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假新闻不是什么新闻 – 译学馆
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假新闻不是什么新闻

Fake news wasn’t the biggest media problem of 2016

假新闻不是什么新闻
There is nothing new about fake news
我原来在超市里看过世界新闻周刊
I used to see in the supermarkets the Weekly World News.
那上面全是假新闻
It was full of fake news stories.
他们有一阵儿很出名 因为他们长期报道的一个奇闻 蝙蝠男孩儿
They were famous for this ongoing saga about the bat boy.
甚至希拉里·克林顿也有所耳闻
It’s not even new for Hillary Clinton.
还有一则奇闻称 希拉里·克林顿曾经捡到一个外星宝宝还收养了他
There was another story in which Hillary Clinton was supposed to have found an alien baby and adopted him.
所以作为编辑策略 像这样的事儿
So you know this kind of thing, as an editorial strategy,
处处都有 但其中并无太多利益
has always been around, but there wasn’t a lot of money in it, and there wasn’t much
也没有太多生产动机
incentive to produce it.
因为最大的利益还是在于广告
Because the big money was in advertising.
如果你想让人相信:“这手表很贵 这类衣服
If you’re trying to make people think ‘you know this expensive watch, these kind of clothes will
能让你看起来很潮” 在有假新闻的出版物里出广告
make you seem like a savvy, cool person,’ advertising in a fake news publication,
你就不能达到这些目的
it doesn’t meet any of those objectives.
新鲜的事物刺激着网络
What is new are the incentives of the internet.
现如今很多的广告都是由电脑遥控算法支撑的
A lot of advertisement these days is served by remote computer algorithms.
他们知道你是谁 因为他们能够跟踪你的网页浏览历史
They know who you are because they’ve been tracking your web browsing, but they don’t
但他们对你住哪儿没兴趣
care what site you’re on.
在脸书上是很难知道一个故事的来源的
And within Facebook, it can be hard to tell where a story is coming from.
这种呈现方式 你根本意识不到出处的
The way that’s presented, you don’t have a strong sense of what is the brand and what
牌子或者口碑
is their reputation.
因此假新闻在脸书上的传播速度会比原来快数倍 也能挣钱
So fake news can zoom around facebook faster than anything before, it can make money, and
大家还不知道来源的可靠性
people might not know if it’s coming from a credible source.
当然假新闻也在2016年总统大选期间甚嚣尘上
And fake news was definitely rampant during the 2016 presidential election.
“嗡嗡喂”新闻曾报道过一则新闻
One Buzzfeed News report found that the top
在脸书上的虚假新闻文章 不是支持川普
fake news articles on Facebook were either pro-Trump
就是反对希拉里
or anti-Hillary.
因此假新闻一下子就成为自由党的攻击目标 以此发泄他们对大选结果的失望
Which makes fake news a convenient target for liberals who are upset about the election results.
并且许多新闻行业从业者
And also that a lot of people in journalism
看到世界上许多事情在恶性循环
see the world taking a disturbing turn, and they
他们愿意相信假消息就是事情的根源
would like to believe that fake news is the reason.
有名望的媒体基于真实性时,流氓网站
While established media outlets are brands built on accuracy, rogue websites,
一些假冒合法的流氓网站正报道着虚假信息
some masquerading as legitimate, are reporting misinformation
能知道的是 你看这些新闻的时候
But when you look at it, as best we can tell,
那些大选的时候对希拉里不利的事
the kinds of things that really hurt Hillary Clinton
都是真的
in the campaign were true stories.
有做过选民的民意测验 关于他们读过 看过
Gallup asked voters what they’d read, seen,
还有听过的希拉里的事儿
or heard about Hillary Clinton,
结果显示希拉里的邮件
and they found stories about Clinton’s email dominated
吸引了他们在整个大选期间的视线
throughout the campaign.
网络 电视 新闻
Network television news devoted
投入了更多的时间在报道希拉里邮件门上
more minutes of total airtime to covering Hillary
而不是与希拉里相关的政策问题
Clinton’s email server than to all policy issues combined,
甚至很多和政治无关的问题
and it wasn’t even close.
希拉里用她的私人邮件主机
Clinton violated security guidelines
违反了安全准则
when she used a private email server.
希拉里·克林顿阵营回到邮件门的乌云下
The Hillary Clinton camp back under the cloud of the email controversy.
希拉里的无数邮件已置于显微镜下
Thousands of emails under the microscope.
希拉里邮件门回到公众注意中心
Clinton’s email scandal is back in the spotlight.
我认为一个你所看到的严重的问题是
I think a big problem you see is that
媒体会考虑到阵营
the way media outlets like to think about a campaign
现在有两个大选候选人
you have two candidates out there
一堆的记者
you have a team of reporters,
所以记者们兵分两路
so you divide up your team.
记者们很聪明 他们要两个候选人有对抗的感觉
Reporters are smart, they want to be adversarial.
结果就很自然而然的变成
So the upshot is that you naturally end up with the result
两个候选人很相似
that both candidates are pretty similar,
因为有一群很相似的人
because you have similar numbers of people,
写着关于他们两个的
writing similar numbers of investigative
相似的调查故事
stories about both of them.
希拉里有两个弱点
So if it turns out there’s two big knocks
她的邮件和她的基金会
on Hillary Clinton, her emails and her foundation,
关于这两个问题会有很多的故事
you get a lot of stories about each of those subjects
而唐纳德·川普 他的弱点则是多种多样的
And if it turns out there’s a million knocks against Donald Trump,
但每个故事到最后的版面都会变小
each story winds up getting less coverage
因为关于川普的版面只有那么大
because you only have a certain amount of Donald Trump space
这就叫‘虚假均等’
This is called false equivalence
这种情况在民意调查的数据里就能显示出来
and you can see some evidence of this in the Gallup data.
对希拉里总会提及邮件门
Emails consistently are at the top for Clinton,
对川普则是五花八门的故事
with Trump stories shifting around.
脸书最后终于联合网络信息核实部门开始反击了
Facebook is finally beginning to fight back by partnering with proven fact-checking organizations.
但别指望这能补救所有的事
But don’t expect this to fix everything.
如果你认为媒体起到了坏作用
If you think the media did a bad job,
我也是这么认为的 我想已经造成的坏作用
which I do, I think the bad job that was done
是因为没有将目光放长远
was there was a lack of perspective.
很多选民现在对两个候选人的 评价都不好
Many voters are making a lesser of two evils assessment right now.
今年有两个不好的候选人
You have two flawed candidates this year,
从两个差的里选一个不那么差的
which one can you tolerate the most.
竞选期间丑闻满天飞
Scandals surround both campaigns.
两个候补都面临严重的信任问题
Both candidates are facing serious trust issues.
真新闻和主流媒体
Real news, very mainstream outlets
没能很好的呈现利害关系
did not present the stakes well.
这意味着很多人
I think that means a lot of people
参与这个大选时并不真的了解
went into this election not really understanding
有什么处在危险之中
what was at stake.

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视频概述

视频用多个例子讲了假新闻的历史,以及其对今年美国大选的影响

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收集自网络

翻译译者

joannaxin

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赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdsj-PIqR0g

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