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节食和绝食的区别 – 译学馆
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节食和绝食的区别

Fasting vs. Eating Less: What's the Difference? (Science of Fasting)

“Breakfast of champions.”
“冠军的早餐”
What’s the difference between eating less food and eating no food?
节食和绝食之间的区别是什么呢?
Well, let’s look at two different situations.
那么 我们来看看这两种不同的情况
…In 1944,
1944年
a study called the Minnesota Starvation Experiment was conducted and
为了弄清卡路里摄入对人体的影响
was designed to understand the effects of caloric restriction on the body
科学家们设计了“明尼苏达饥饿实验”
in order to gain some knowledge
从而获得这些信息
that would help people starving in the aftermath of World War 2.
来帮助人们在食物匮乏的二战中抗饿
Thirty-six healthy men with an average height of 178cm (about five foot ten)
实验选择了36名平均身高为178厘米(约五英尺)
and average weight of 69.3 kilograms (or 153 pounds) were selected.
平均体重为69.3公斤(约153镑)的 健康男性进行实验
For three months, they ate a diet of 3200 calories per day.
头三个月里 他们每日饮食摄入3200卡路里
Then, for six months they ate only 1570 calories.
然而之后六个月 他们每日只摄入1570卡路里
However, caloric intake was adjusted to attempt
然而 科学家们试图让试验者每周减重1.1公斤
to have the men lose 1.1 kilograms per week,
而调整了他们的卡路里摄入量
meaning some men got less than 1000 calories per day.
这意味着有些人每日只摄入低于1000的卡路里量
The foods given were high in carbohydrates- things like potatoes, turnips,
他们的食物富含碳水化合物 比如土豆 芜菁甘蓝
bread and macaroni.
面包和通心粉
Meat and dairy products were rarely given.
肉类和奶制品几乎没有
During the six months,
这六个月期间
the men experienced profound physical and psychological changes.
这些人的生理和心理都发生了变化
Everyone complained that they were too cold.
每个人都抱怨他们太冷了
One subject talked about having to wear a sweater in July
六月的晴天里竟然有人说
on a sunny day.
必须穿毛衣
The subjects’body temperature dropped
这些实验者的体温下降到平均
to an average of 95.8 degrees Fahrenheit ( 35.4 degrees celsius).
95.8华氏摄氏度(35.4摄氏度)
Physical endurance dropped by half,
耐力下降了一半
and strength showed a 21 percent decrease.
体力下降了21%
The men experienced a complete lack of interest in
这些人对所有东西完全失去兴趣
everything except for food, which they were obsessed with.
除了食物 他们对食物非常渴望
They were plagued with constant and intense hunger.
他们长期被强烈的饥饿感折磨着
There were several cases of neurotic behavior like hoarding cookbooks and utensils.
他们存在一些神经质行为 比如储存食谱和餐具
Two participants had to be cut from the experiment
有两人被终止实验
because they admitted to stealing and eating several raw turnips
因为他们承认偷吃了一些生的芜菁甘蓝
and taking scraps of foodfrom garbage cans.
和垃圾桶里的食物残余
At first, the participants were allowed to chew gum,
刚开始 实验者们被允许嚼口香糖
until some of the men began chewing
直到有人一天嚼40包口香糖
up to 40 packages a day.
这个行为才被制止
Now compare all this to the case of Angus Barbieri,
现在来跟安格斯·巴比里的案例作下比较
a Scottish man who in 1965 fasted for over 380 days straight.
他是苏格兰人 在1965年连续绝食 超过三百八十多天
That is he took in no food whatsoever – nothing but water,
他超过一年的时间不吃任何食物 除了水
black coffee and straight tea for just over a year.
黑咖啡和纯红茶
He lost 276 pounds, going from from 456 pounds to 180.
他的体重从456磅到180磅 减了276磅
A case report published by the Dundee University Department
邓迪大学于1973年发表的
of Medicine in 1973 said,
关于这个案例的医学报告声称
“… the patient remained symptom-free, felt well and walked about normally,”
“这个患者没有任何症状 状态良好 行走正常”
and “Prolonged fasting in this patient had no ill-effects.”
还有 “长期的断食没有给该患者带来副作用”
There were no complaints of mind numbing hunger
他丝毫没有抱怨 因为大脑对饥饿麻木了
and he kept the weight off
他的体重一直在下降
– for several years his weight stayed around 196 pounds.
几年来 他的体重保持在196磅左右
This of course is not a perfect comparison,
当然 这不是一个完美的对比案例
with the case of Angus, there’s only one subject
在安格斯这个案例中 只有一个实验对象
and his starting weight was drastically higher
并且他的初始体重
compared to those in the Minnesota Experiment.
比那些明尼苏达实验中的人要高得多
However, it does illustrate some very interesting points about just how different
然而 这的确向我们展示了一些有趣的事实
of a physiological response you get from fasting ( that is eating nothing )
那就是绝食(什么都不吃)带来的生理反应
compared to eating less, or caloric restriction.
与少食或限制卡路里摄入相比有哪些不同
Dr. Jason Fung, a Toronto physician specializing in kidney disease,
杰森·方是多伦多一个专门研究肾病的医师
and author of the Obesity Code,
同时也是《肥胖密码》的作者
says that compared to fasting,
他说 限制卡路里摄入
Caloric Reduction will result in: less weight loss,
比绝食时体重减轻较少
more lean mass loss (i.e. more muscle loss), and more hunger.
瘦肉块减少较多(即肌肉减少较多) 饥饿感也更多
Let’s start by talking about hunger.
那么让我们就来聊聊饥饿感
In Upton Sinclair’s 1911 book “The Fasting Cure”,
在厄普顿·辛克莱1991年的书《禁食疗法》中
he writes about fasting as a means to improve health.
他写道 禁食可作为一种提升健康水平的方式
In describing his first couple attempts at fasting he writes
在描述他最初几次的禁食尝试时 他写道
“ I was very hungry for the first day
“第一天我非常饿
-the unwholesome, ravening sort of hunger that all dyspeptics know.
-消化不良的人都会知道这种损身又渴望的饥饿感
I had a little hunger the second morning,
第二天早上 我还有一点饥饿感
and thereafter, to my great astonishment,
而在那之后 令我惊讶的是
no hunger whatever-no more interest in food than
无论如何 我都不会有饥饿感——对食物不再感兴趣
if I had ever known the taste of it. ”
除非是我还不尝过味道的食物”
Sinclair recommends to do quite long fasts – around 12 days or so.
辛克莱建议可以禁食一段时间-差不多12天左右
In a section addressing concerns about fasting he writes
书中一个关于禁食的担心的章节写道
“Several people have asked me if it would not be better
有些人曾问过我
for them to eat very lightly instead of fasting,
对他们来说 吃得很少是否会比禁食更好
or to content themselves with fasts
或者 禁食过程中
of two or three days at frequent intervals.
时常间隔两三天来满足自己
My reply to that is that I find it very much harder to do that,
我回答说 我发现那样做会更艰难
because all the trouble in the fast occurs
因为禁食中发生的所有困难
during the first two or three days.
就在起初两三天
It is during those days that you are hungry.”
在那几天里 你会感到饥饿
Then he says:
然后他说
“… perhaps, it might be a good thing to eat very lightly of fruit,
“或许 吃少许水果而不完全断食
instead of taking an absolute fast
可能是一个好的做法
-the only trouble is that I can not do it.
-但唯一的问题是我做不到
Again and again I have tried, but always with the same result:
我一遍遍地尝试 但总是得到同样的结果
the light meals are just enough to keep me ravenously hungry…”
轻食就足以让我饥肠辘辘
In the book he says
书中他写道
you will know when you should finish fasting,
应该知道自己什么时候结束禁食
because your hunger will “return.”
因为 你的饥饿感会“回归”
He quotes a letter he received from a 72 year old man saying
他引述了一位72岁老人的来信
“After fasting twenty-eight days I began to be hungry,
“禁食28天后 我开始感到饥饿
and broke my fast with a little grape juice,
一杯葡萄汁打断了我的禁食计划
followed the nextday with tomatoes, and later with vegetable soup.”
接着是土豆 然后是蔬菜汤”
He quotes several other letters he received from readers
他还引述了另外几封读者来信
and this disappearance and reappearance of hunger is a common theme.
它们的共同主题是 饥饿感的消失和重现
Everyone who wrote to him fasted for at least 10 days,
每个写信给他的人都禁食了至少10天
saying they only broke their fast when hunger “returned.”
说他们只有当饥饿感回归时中断禁食
This phenomenon runs contrary to the idea that
这种现象与人们越长时间不吃东西
one would get hungrier and hungrier as long as they don’t eat.
就越饿的观点背道而驰
However, most people have experienced for themselves
然而 大多数人所经历的情况
that this is not the case.
也不符合该观点
Some will find that
有人发现
they are not hungry at all in the morning
他们在早上一点都不饿
or at least they are not as hungry as they are for lunch or dinner.
或者说 至少不如在午饭或晚饭时那样饥饿
But unless you are eating in your sleep,
但是 除非你在睡觉时有吃东西
the morning is when you have gone the longest without food.
早晨就会是你空腹最久的时间段
Some of this can be explained by the hormone Ghrelin.
这种现象某种程度上可以用胃饥饿素来解释
Ghrelin, known as the “ hunger hormone”
胃饥饿素是一种“饥饿感激素”
has been found to increase appetite and weight gain.
被人们发现可以促进食欲和增加进食量
A study at the Medical University of Vienna
维也纳医科大学的一份研究
looked at patients participating in a 33 hour fast.
面向参与33小时禁食活动的患者
Their ghrelin levels were checked every 20 minutes.
每20分钟会检查他们的胃饥饿素水平
Here’s how the levels changed over time.
这是胃饥饿素水平随时间增长的变化情况
What’s interesting is ghrelin is lowest at 9:00AM,
有趣的是胃饥饿素水平在上午9点时最低
which is when they have gone the longest without eating.
即他们空腹最久时
And, ghrelin comes in waves and overall doesn’t rise
而且 胃饥饿素水平呈波浪状
during the period the subjects were fasting.
在禁食期间总体不会上升
Then, as you can see,
如你所见
ghrelin rises in sync with normal lunch and dinner times,
胃饥饿素水平会在午餐和晚餐时会同步增长
as if the body had learned to expect food at that time.
就像身体学会在那段时间期待食物一样
However, that ghrelin rise spontaneously decreases after 2 hours without food.
然而 胃饥饿素的增长会在不进食2小时后自发减少
I’ve experienced this kind of spontaneous decrease in hunger myself many times
我在做顾问时很多时候会让自己挨饿
when I was working as a consultant.
所以我对这种激素自发下降的情况很熟练
Lunch time would come and I would be hungry,
午餐时间到了我就会饿
but I was too busy to eat so I just kept working.
但我忙到没法吃饭 所以只能继续工作
Pretty quickly I forgot about eating
很快我就会忘记吃饭
and wasn’t particularly hungry until dinner time.
直到晚饭时间也不会特别饿
This is very helpful to keep in mind if you’re doing a long fast
长时间禁食会有助于你坚持下去
or even if you’re starting intermittent fasting
不然 即使你开始间歇性断食
– you’re going to get annoying waves of hunger,
-你也会得到饥饿的扰动波
especially around the times that you usually eat.
特别是在你通常吃饭的时间
But, it won’t get worse,
但是 这不会变得更糟
the hunger will simply go away if you are patient.
如果你有耐心的话 饥饿感会轻易消失
Another study concerning ghrelin was done at Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark
丹麦奥胡斯大学医院做了另一份关于 胃饥饿素的研究
and it shows what happens if you do a longer fast.
它表明了人长时间断食会发生的情况
They looked at the ghrelin levels of 33 subjects who fasted for 84 hours.
他们观察了33名断食84小时的 实验对象的胃饥饿素
So, did they get increasingly hungrier throughout the fasting period?
所以 他们在断食期间饥饿感会不断增长吗?
Well, no.
并不会
Their ghrelin followed similar rhythms each day
他们的胃饥饿素每天都保持相似的节奏
but actually decreased the longer they fasted.
但实际上 他们断食时间越长 胃饥饿素水平越少
Going longer without food actually made them less hungry.
越久不吃东西 实际上他们越不饿
This gives credence to what Upton Sinclair and his readers said about
这也验证了厄普顿·辛克莱和他的读者关于
hunger disappearing after the first 3 days of fasting.
饥饿感会在断食3天后消失的说法
I’ve done a couple 5 and 6 day fasts in the past
我之前会自己断食5到6天
myself and this was indeed the case.
确实出现这种情况
Actually, I did a 4 day fast last week
事实上 我上周断食4天
and again the 4th day
第4天再一次成为
was when I had the least hunger.
我饥饿感最少的一天
Another thing that may be contributing to this phenomenon
患酮症是有助于
is that you are entering ketosis.
这个现象出现的另一件事
Ketosis is a physiological state
酮症是一种
where your metabolism switches to using primarily fat for energy.
通过新陈代谢将主要脂肪转化为能量的生理状态
For this reason ketosis is popular as a weight loss method,
因此酮症在减肥方法中非常流行
but it has many other benefits
但它还有很多其他的好处
including better physical and mental efficiency.
包括有更好的生理和精神效力
Ketosis occurs when you restrict carbohydrates down to 50 grams or less
酮症会在你限制碳水化合物摄入低于50克
and you don’t eat too much protein.
不吃过多蛋白质的时候产生
Everyone’s body is a bit different,
每个人的身体都有些许不同
so you might have to eat even less carbohydrate
所以你应该吃非常少量的碳水化合物
or may have room for more,
或者留有更多余地
but the recommended ratio of a ketogenic diet is
但生酮饮食的推荐比例是
to get 5 % of your calories from carbs,
卡路里组分中的5%来自碳水化合物
25 % from protein and 75 % from good fat.
25%来自蛋白质 75%来自优质脂肪
A simpler way to enter ketosis is
产生酮症最简单的办法就是
just don’t eat anything for a long enough time.
在足够长的时间里不吃任何东西
This is one of the major points in the difference
这就是断食和卡路里限制
between fasting and caloric restriction.
最主要的一个不同点
The problem with the subjects in the Minnesota Starvation experiment
明尼苏达饥饿实验中 被试者存在的问题
was that they were eating just enough to keep them out ketosis
就是他们吃得充足 以至于无法产生酮症
and keep their metabolism primed for burning carbohydrate (glucose),
并且使预备好的新陈代谢去消耗 碳水化合物(葡萄糖)
so they couldn’t use their body fat for energy.
所以他们不能将体内脂肪用于产能
This explains a lot of things like
这解释了很多事情
why they were losing their strength and were very sluggish and cold.
比如为什么这些人会失去力气 行动迟缓且感到寒冷
It also clears up why Upton Sinclair said
这也表明了厄普顿·辛克莱会说
fruit or light meals were just enough to keep him ravenously hungry
水果和清淡谷类就足以让他非常饥饿
and far weaker than if he had just eaten nothing.
并且比他没有吃任何东西时更虚弱
As I explained in my last video,
正如我在最后一个视频里所解释的
insulin is necessary for glucose to get into the cell to be used for energy.
胰岛素在胃饥饿素进入细胞 为能量所利用时 是十分必要的
When you eat carbohydrates,
当你摄入碳水化合物时
the pancreas secretes insulin to deal with it
胰腺会分泌胰岛素对它进行处理
and too much insulin hampers the action
而且 胰岛素过多会妨碍
of something called hormone sensitive lipase
激素敏感性脂肪酶的活动
which is necessary to mobilize fat and use it for fuel.
这种酶在调动脂肪且利用其作燃料时十分必要
Though, keep in mind that grains or refined carbohydrates
然而 要牢记谷物或精制碳水化合物
will provoke a much higher insulin response than say green vegetables.
会比绿色蔬菜激起更高的胰岛素反应
Now, because the body is having a hard time
因为身体将脂肪作燃料
using its fat for fuel,
比较困难
it will do a couple things:
所以它会做一些事情
One, it will simply slow down metabolism to preserve energy.
其一 身体为储存能量容易降低新陈代谢
In the Minnesota Starvation experiment,
在明尼苏达饥饿试验中
the subjects’ metabolism dropped by 40 percent.
被试者的新陈代谢降低了40%
Their bodies didn’t have access to its stored energy,
他们的身体无法使用已储存的能量
and their restricted calorie diets didn’t provide much fuel.
而且 限制性热量饮食无法为他们提供大量能量
So there’ s no choice but to slow down the metabolism.
所以 除了降低新陈代谢别无选择
Ironically, in the case of fasting,
讽刺的是 正如杰森·方指出
as Jason Fung points out – metabolism actually goes up.
禁食反而会使新陈代谢加快
“If you don’t do anything about your insulin
“如果你不对自己的胰岛素水平采取任何措施
and just reduce your calories,
而只是减少卡路里
your metabolism goes down.
你的新陈代谢就会下降
But what happens during fasting?
然而 禁食的话会怎样呢?
Well, here’s a study of 4 consecutive days of fasting.
那么 这里有一个关于连续断食4天的研究
What happens to your REE –
REE水平会如何变化呢
this is this middle line here,
就是这条中间的线
that’s the resting energy expenditure.
它就是静息能量消耗
It doesn’t go down,
它没有下降
it goes up.
而是上升
You’re burning more energy than you did.”
你会比做事时消耗更多的能量”
The other thing the body will do when it can’t use fat for fuel
其二 当身体不能 将脂肪作燃料时
is break down muscle into glucose
则会通过糖原异生过程分解非糖物质
through a process called gluconeogenesis.
使其转变为葡萄糖
The body doesn’t want to do this too much
然而 身体并不能过多进行这种活动
because it’s not very smart
因为它在完全摄取
to completely eat through something as important as muscle,
某些和非糖物质一样重要的东西时 并不敏捷
but when it can’t access its own stored energy
但当身体无法使用自身储存的能量时
it’s more likely to resort to this.
越有可能求助于这些活动
This is why you’ll experience more muscle loss on caloric restriction
这就是为什么限制卡路里摄入会比禁食
than if you ate nothing.
减少更多能量的原因
When you are fasting,
当你断食时
Human Growth Hormone is released.
人体生长激素会释放
As the name implies, Human Growth Hormone is an anabolic hormone
顾名思义 人体生长激素是一种促进合成代谢的激素
-a hormone conducive to growth.
-即有助于生长的激素
In Leningher’s Principles of Biochemistry textbook
在《Leningher生物化学原理》一书中
they give the example of
他们给出了
how injecting the human growth hormone gene into a mouse
怎样在小鼠体内注射人体生长激素
makes it unusually large.
而使小鼠异常生长的案例
As explained in Guyton’s Textbook of Medical Physiology:
正如盖顿在《医学生理学》中解释道
“…growth hormone also mobilizes large quantities
“……生长激素也可以从脂肪组织中
of free fatty acids from the adipose tissue,
调动大量游离脂肪酸
and these in turn are used to
而这些游离脂肪酸反过来可以
supply most of the energy for the body cells,
为体内细胞提供大部分能量
thus acting as a potent ‘protein sparer’.”
因而可作为一种有效的‘蛋白质节省物质’ ”
That is human growth hormone is protecting your muscles from breaking down.
也就是说 人体生长激素可以保护能量以防其分解
The study I referred to earlier about subjects
我查阅到早期关于
undergoing an 84 hour fast
经历84小时禁食的被试者的研究
shows that growth hormone rises significantly
表明生长激素在禁食第二天
after the second day of fasting.
会显著上升
As mentioned earlier, you should enter ketosis sometime
正如之前提到的 有时你应该会在
within the first 3 days or so of fasting,
在禁食的前3天内进入酮症
and it depends on how much you are moving around
而这取决于你断食前的
and what your diet was like before starting the fast.
活动量和饮食习惯
The state of ketosis is a great indicator
酮症状态是身体充分利用
that your body is making good use of its stored body fat for energy.
体内储存的脂肪作燃料的 一种很好的标志
In Tim Ferriss’book “Tools of Titans”,
在蒂姆·费里斯的《巨人的工具》一书中
Tim talks about his first clinically supervised 7 day fast.
蒂姆描述了他初次由临床指导的7天断食经历
For some sort of liability reasons,
出于某些可能原因
he wasn’t allowed to exercise or leave the facility.
他被禁止运动或离开设备
Considering exercise is a potent stimulator of human growth hormone
考虑到运动能有效刺激人体生长激素分泌
and will help deplete glucose stores,
且有助于消耗葡萄糖的储备
not getting any exercise is a great way
不做任何运动会不利于
to prevent yourself from getting into ketosis during a fast.
在禁食期间进入酮症
It’s also a great way to lose muscle.
同时会使肌肉减少
Tim says he lost 12 pounds of muscle
蒂姆说他在极度限制性临床指导下
during the overly restrictive clinically supervised 7 day fast.
断食7天内 减了12磅肌肉
But, when following a protocol designed
然而 当遵循设计好的
to get him into ketosis as soon as possible –
尽快进入酮症的方案
involving things like 4 hours of brisk walking,
包括快步走之类的活动时
he did a ten day fast and apparently lost zero muscle mass.
他禁食了10天 而能量没有明显减少
One last factor in Ketosis preserving muscle is leucine.
酮症最后一个储存能量的要素是亮氨酸
When you’re in ketosis, you have a higher fasting blood leucine level.
当你处于酮症状态时 空腹的血液中 亮氨酸水平会更高
And leucine is a key branch chain amino acid
而亮氨酸是一种在体内起合成代谢作用的
that has an anabolic effect on the body
关键性支链氨基酸
so it preserves lean body mass.
所以它能保护体内脂肪较少的肌肉块
A lot of people interested in building muscle may be worried that
许多爱好锻炼肌肉的人可能会担心
fasting or a ketogenic diet wouldn’t work for them
禁食或生酮饮食对他们不起作用
because insulin and therefore carbohydrates are necessary
因为胰岛素和这些碳水化合物
for protein synthesis (i.e. muscle growth),
在合成蛋白质时是必需的(即增肌)
but actually this leucine fills that role
但是实际上 正是亮氨酸在起作用
and is a good trigger for protein synthesis.
并且它能很好地激发蛋白质合成
So, just to sum all this up:
那么 总的来说
compared to a conventional calorie restricted diet,
与常见的卡路里限制性饮食相比
fasting means you lose more weight in the form of fat,
禁食能以脂肪形式减轻更多体重
you keep more muscle,
保持更多肌肉
you have more energy,
拥有更多能量
and you are less hungry.
更不易感到饿
If proper weight loss is your goal,
如果减轻体重是你的目标
it might be better to eat nothing at all
不吃任何东西可能
rather than eating a conventional low calorie diet.
比吃传统的低热量饮食更好

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视频概述

本文对比了一些节食和绝食(禁食)案例,且引用了大量资料说明了禁食的好处,同时介绍了酮症减肥法及其原理

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

゛Suma¨墨染°

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APZCfmgzoS0

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