是鸟鸣声或城市车水马龙的声音
The birdsong recordings featured either two or eight different European species,
鸟鸣的录音包含两种或八种欧洲鸟类的声音
but both had subtle wind and water noises beneath the twittering.
且均伴有细微的风声和水声
Meanwhile, the traffic soundscapes consisted of
而交通音景包含八辆汽车
either eight cars driving around,
四处行驶的声音
or eight different noise sources, like construction and sirens.
或八种噪音源 如建筑施工噪音和汽笛声
Once that six minute period was over,
一旦六分钟的音频结束
they retook the questionnaire and memory test.
他们重新填写问卷 做记忆测试
While neither kind of soundscape had an influence on memory,
尽管每一种音景都不影响记忆
there were differences between the mental health reports.
但心理健康问卷结果有所不同
The people who listened to traffic reported an increase
问卷显示 听了交通音景的人
in feelings associated with depression.
与抑郁有关的感觉增加了
But for those who got to chill out to some singing birds,
而听了鸟鸣声放松下来的人
their feelings of anxiety and paranoia decreased.
他们的焦虑和偏执心理有所缓解
For those who listened to the track with eight different kinds of birds,
听了录有八种鸟鸣声的音频的人
depression decreased a little, too.
抑郁情绪也有些许缓解
The researchers suggest several reasons
研究人员提出了几点
why birdsong might have these effects.
鸟鸣声可能有此效果的原因
Maybe we naturally associate birds with a peaceful,
或许鸟儿自然地让我们想到宁静
unpolluted, lush environment, and that has a calming effect on us.
无污染的绿色环境 从而产生镇定效果
Or maybe since birds mostly sing
或许是因为鸟儿常在
when predators and other threats aren’t around,
周围无天敌和其它威胁时鸣叫
we might subconsciously take birdsong to mean that we are safe, too.
我们可能也潜意识地认为鸟鸣等于安全
Or, it may just be that when we’re focusing on birdsong,
又或许只是因为当我们专注于鸟鸣声时
we have less attention available to focus on stressors.
我们对导致紧张的事关注变少了
Maybe all we need is a pleasant distraction.
或许我们只是需要惬意的分散注意力
Now, this doesn’t mean that listening to birdsong
但这并不是说听鸟鸣声
is a cure-all for your mental health.
包治各种心理健康问题
Future research will need to measure the effects on
鸟鸣对抑郁 焦虑或有其他心理问题的人
people living with depression, anxiety, and other conditions.
有何影响 还需要进一步研究来衡量
But it does offer a potential alternative to
但这确实提供了
running off into a forest when you’re feeling anxious.
一种替代焦虑时逃入森林的潜在方案
Maybe the sweet sounds of birds tweeting can help you out in a pinch,
或许必要时 鸟儿甜美的啾啾声能为你排忧
even if you can’t get out of your home or office.
即使你无法离开家或办公室
And sounds don’t just have the potential to impact your mood.
而且 声音不仅可能影响你的心情
A study published this week in the journal Learning and Memory
本周《学习与记忆》期刊发表的一项研究
used sounds to help people forget specific memories while they were sleeping.
利用声音帮助人们在睡觉时忘记特定记忆
In general, sleep is super important for memory.
通常 睡眠对记忆非常重要
It helps make new memories more stable
睡眠有助于使新记忆更牢固
and easier to remember in the future.
未来更容易记住
Scientists do not know exactly how the process works,
科学家并不懂这个过程究竟是如何运作的
but one hypothesis involves the brain reactivating those memories
但一个假设是大脑会重新激活那些记忆
and strengthening the pattern of connections between neurons
强化神经元之间的连接方式
that our brains use to represent them.
大脑正是用神经元连接重现记忆
And for the past decade or so,
在过去的数十年里
researchers have been intentionally reactivating
研究者有意在人们睡着时
specific memories during sleep
重新激活特定记忆
to get people to remember them better.
从而使他们记得更清楚
They’ll teach someone pairs of words during the day,
白天 他们会教一些人几对单词
like dog and school,
如狗和学校
and then play the sound of a dog barking while they sleep.
接着在那些人睡觉时播放狗叫的录音
Playing the sound reactivates the memory of the word pair.
播放的声音重新激活单词对的记忆
When the person wakes up, they will remember the word pair
等他们醒时 他们对那对单词的记忆
better than those that were not reactivated while they slept.
比睡觉时未被重新激活的人更深刻
But in this new research, a team tweaked the experiment
但该项新研究中有一个团队将实验
to weaken memories instead of strengthening them.
调整成了削弱记忆 而非增强记忆
Right before going to bed, participants learned a bunch of
睡觉前 实验参与者学习大量
word pairs and a few lone control words.
单词对和少数单独的控制字
The pairs were compiled using a combination of location-based words,
这些单词对是由地点名词
famous people’s names, and common objects.
名人的名字和常见事物混合编写而成
The researchers created pairs in sets of two so that
研究人员创造两两一组的单词对
they shared the same common object.
以保证参与者共享相同的单词对
For example, the three words bicycle, Beckham and castle
比如bicycle Beckham castle这三个单词
formed the two word pairs bicycle-Beckham and bicycle-castle.
组成两对单词对bicycle-Beckham和bicycle-castle
Each participant was shown both pairs,
他们向每位参与者展示了这两对单词对
but spaced out so that they couldn’t
但它们 被隔开了
figure out what the researchers were trying to do.
好让他们弄不清研究者的意图
And each pair came with some audio reinforcement.
每对单词都播有音频进行强化
In this example, participants would hear the word “bicycle”.
比如这个例子 参与者会听到“bicycle”一词
Then, half of the participants were given
然后半数参与者会
a memory test before they went to sleep.
在睡觉前接受记忆测试
For each question, they were shown one word they learned,
每个问题会展示一个他们学过的词
and had to match it with the other word in its pair.
他们需要匹配与之成对的词
While they were sleeping, the researchers played a recording
他们睡觉时 研究人员播放一段录音
that listed a selection of the common object words.
这段录音列出部分常见事物的词
The next morning, everyone took that
第二天早晨
same style of memory test as before.
每人需接受与之前类似的测试
For the words played during sleep,
由于睡觉时播放的单词
participants strengthened their memory
参与者增强了
of whichever word pair they had learned first,
对先学的单词对的记忆
but weakened their memory of the pair they learned second.
削弱了后学的单词对的记忆
So people who learned “bicycle-Beckham” before “bicycle-castle”,
由此 先学bicycle-Beckham
and heard “bicycle” while they slept,
且睡觉时听到“bicycle”的人
were more successful at picking
在诸多名人的名字里
“Beckham” out of a set of famous names,
挑选出“Beckham”的成功率
than picking “castle” out of a set of locations.
比在众多地名中选出“castle”的成功率更高
However, this was only true for word pairs
然而 这只适用于
that didn’t get that little bit of extra reinforcement
在半数人接受的提前测试中
during the pretest that 50% of people took.
未额外强化的单词对
The team isn’t quite sure
该团队并不十分确定
what brain mechanism is causing this forgetting.
这种遗忘由哪种大脑机制造成
Maybe the brain is focused on strengthening the memory that
或许大脑关注于增强本就更牢固的记忆
was already stronger to begin with,
而将更微弱且重叠的记忆
seeing the weaker, overlapping memory as unreliable noise.
视为不可信的干扰信息
So this is clearly research in its early stages.
这显然是研究的早期阶段
But with more work, scientists will get a handle on
但随着更多研究展开 科学家将开始了解
how sound can influence memory reactivation.
声音如何影响记忆的重新激活
In the future, the technique of playing specialized sounds
今后 在睡觉时播放特定声音的技术
while a person sleeps could help weaken memories
能帮助人们削弱
that are a lot more harmful than word pairs.
远比单词对更有害的记忆
While preliminary studies like these can’t make any promises,
虽然像这样的初步研究无法做出任何保证
they do keep the research moving forward.
但它们确实能让研究继续向前发展
Thanks to Fabulous for supporting this SciShow News!
感谢Fabulous赞助本期科学秀!
Fabulous is an interactive app
Fabulous是一款交互APP
made to guide you toward your ideal daily routine
专为指导你过上理想的日常生活
and help you make it stick.
并帮助你坚持下来而打造
They provide coaching to help you stay accountable
他们提供指导来帮助你维持自律
and get out of that vicious cycle of setting a goal
摆脱设立目标后又让自己失望的
and then letting yourself down.
恶性循环
And it’s not the once a month or
而且 这不是你之前也许
once a week coaching you might have tried before.
试过的每月或每周一次的指导
Changing your daily routine means thinking about the change every day.
改变日常生活意味着天天都要改变
So Fabulous has daily coaching sessions created by
Fabulous提供由斯坦福大学心理学教授Jazmin Quill
Stanford psychology professor, Jazmin Quill, to keep you on track.
设计的日常辅导课程 让你步入正轨
In the amount of time it takes you to go for an extra bathroom break,
只需要上一趟洗手间的时间
you can devote three minutes of your day to your own success.
一天三分钟 让自己成功
To get started, click the link in the description down below.
点击下方简介内的链接
The first 100 people who click on the link
点击链接的前100名用户
will get 25% off a Fabulous subscription!
可享Fabulous订阅费25%的优惠
[♪ OUTRO]
[♪片尾]

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视频概述

本视频探讨倾听鸟鸣对人们的心理健康有何影响。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

枇杷弹琵琶

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74SP7PFe6H0

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