ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

7种世界的亲缘关系系统 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

7种世界的亲缘关系系统

Family Trees in Other Languages: our world's 7 kinship systems

将家谱译成另一语言应该很简单 对吗?
Translating your family tree into anotherlanguage should be simple, right?
只需挑选一个家庭成员并查找亲属关系体系
Just pick a family member and look up thekinship term.
在萨摩亚语中 称呼姐姐为”uso”
So in Sāmoa your sister is your”uso”.
除非你是她的兄弟 这种情况下 她就是你的”tuafafine”
Unless you are her brother in which case she’syour”tuafafine”.
而对于非洲阿善堤人 你父母的外甥是你的表兄妹
And for the Ashanti your parent’s nephew is your cousin,
除了你父亲的姐妹的儿子
except your father’s sister’s son,
他们也可能被称为”父亲”
who might also get called”father”. Clearly,
显然 讨论家谱的方式不止这一种
there’s not just one way to talkabout family.
但有趣的是
But the intriguing thing is,
全世界有数以千计的语言
with thousands of languages around the world, there aren’t
却没有数千种家族体系
thousands of kinship systems.
事实上 可能只有少数语言存在家族体系
In fact, there may only be a handful.
让我们从你开始吧
Let’s start with you.
你是第0代
You’re generation 0.
你有兄弟姐妹
By your side you have siblings.
我们给你设定一个哥哥和一个妹妹
Let’s give you a brother and a sister.
你这一代往上 是你的父亲和母亲
One generation up, we meet your parents, motherand father.
他们有各自的兄弟姐妹 你的姑姨和叔舅
They have their own siblings, your aunts andyour uncles.
再往上一代 哦看…… 你的祖父母!
Up one more, and, oh, look… your grandparents!
好吧
Ok.
回到你的叔舅和姑姨
Back to your uncle and aunt.
他们的孩子同你一代 不管是哪位叔舅或姑姨的孩子
Their children are down in your generation,and they are all”cousins” no matter which
他们都是你的堂表兄妹
aunt or uncle on which side of the family.
我们刚刚描述的是因纽特人的家族体系
What we just described is the Inuit kinshipsystem. No,
不是英格兰人 尽管我们也使用这个系统
not English, though we do use this system. See,
传统上来说世界语言分为六种家族体系
traditionally the world’s languages aregrouped into six kinship systems.
因纽特人的语言系统
Languages in this Inuit system treat
对待直系亲属不同于
close family differently from family to the side
他们的旁系家族
of them, their collateral kin.
现在想象如果我们忽略这种直旁系的区别
Now imagine if we dropped this lineal-collateraldistinction.
姑姨或叔舅一词与父母一词会难以区别
The terms for aunt and uncle would become indistinguishable from the word for parent.
而且亲兄妹与表兄妹会对双方使用相同的词
And siblings and cousins would use the same terms for each other.
这恰好存在于夏威夷人的家族体系中
Which is exactly what happens in Hawaiʻiankinship.
这种体系也关注一些其它的事情:
It cares about something else, too:
你有兄弟姐妹吗?
are you a brother or a sister?
如果你是妹妹的姐姐 或者弟弟的哥哥
If you’re a sister to your sister or a brother to your brother,
你用一个词”kaikua’ana”
you use one word, kaikuaʻana,
但如果你是弟弟的姐姐
but a brother to a sister,
或者妹妹的哥哥 他们有各自
or a sister to a brother, they have their own brother or
称呼哥哥或姐姐的单词
sister words.
但这还不够
That’s still not enough though.
你也需要尊重年龄
You also need to respect age.
在夏威夷体系中 用相同的一个词汇称呼哥哥姐姐
In Hawaiʻian there’s one sameness word for an older sibling
用另一个相同的词汇称呼弟弟妹妹
and a different sameness word for a younger sibling.
弟弟的哥哥或者妹妹的姐姐是”kaikaina”
The younger brother of a brother or younger sister of a sister are kaikaina.
唷!
Phew!
就像英格兰人使用因纽特人家族体系一样
Well, just like English has Inuit kinship,
也有其它语言使用夏威夷人的家族体系
there are other languages that use the Hawai’ian system too.
还记得萨摩亚语中”uso”有时简写为”uce”吗
Remember the Sāmoan word”uso”, sometimesshortened to”uce”?
那也是用于称呼同胞兄妹的
That’s for sibling sameness, too.
这会让人感到困惑
This can get confusing.
现在 绘制一个图表
Here, let me make you a chart.
在你尝试翻译兄弟或者姐妹为波里尼西亚语前
Save it and please review it before you evertry and translate”brother” or”sister” in
请记住并且回顾它!
a Malayo-Polynesian language!
注意我们常用的这两个系统是怎么混淆的
Notice how these two systems we’ve been usinglump terms together.
很多人在名字后面加上“cousin”来区分
So many distinct people under the same word”cousin”.
很多不同的人被称作叔叔或阿姨
So many different people getting called auntieand uncle.
假设我们打破这种方式会怎样呢?
What if we broke these apart?
假设我们把你从家族体系里分离出来
What if we gave unique terms to every single relation
并给每一段关系设定特殊的称呼
from yourself on the tree?
那你就成功地使用苏丹人的家族体系了
Your wish comes true in the Sudanese kinshipsystem.
如果你学习过拉丁语
If you studied Latin,
也许你会尝试把古老的家族体系运用到你的家族
maybe you tried to map ancient family terms onto your English ones.
或者是因特人的体系…用英语表达…嘿 这是一个陌生的世界
Or Inuit ones… in English… heh, it’s astrange world.
但是古罗马人并不这样谈论家庭
But the Old Romans didn’t talk about familythat way.
他们对于不同的姑姨和叔舅以及堂兄妹有着明确的措辞
They had distinct terms for each of your various aunts and uncles and cousins.
你妈妈的姐妹毕竟不是你爸爸的亲姐妹
Your mother’s sister is not your father’ssister, after all.
这不只是一些古老体系
This isn’t just some ancient system. Today,
现今 中国的家族体系至少和这是一样的
Chinese kinship terms are at least as descriptive
另外他们要求称呼时
as this, plus they demand you
需要注意年龄的大小
pay attention to age.
想像一下普通话来表达这一系列家庭关系
Just imagine the piles of basic kinship terms Mandarin has because of this.
我甚至听说最快的区别家庭成员的方法就是
I’ve even read that finding the shortest path
问这种问题:
between kin members in your family, answering
“你怎么称呼你妈妈的叔叔?”
questions like”what do you call your mother’suncle?”, that gets tricky enough that you’re
这就非常棘手了 你最好用计算机算法解决一下这个问题
better off using computer algorithms to solveit.
但是至少 每个人都有明确地称谓
But hey, at the very least, everyone is clearlylabeled. Ok,
接下来 更简单的一个
a simpler one.
从我们的体系开始
Start from our terms,
然后你就可以改变称呼你父母的兄弟姐妹的方式了
but then switch up how you label your parent’s siblings.
你父亲的兄弟也被称为“父亲”
Your father’s brother is also called”father”,and your mother’s sister
你妈妈的姐妹也被称为“妈妈”
is your”mother”, too.
他们的另一个兄弟得到叔叔阿姨的身份:
It’s their opposite sibling that gets theauntie-uncle status: your father’s sister
你父亲的姐妹是你的阿姨 你妈妈的兄弟是你的舅舅
is your aunt, and your mother’s brother isyour uncle. Logically,
逻辑上来说
the children
他们的孩子就是你的兄弟姐妹
of your mother’s sister and your father’s brother become your siblings,
但是你父亲的姐妹的孩子以及
but your father’s sister’s children and
你母亲的兄弟的孩子是你的堂表兄妹
your mother’s brother’s children are your cousins.
这是易洛魁人的体系
The result is the Iroquois system,
它在同辈中有一条非常清晰的界限
and it draws a very clear line between parallel cousins
并且贯穿于每一天的称谓里
and cross cousins right there in the everydayvocabulary.
你为什么想要这样一个体系?
Why would you want a system like this? Well,
你可能觉得
you might want it
如果你在文化角度上留意观察同辈兄弟姐妹
if you culturally pay attention to cross vs parallel cousins
因为你认为堂表兄妹是可以通婚的
because you consider cross cousins marriageable
但是你堂兄弟姐妹不在此列
partners but you keep your parallel cousins out of it.
在加纳阿撒蒂王国也有类似的体系
The Ashanti Kingdom in Ghana have a similarsystem.
但因为英国人通过经验习得
But as the British learned through experience,
其中有很小但关键的差异
there was a small but critical difference.
阿撒蒂国王继承王座 称为“金凳”
The Ashanti king inherits a royal throne calledthe golden stool.
英国殖民者们渴望培植一些王室盟友
British colonizers were eager to groom some regal allies,
所以他们送王子离开
so they sent the king’s sons
接受更好的英语教育
away for a good English education.
但当金凳越过他们的时候
But they were left scratching their
他们也只能抓头皮了
heads when the golden stool skipped right
哦 王子们
past these, ahem,”princes”. See,
看 当你父逝
when your father passes away,
下一个继承王位的
the next in line to take care of things is
是他姐姐的儿子
his sister’s son.
那就对了 他死后 你的表亲变成父亲
That’s right, on his death, your cousin becomesyour father.
当这种情况发生时 就叫乌鸦血缘
When that happens, it’s a kind of Crow kinship.
你父亲的兄弟不是你的叔叔
You’re still deuncling your father’s brother
你母亲的姐妹不是你的阿姨
and deaunting your mother’s sister just like
就像易洛魁系统一样
in Iroquois.
但你父亲这边的就有趣了
But you do something very interesting on yourfather’s side.
你父亲的姐妹是你的阿姨
Your father’s sister is your aunt.
好吧
Ok.
这才是奇怪的地方
But here’s where it gets strange:
你阿姨的女儿也是你的阿姨 还有她的儿子……
her daughter is also your aunt, and her son… her son
她的儿子是你的父亲
is your father.
像这样跨越几代人的称呼很少见
It’s rare for terms to cut across generations like this,
但是在乌鸦体系里
but in the Crow system
父亲和阿姨就是这样
aunt and father do.
通常的解释是
The normal reason given is
乌鸦家族体系通过父亲的姐妹
that Crow kinship pays attention to maternal lines through
来关注母亲这边的亲属
the father’s sister.
如果英国人知道这个
If only the British had known.
你可以反向称呼他们 也叫镜像
You could do opposite of this, or the mirrorimage.
还是从易洛魁系统开始吧
Start from Iroquois again.
但是这次 用同样的词来称呼
But this time, use the same term
你母亲的兄弟以及他们的儿子
for your mother’s brother and for your mother’s brother’s son,
把他们都称为叔叔
calling both of them your uncle.
那最后谁是你叔叔的女儿呢?
And so who ends up being your uncle’s daughter?
你母亲的兄弟是叔叔 你的堂表兄妹不是叔叔
The mother’s brother uncle, not the cousinuncle.
你叔叔的女儿是你的母亲!
She is your mother!
这就是奥马哈家族体系
This is called Omaha kinship,
如果我们在乌鸦体系里责怪母亲的姐妹
and if we’re going to blame mom’s sister for Crow, we’ll
那我们就把奥马哈体系记为父系社会
chalk this one up to patrilineal societies.
早些时候 我告诉你有六种家族体系
Earlier on I told you there were traditionallysix kinship systems.
所以到这我们就讲完了
So then, we’re done!
等会
Hold on.
但是从南印度的角度来看这个家族系统
Consider this kin system from South India.
就像是另外一个易洛魁系统:
It seems like just another Iroquois system:
同姓表亲是兄弟姐妹
parallel cousins are siblings and cross cousins
异姓表亲是堂表兄妹
are cousins.
当我们把镜头拉远 从更广的范围来看时 会发生什么呢?
But watch what happens when we zoom out and take a wider look.
会有更多的异姓亲属
There’s even more crossness going on.
这是德拉威家族体系 据说这个体系喜欢异姓表亲通婚
This is Dravidian kinship, a system that’s said to prefer cross cousin marriages.
如果你关注你自己 这个体系很复杂
It’s complicated if you focus on you.
但是记住异姓表亲可以通婚
But keep that goal of marrying your cross-cousin
然后再往上一代看
in mind and go up a generation.
想想你的父母可能最终会和异姓表亲结婚
Think about the cross-cousins your parentscould’ve ended up marrying.
让我们把可能和你的父亲 你的母亲结婚的
Let’s circle all the cross cousins who weretheir potential spouses: for your mother…
异姓表亲圈出来
and for your father…
如果你的父母跟他们其中一个结婚
If your parents married one of them instead,
他们的孩子就会成为你的兄弟姐妹
their kids would’ve been your siblings.
你不能和你的兄弟姐妹结婚 所以这些就是你的同姓表亲
You can’t marry your siblings, so these areyour parallel cousins.
你父母不能通婚的那些亲属的孩子 就是你的异姓表亲
The ones your parents couldn’t marry wouldgive you cross cousins,
而你又可以和这些异姓表亲通婚!
and marriage material for you!
这是和易洛魁体系相反的亲属关系:
That is the opposite of what we’d expect froman Iroquois system: father’s male cousin and
父亲的男性表亲以及母亲的女性表亲的孩子 是你的同姓表亲
mother’s female cousin having kids that are your parallel cousins,
而父亲的女性表亲和母亲的男性表亲的孩子
while their opposite
是你的异姓表亲
cousins have kids who are cross cousins toyou.
唷!好吧
Whew! Well,
这就是世界上的七种家族体系!
there you have it: our world’s sevenkinship systems!
至少 这是传统的算法
At least, that’s the traditional count.
但在我让你走之前
But before I let you go,
在我花费数个夜晚研究家族体系时
what about these questions that kept coming up as I spent
不断出现的这些问题怎么办呢?
my nights researching kinship for you?
那些混合的 不适合这些体系的
What about systems that are hybrids, don’t quite fit,
或者貌似无法翻译的系统怎么办呢?还有
or are even seemingly untranslatable? Also,
为什么会存在这些系统?
why do these systems exist?
他们从哪里来?最后
Where did they come from? Finally,
我一直在使用家谱
I’ve been using family trees,
但是如果我们的假设都是错的
but what if our assumptions are wrong and
如果这些称呼不是真的关于家谱和血统的呢?
these terms aren’t really about genealogy or ancestry?
我现在不是在讲解完后给你当头一棒
Now I don’t mean to sell you a rug just to pull it out from under you,
而是这些问题
but these questions
会成为很好的后续
would make a great followup.
如果你是我的赞助人 就可以给这些问题投票!
Which is something you can vote for if you are my patron!
在众筹网站上 你能得到一些特别的奖励
On Patreon you can grab some
可以持续关注“NativLang”上更新的内容
unique rewards and stay updated about NativLang, like
就像这次我发布解密的亲属关系探索
this time I posted about a kin term explorer I coded for you.
如果你是赞助人 你当然可以自己来试一试
If you’re a patron, you should definitelycome try it out.
谢谢为这次视频投票的赞助人
Thank you to patrons for voting for this video.
还有大家 再见
And to everyone, until next time,
希望你和你的家人持续关注
may you and your family stick around and subscribe
并且为了学习语言订阅我们的网站
for language.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

世界之大 无奇不有 带你认识世界上7种不同的亲缘关系系统

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Q

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOi2c2d3_Lk

相关推荐