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什么是“假象等值”?为什么说它很危险? – 译学馆
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什么是“假象等值”?为什么说它很危险?

False Equivalence: Why It's So Dangerous | Above the Noise

[轻音乐]
[light music]
好的 我给大家带来了几个热点问题
– All right, so I’ve got a few burning questions for you.
哪个克里斯更好?是Evans(曾饰演美国队长)还是Hemsworth(曾饰演雷神)
Who’s the better Chris,Evans or Hemsworth?
你应该使用苹果音乐还是声田?
Should you use Apple Music or Spotify?
DC宇宙和漫威宇宙究竟哪个更好
Which is better, DCEU or MCU?
有些问题很难回答
Some questions just defy easy answers.
好吧 还有很多例子 但你明白我的意思
Well not in that lastcase, but you get my point.
有时候我们在一个问题上根本无法达成一致
Sometimes there is noconsensus on what the truth is.
当你在谈论一些重要问题
And when you’re talking about important issues
比如会影响到所有人的政策决议
like policy decisions that affect all kinds of people,
这种需要良好的新闻分析素养才能回答的问题时
that makes for some goodjournalistic analysis.
比如: 大学录取应该考虑种族吗?
Topics like: should race be considered in college admissions
应该让16岁的孩子参与选举投票吗?
Should 16 year olds vote?
应该征收碳排放税吗?
Should there be a carbon tax?
但不是每种话题都能保证有双方的看法
But not every topic warrantsa both sides approach,
有些观点是根本不被经验证据支持的
some viewpoints are simply not backed by empirical evidence
或者是建立在错误的信息上的
or are based on false information.
所以记者应该小心对待这些观点 不要把他们当做严肃的辩论
And journalists have to be really careful not to present them as legit debates.
如果他们不谨慎对待这些观点 那么他们正在创造一种“假相等值”
If they do, they arecreating a false equivalence.
那么我们怎么在新闻工作中辨别出假相等值呢?
So, how can you spot falseequivalence in journalism?
[抓黑板的声音]
[record scratch]
首先 什么叫假相等值呢?
First of all, what is false equivalence?
当你面对一个论题 举出了两个相对观点
It’s when you set up two opposing sides of an argument
然而它们只是看起来对等时 假相等值就发生了
and make it look like they hold equal weight when really they don’t
下面我将给你一个例子
I got an example for you.
当谈论到转基因食物时
Take genetically modified foods or GMOs.
科学研究已明确表明: 转基因食物对人类健康没有影响
The science is pretty clear: GMO foods aren’t harmful to your health.
这是早已在同行评议过的期刊中证实的
This has been validated in peer-reviewed journals.
但你总能在关于转基因食品的文章和新闻片段上发现
Yet you often find articles and news segments about GMO foods
有非专家人士和利益集团在质疑转基因食品的安全性
where non-experts and interest groupsquestion the safety of GMOs.
认为科学家和非专业人士的观点一样合理的做法
And presenting both of these views as valid
实际上是不合逻辑的 这就是假相等值
is actually illogical, a false equivalence.
在新闻中 这两种观点不值得获得同等的关注度
These two sides don’t deserve equal time in a news story,
一点儿都不应该
not even close.
科学家的研究是基于科学的共识
One is based on scientific consensus,
而别的言论是基于非专家和利益集团模糊的臆断
and the other is based on vague speculation by interest groups and non-experts.
两者没有可比性 一眼就能分出高下
The logic of comparing them is flawed.
现在我们知道了什么叫假相等值 那么为它什么会发生呢?
So now that you get what false equivalence is, why does it happen?
这对新闻工作者来说可能难以避免
Well it can be trickyfor journalists to avoid,
尤其是新闻爆出
especially when news is breaking and
记者们争先恐后地去核实事实
reporters are scrambling to fact-check a story,
争当第一批发表新闻的人的时候
and be the first in line to publish it.
错误信息的输入以及宣传
Enter misinformation and propaganda.
宣传者试图让人们去接受某一个原因或信念
Propagandists try to persuade people to buy into a particular cause or belief.
他们常常利用
They often take advantage of
社交平台上爆发式的新闻 流传的谣言 以及阴谋论引发的混乱
the chaos of breaking news and spread rumors and conspiracy theories on social media.
他们鬼鬼祟祟地发布看似真实的假消息
They get really sneaky tomake a phony post seem real.
他们创建大量的虚假账号
They create a bunch of fake accounts
对这些虚假消息进行点赞 收藏 评论
and then use those accounts to like and comment on the post.
当他们在推特和脸书上被看似真实的账号转发假消息的时候
Even trained journalistscan fall for false posts
甚至连训练有素的新闻工作者也会被假新闻欺骗
when they are shared widely by real-looking accounts on places like Twitter or Facebook.
爆炸性新闻事件发生时最容易骗人
And it’s easiest to get fooledduring breaking news events.
网络大杂烩源于社交平台
Online combos start on social media,
而社交平台从不关心真实性的审核
where there’s no focus on fact-checking.
这些平台分配发送的信息比史上任何其他机构还要多
These platforms distribute more information than any other institution in history
但他们没法好好的确认这些信息哪些是真的 哪些是假的
But they aren’t a good job at checking for what’s real, what is not
而且宣传者不只在社交平台上影响记者
And propagandists don’t just manipulate journalists on social media,
他们也知道如何在新闻节目上秀一秀
they also know how to game news programs.
为了保持平衡 新闻节目常常
In an effort to be balanced, news shows often
让观众看到不同观点间互相辩论的景象
bring on people with different views to debate each other,
严重的时候会引起一场骂战
leading to those screaming matches that go viral.
-如果你觉得这件事情没有什么大不了的话 那我简直不敢相信你是一个内科医生
– If you think that’s trivial, I can’t believe you’re actually a physician.
听着 最新研究表明……
Look, this is the most studied –
[开始撕了起来]
[talking over each other]
-停停停 冷静一下 先让Dorian博士说完
– [Woman] Hold on, let Dr. Dorian finish
然后再让Wilson博士说 你们都有机会回答
and then, Dr. Wilson, I’llgive you a chance to reply.
当一个完全不可信的人
– Now, when one not at all credible side
说出错误的信息并歪曲事实时
comes on to speak false information and distort the facts,
那他说的话会被当做是事实
it’s treated the same as the factual side.
如果再将他说的话放上节目并合法化
Just being on the program legitimizes it.
那么这种标题党的声音将会
Then those clickbaity soundbites
传遍社交平台 而我们将
spread on social media and we all end up
被有害错误信息的野火吞噬
engulfed in a toxicmisinformation wildfire.
那么随着这些操作的进行
So with all this manipulation going on,
新闻工作者们该怎样阻止错误信息在大众的传播呢
how can journalists stop the spread of misinformation to the public?
我们认为和一个真正的新闻工作者讨论
We thought it would be a good idea to talk a real journalist
他们如何应对假相等值 会对我们有所帮助
about how they deal with false equivalence.
那么我们来拜访Marisa Lagos
Meet Marisa Lagos.
她掌管KQED公司的政治专栏
She covers politics for KQED, so she has to
因此她必须时刻考虑这块问题
so she has to think about this stuff all the time.
-那么 关于避免假相等值 你能给我们一些建议吗?
So, could you give us some tips on how to avoid false equivalence?
-没问题
– Absolutely.
我的第一条建议是像一个新闻工作者一样思考
My number one tip is tothink like a journalist
这意味着对事物要保持怀疑态度
and that means to be skeptical.
自己核查事实 不要因为他们
Do your own fact-checking,don’t just accept
上了电视或者报纸 就轻易相信
something somebody’s saying just’cause they’re on TV, or they’re in a certain newspaper.
第二条建议就是检查自己的信息来源
Tip number two would beto check your sources.
因此当某些人说了什么
So, when somebody says something,
当你正在阅读这些话 或当你在电视上看到它
when you’re reading it or when you see them on TV,
想一想它们是从哪来的
think about where they’re coming from,
他们的观点是什么?他们的重点是什么?
what’s their point of view, what’s their agenda?
理解为什么这人要发表这个观点
Understanding the reasons somebody might be making a certain argument
这很重要
is really important
这样你就可以自己判断他的合理性
so that you can make your own call about how valid that is.
确保当你与别人交谈的时候
Make sure that when you’re talking to people,
或当你看到不同种类的信息渠道时
or you’re, say, looking at different types of out news outlets
由于这些信息可能来自于同一个地方 这便也意味着
that it’s not all coming from kind of the same place and that also means
你也要审视自己是否有偏见和问题
to sort of check your own biases and question,
比如为什么你会对某个信息有特殊的感觉
maybe, why do you feel a certain way about something,
这是因为你自己的生活经历吗?
is that because of your own life experience?
所以 和第一点很像
So, kind of back to the first point,
对每个人保持怀疑 包括你自己
be skeptical of everyone including yourself.
这些就是她的建议
– There you have it.
如果你多像新闻工作者一样思考的话
If you think more like a journalist,
你就可以避免假相等值的陷阱
you can avoid the traps of false equivalence.
当你看到它时 三思 然后在你按下分享按钮前认出它
Recognize it when you see it and think twice before hitting that share button.
还有什么假相等值的例子
What are a couple examples of false equivalence
是你最近看到的呢?
that you’ve seen recently?
请在评论区告诉我们
Let us know in the comments below
如果你喜欢本期视频
and if you like this video
看看这一集是我们是如何发现糟糕的科学报告的
check out this episode we did on how to spot bad science reporting.
你会庆幸你这么做的
You’ll be glad you did.
这个视频十分有意义 值得一看
It’ll make sense when you watch it.
最后请给我们点赞 收藏加订阅
And last but not least, give us some love and like and subscribe!
让我们远离喧嚣
And stay above the noise, y’all.
大家 再见
Peace out.

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视频概述

本期视频陈述了在新闻学上的一个叫做假象等值的概念,让我明白了在信息化的时代下,我们应该如何面对我们身边的每一条信息

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

孟璐璐啊

审核员

审核员_DY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFC-0FR2hko

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