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眼科医生破解 15 个用眼谣言

Eye Doctors Debunk 15 Vision Myths | Debunked

“If you cross your eyes, they’ll stay that way.”
“如果你做斗鸡眼 眼睛就恢复不过来了”
Man, that’s an oldie but a goodie.
好吧 这个说法虽然陈旧 但是个好问题
“It’s OK to go swimming or take a shower in contact lenses.”
“游泳或者洗澡的时候戴着隐形眼镜也没事”
All right, everybody does it.
行吧 每个人都会这样做
But they really shouldn’t.
但这真的是不对的
“Styes are contagious.”
“麦粒肿是会传染的”
No!
错!
Not at all.
它完全不传染
Styes are not contagious.
麦粒肿不会传染
And you don’t get them from pools.
你不会从泳池传染到麦粒肿
And you don’t get them from rubbing your eyes.
揉眼睛也不会得麦粒肿
Rupa Wong: Doorknobs.
Rupa Wong: 摸门把手
Jenifer Bossert: Kissing others.
Jenifer Bossert: 亲吻
No, you don’t get them from any of those things.
不 你也不会因为这些行为传染到麦粒肿
Aloha, my name is Dr. Jenifer Bossert.
大家好 我是Jenifer Bossert医生
I am the optometrist at the Honolulu Eye Clinic.
我是Honoouou眼科诊所的验光师
I’ve been in practice for 30 years,
我执业已有30年了
and my specialty is contact lenses.
我的专长是配隐形眼镜
And aloha, everyone.
大家好
I am Dr. Rupa Wong.
我是Rupa Wong医生
I am a board-certified ophthalmologist.
我是一名有委员会认证的眼科医生
I’ve been in private practice here in Hawaii for 13 years
我在夏威夷开展个人执业已经13年了
working alongside this wonderful lady here.
和旁边这位可爱女士一起工作
I specialize in pediatric ophthalmology
我专攻儿科眼科
and adult strabismus.
以及成人斜视
And today we are here to debunk myths about vision.
今天我们要揭穿关于视力的谣言
We’re going to start off with debunking myths that we used to think were true.
首先 我们要揭穿过去大家认为正确的谣言
“Reading in the dark or while lying down will damage your vision.”
“在暗光下或是躺着看书会损害视力”
No, this is a myth.
不 这是谣言
It does not damage your vision.
这样做并不会损害你的视力
And my oldest son reads in the dark all the time.
我的大儿子一直在暗光下阅读
My mother, obviously knows I’m an ophthalmologist,
我妈妈 她当然知道我是眼科医生
still comes to my house and tells me,
却仍然会跑来我家跟我说
“Your son should not read in the dark.”
“你儿子不应该在暗光下看书”
Not true.
那不是真的
Because people need good light to see better,
因为人们需要好的光线才能看得更清楚
they assumed maybe that when you’re reading in the dark,
他们就觉得当你在暗光下阅读
because it is usually more challenging,
这样对眼睛更有挑战性
maybe they thought that was straining your eyes.
因此他们认为会损伤眼睛
People confuse those issues with damaging your eyes.
人们把这些问题与损害你的眼睛混为一谈
“Eating carrots will improve your eyesight.”
“吃胡萝卜可以提高视力”
I have actually just studied
我实际上研究过
where the origin of this myth came from.
这个谣言最初是来自哪里
It’s really interesting.
真是非常有趣
So, it was basically a campaign during World War II
大致来说 这是在二战期间的一场战役
because the British air fighter pilots
因为英国战斗机飞行员拥有一项
had this radar technology to be able to detect the German targets.
可以侦探到德国目标物的雷达技术
But they didn’t want the Germans to know
而他们不希望德国人知道
that they had the radar technology,
他们拥有这项雷达技术
so they just said that their air pilots
于是就说他们的战斗机飞行员
were eating a lot of carrots and therefore had good night vision.
是吃了超级多的胡萝卜 因此才有好视力
How fascinating!
真是太好玩了!
See? I learned something today.
看吧 我今天又学到了新知识
I love it!
超喜欢这个!
Wong: Vitamin A is very important for the metabolism that’s being performed in your retina.
Wong: 维生素A对视网膜的新陈代谢非常重要
Bossert: A, C, E, magnesium,
Bossert: 维生素A C E 镁
lutein, omega-3s,
叶黄素 ω-3
those are the common ones that we all consider important
这些都是常见的 我们都认为很重要的
for optimum eye health.
可以维护眼睛健康的元素
Zinc.
还有锌
Zinc.
对 锌
Wong: All of these vitamins can help halt
Wong: 所有这些维生素都有助于
the progression of macular degeneration,
阻止黄斑变性的进展
but in the studies it didn’t demonstrate
但在研究中 并没有证明它对
any more effect for people like us,
像我们这样 没有任何黄斑变性的人
that don’t have any macular degeneration.
有任何影响
“Wearing someone else’s glasses will ruin your vision.”
“戴别人的眼镜会毁了你的视力”
If a child, really younger than 13,
如果一个小于13岁的孩子
is wearing someone else’s glasses,
戴了别人的眼镜
it can ruin their vision if it is completely off.
如果眼镜完全不符的话 会破坏他们的视力
Because if it’s promoting blurry vision,
因为 如果它加剧了视力模糊
that’s going to inhibit the growth of the connections between the eyes and the brain.
那将抑制眼睛和大脑之间连接的发育
So kids under 13, they are in a special period
对于13岁以下的孩子 他们还处在
of their vision development called the critical period.
视力发育的关键时期
So, absolutely, I never, ever recommend
所以 我绝对不会 也不曾建议
that children wear anybody else’s glasses.
孩子们戴别人的眼镜
But for adults, it’s a little bit of a different story.
但是对于成年人来说 又有不同
Bossert: With adults, it isn’t going to harm your eyes,
Bossert: 对于成人 这样并不会损害你的眼睛
but it can contribute to eye fatigue,
但它会导致眼睛疲劳
eye strain, headaches.
眼睛抽筋 头痛
So, yes, we always encourage everybody
所以 没错 我们建议每个人
to get their annual checkups,
每年都进行一次检查
wear their own glasses,
戴自己的眼镜
and keep them updated.
并且不断更新
“Sitting too close to the TV is bad for your eyesight.”
“坐得离电视太近对视力有害”
Typically a parent wants their child
通常 父母想要他们的孩子
to move back from the television,
离电视远一点
and it’s a total myth.
但这完全是谣言
And it doesn’t harm an adult’s eyes, either.
那也不会伤害成人的眼睛
So, when I have a parent ask me that in the exam,
当有家长在检查视力时问我这个
I encourage them to bring them in
我就建议他们把孩子带过来
so that we can actually check their child
让我们实际测试一下孩子的视力
and just see if it’s a habit that the child has or
看看孩子是否有这个习惯
whether they actually have an underlying nearsighted process occurring.
或者是否他们已经发生了潜在的近视
If they’re sitting too close to the television,
如果他们坐的离电视太近
then I’m concerned that maybe they’ve been
那我就会担心
developing nearsightedness.
他们可能已经近视了
A young child doesn’t know that that’s happening.
一个小孩子并不知道开始近视了
Just because your parents are nearsighted
只是因为你父母近视
does not mean 100% you’re going to be nearsighted.
不代表你一定会近视
Several studies have shown
有许多研究表明
that two hours a day of sunlight is helpful
每天两个小时的户外光照时间
at preventing nearsightedness progression.
对于预防近视有帮助
So I always tell my patients to get outdoors,
所以我经常告诉病人去户外
but it’s not so easy in other parts of the country or world.
但是在别的地方不是那么容易实现
“If you cross your eyes, they’ll stay that way.”
“如果你做了斗鸡眼 眼睛就恢复不过来了”
Man, that’s an oldie but a goodie, I think.
好吧 这个说法很陈旧但说的不错 我觉得
I remember my grandmother telling me.
我记得我外婆跟我说的
We were out running around, and kids all playing,
我们那时到处跑 孩子都在玩
and my grandmother saying,
然后我外婆就说
“Your eyes are going to stay that way!”
“你的眼睛恢复不过来了!”
Of course, that is actually
当然了 实际上
my area of specialty, is crossed eyes.
我的专长就是治疗斗鸡眼
That’s what I do surgery for, to fix them.
我做手术来治疗斗鸡眼
And I can tell you, I’ve never had to operate on anybody
我可以告诉你们 我从来没有
who crossed their eyes in intentionally
治疗过那些因为故意做斗鸡眼
and it got stuck that way.
导致眼睛恢复不过来的
So that’s a complete myth.
这完全就是谣言
Some people are born with it.
一些人是天生就有斗鸡眼
We call that congenital esotropia.
我们称之为先天性内斜视
Typically, if you’re born with it,
通常 如果是天生就有
you’re born with crossed eyes.
那就属于天生的斗鸡眼
Sometimes people develop it because the eye is blind
有时候 一些人是因为眼盲才导致的
for whatever reason, a separate reason.
无论是什么原因引起的眼盲
So if they’re young, then the eye tends to cross in with the blind eye.
如果他们还年轻 那么眼睛就很可能会与眼盲的那只眼内斜
If they’re older and they sustain some kind of trauma
如果他们年龄较大 眼睛受到创伤或伤害
or injury to the eye to cause it to become blind,
导致眼睛失明
then the eye wanders out.
那么 眼睛就向外斜
‘Cause I’ve seen so many patients
我见过很多病人
that have come from other eye doctors
他们在其他的眼科医生那里
who have been told for years,
多年来一直被告知
No. 1, “Your insurance doesn’t cover it.”
第一 你的医保不能报销这个
No. 2, “You’re too old for this surgery.”
第二 你已经太大了 不适合做这个手术
I’ve operated on a 95-year-old.
我曾经给一个95岁的老人做过这个手术
“Squinting is bad for your eyes.”
“眯眼对眼睛有害”
We do know that when you squint,
我们知道 当你近视时
you tend to be able to see a little bit better when you’re nearsighted.
如果眯眼 可以看的更清楚点
Something called the pinhole effect.
有一种针孔效应
So that could be how that myth got started.
这也许就是谣言的起源
A parent might see their child squinting
父母看到孩子眯眼
and then think that it was the squinting
然后就认为是眯眼
that actually caused the nearsightedness,
真正导致了孩子近视
but it was the opposite.
但恰恰相反
The nearsightedness caused the squinting.
是近视导致了眯眼
“You will become dependent on your glasses if you wear them too much.”
“如果戴得太多 你会越来越依赖眼镜”
As someone who now has started to need reading glasses,
作为一个现在开始需要阅读眼镜的人
it is really hard to not believe this myth.
真的很难不相信这个谣言
I, when I take my reading glasses off,
我每次拿下阅读眼镜
I swear I could see the iPhone way better.
我发誓 我可以更好地看清楚iPhone
Bossert: It’s not that the glasses made your vision worse,
Bossert: 并不是眼镜让你视力更差了
it’s just that your brain got used to having
而是你的大脑习惯了
good, sharp vision when you put them on.
戴上眼镜会有又好又清楚的视力
So then when you take them off,
所以 当你拿下眼镜时
your brain’s like,
你的大脑就会想
“No! I want them back again!
“不 我想要原来的!
I like seeing clearly!”
我喜欢看的清楚点!”
“You can’t wear your contacts if you have astigmatism.”
“如果有散光 就不能戴隐形眼镜”
This is definitely not true.
这肯定不是真的
I still hear that in this day and age,
今时今日 我还能听到这句
despite media campaigns,
尽管有媒体宣传
despite information dissemination.
有各种信息传播
People still believe that if they have astigmatism,
人们仍然相信 如果有散光
they won’t be able to wear contact lenses.
就没有办法戴隐形眼镜
Or that they’re going to have to be hard contact lenses.
或者必须是戴硬性隐形眼镜
Yes. Because 30 years ago, it was true,
没错 在30年前是这样
that really the only way that you could mask
唯一可以遮住散光的办法
that astigmatism was to take a hard lens
就是将硬透镜
and put it on the eye.
放进眼睛里
But now, daily disposables, I can correct
但是现在 对于日抛型隐形眼镜
2.75 units of astigmatism,
我可以矫正2.75单位的散光
which is a lot.
这已经是很厉害了
And in a reusable contact lens,
如果是可重复使用的隐形眼镜
I can go up to 5.75.
我可以矫正到5.75个单位
I even have a brand-new option
如果你超过40岁且需要阅读眼镜
that if you are over 40 and need reading glasses,
甚至还有一个全新的技术选择
if you have astigmatism,
如果你有散光
you can even wear a bifocal contact lens
你甚至可以戴双焦隐形眼镜
that corrects for astigmatism now.
现在用那种来矫正散光
But they are more difficult to fit
不过它们更难配镜
because they interact with the eyelid,
因为它们会与眼睑
the shape of the eye.
还有眼睛形状相作用
So sometimes we’ll have to go through two or three lens designs
所以 我们经常需要尝试两三种镜片设计
to find the best one for the patient.
以找到对患者的最佳选择
But it’s pretty rare that we can’t find something in this day and age.
不过现在 我们也不大可能会找不出合适的
Wong: Now we’re gonna talk about myths we hear all the time.
Wong: 现在我们来聊聊 我们经常听到的那些谣言
“Staring at a screen all day will make your eyesight worse.”
“整天盯着屏幕 会使你的视力变差”
Well,
好吧
the jury’s still a little bit out on this one.
陪审团在这件事上还是有点犹豫不决
Yes, anecdotally, we perceive that people
是的 从传闻来看 我们认为
that spend longer hours on a screen
那些在屏幕前花更长时间的人
are the ones that are more likely to end up nearsighted.
更容易得近视
But studies don’t prove that.
但是研究并没有证实这点
And particularly with COVID,
尤其是新冠疫情期间
with COVID and homeschooling, online schooling,
在家自学 在线网校
we’ve seen a huge increase in parents asking us,
越来越多的家长问我们
“Do I need to get my kid blue blockers?”
“我需要给孩子买防蓝光的设备吗?”
Well, the answer is no.
答案是 不用
There was a small study that came out and said that,
确实有小型研究提出
yes, it could help decrease fatigue.
没错 防蓝光可以减少视疲劳
But, like any study, we need to take those small studies
但是 和任何研究一样 我们需要将这些小研究
and turn them into large studies
变成大型研究
to really truly get facts and figures
以得到真正的事实和数据
that hold out for the larger population.
符合更大的人群样本量
So when they redid the study, it came out 50-50.
因此 当他们重新进行研究时 结果是50对50
It just really wasn’t proven to be statistically significant.
这证明在统计学上并不显著
Wong: And that’s why we always recommend the 20-20-20 rule.
Wong: 这就是为什么我们总是推荐20-20-20法则
People need to take breaks every 20 minutes for 20 seconds
即每用眼20分钟休息20秒
where they look at something 20 feet away.
眺望20英尺外的事物
“Only people with bad eyesight need eye exams.”
“只有视力不好的人才需要眼科检查”
That is definitely a myth.
这绝对是谣言
There’s all sorts of conditions that still you have —
有各种情况需要去进行视力检查——
Retinal holes, retinal tears, retinal detachments.
视网膜裂孔 视网膜撕裂 视网膜脱落
That’s another thing, where people always think,
还有另外一件事 人们常常会误以为
mistakenly, that they’ve had LASIK
他们做了LASIK手术后
and as if LASIK has corrected their eyeballs.
仿佛LASIK已经矫正了他们的眼球
And it hasn’t. It’s just made their vision better.
但并非这样 它只是让你的视力更好而已
But they still have the pathology, the retinal issues,
眼睛仍然有病变 有视网膜问题
that they still require exams once a year.
仍然需要每年进行一次视力检查
Bossert: People think that they’re going to
Bossert:人们常认为是为了视力问题
the eye doctor for their vision.
才去看眼科医生
Eye doctors would tell you that you’re going
但眼科医生会告诉你
to the eye doctor for your eye health.
要为了眼睛健康去看眼科医生
Because if you don’t maintain the eye health,
因为 如果你没有保持眼睛健康
then you’re not going to be able to maintain good eye vision
那就无法在你活在地球上的这百年间
for the 100 years that you’re present on this earth.
一直维持好的视力
“You won’t get glaucoma if you have perfect vision.”
“如果你有完美的视力 就不会患青光眼”
Glaucoma is something that’s asymptomatic.
青光眼是无症状的
So you can have perfect 20-20 vision
所以你可以拥有完美的20-20视力
and have the absolute worst end-stage glaucoma.
却仍患有最严重的终末期青光眼
Glaucoma is typically high pressure inside the eye,
青光眼是典型的眼内高压
which causes damage to the optic nerve of the eye.
导致眼睛视神经受损
Bossert: And in the beginning, there are no signs you have it
Bossert: 在最开始 是没有任何症状的
So really the only way that we can detect glaucoma
所以我们能检测青光眼的唯一方法
is to come in for your annual eye examination.
就是通过你每年的眼科检查
And there are a series of tests that we do
在眼科检查中
in the examination itself
我们有一系列的测试
that allow us to screen for glaucoma.
帮助我们发现青光眼
So, when you catch glaucoma early,
所以 当你患上早期青光眼时
then we can start treatments earlier.
我们可以更早地开始治疗
And we can’t reverse any vision loss
我们无法扭转任何视力的丧失
or any optic-nerve damage,
或任何视神经损伤
but we can prevent future damage from happening,
但我们可以预防未来的损伤
or at least slow that progression down.
或者至少能放慢这一进程
So, we start with eyedrops.
开始时 我们是滴眼药水
We can even do laser treatments,
甚至可以做激光治疗
which help with that drainage system
这有助于泪腺系统
and bring the fluid down.
让液体流出来
And then if we need to,
然后 如果需要的话
we escalate to glaucoma surgeries.
我们会升级到青光眼手术
Bossert: Myths from the internet.
Bossert: 互联网上的一些谣言
Let’s do those next.
我们接下来说这些
“It’s OK to go swimming or take a shower in contact lenses.”
“戴隐形眼镜去游泳或是洗澡都没关系”
All right, everybody does it.
好吧 每个人都会这么做
But they really shouldn’t.
但这真的是不对的
You can really develop blinding infections
自来水和浴缸里的热水
from tap water and from water that’s in hot tubs.
真的会导致致盲性感染
Bossert: ‘Cause no matter what body of water we’re talking about,
Bossert:无论是哪种水质
they all have some bacteria in them, even tap water.
里面都有细菌 哪怕是自来水
Which, that bacteria that bothers our eyes
而那些对眼睛有伤害的细菌
doesn’t bother our stomach,
也许对胃没有损害
yet you don’t want to have it in the eye.
但是你不会希望眼睛感染到它们的
Yes, do we all wash our face and we get water in?
好吧 可我们不是都要洗脸 也会弄进水去吗?
We do.
没错
But the critical thing is that
但是关键在于
this particular bug, called pseudomonas,
这种叫假单胞菌的细菌
is small enough that it can embed itself in the pores, in the matrix of the contact lens.
它小到可以嵌入隐形眼镜的细孔中
And then it gets on your eye, and it sits there,
然后它就呆在你的眼睛上 一直在那里
and it sits there, and it sits there,
一直一直 不会离开
for all those hours that you have it on.
这样戴上几个小时
And that’s when the risk becomes high.
这时风险就变得很高
‘Cause then you reach up and you rub,
因为当你伸手去擦的时候
you disturb the top layer of cells on the eye.
你破坏了眼睛的顶层细胞
Now there’s a little window for that bacteria
现在就有一个窗口
to walk right into the eye.
让细菌直接进入眼睛了
And unfortunately with pseudomonas,
不幸的是 对于假单胞菌
we don’t have good treatment modalities.
我们没有好的治疗方法
It’s very resistant to the antibiotics that we have available to us.
它对我们现有的抗生素有很强的抗药性
“Stress causes eye floaters.”
“压力会引起飞蚊症”
No.

No.
不会
Age causes eye floaters.
年龄才会引起飞蚊症
And trauma.
还有创伤也会
A floater is just, it’s a vitreous detachment.
飞蚊症的漂浮物只是玻璃体脱离
And I tell my patients the vitreous is like Jell-O.
我告诉我的病人 玻璃体就像果冻
When you get older, it starts to liquefy,
当你变老时 它开始液化
and you get pockets, and dries up.
就像你的口袋 然后慢慢就干了
And that’s what causes separates from the inner lining, from the retina.
这样就导致玻璃体从内层 从视网膜分离
And that then floats all around in your field of vision.
然后在你的视野中四处飘浮
But it’s actually inside your eye.
但它实际上在你的眼睛里
People think it’s a cockroach, they think it’s an ant.
有人认为它是蟑螂 认为它是蚂蚁
They try to swat it away.
试着把它赶走
It’s not any of those things,
但它并不是那些东西
but it’s an actual change in the anatomy of your eye.
而实际上是你眼睛解剖结构的改变
It’s not caused by stress.
它不是压力导致的
“LASIK surgery is not safe.”
“LASIK手术并不安全”
LASIK surgery is definitely safe.
LASIK手术绝对安全
At this point, LASIK surgery’s been around …
说到这个 LASIK手术大概已有…
35 years now?
35年了吧?
Yes. If you were to do a Google search
没错 如果你去谷歌上搜索
that pulled up some of those early results,
翻出一些早期的研究结果
there were definitely instances
肯定有一些
where there were cases of blindness.
致盲的案例
A lot of that was changed
但是随着技术发展
by further advancements in the technology,
有不同的切皮瓣膜的方法
different ways to make the flap.
这种情况已经大大改变了
So now, in this day and age,
所以 在今时今日
I would say that LASIK surgery is perfectly safe.
我可以说 LASIK手术是相当安全的
That said, there is no surgery for any body part
虽然这么说 但没有任何一种手术
that doesn’t come with a risk of complications.
对所有个体都没有并发症的危险
Like, any body part. Wong: Yeah, totally.
毕竟 是所有个体啊 Wong:没错
You want the doctor that’s doing the procedure on a weekly basis.
你最好找每周都做一次这个手术的医生
You don’t want the doctor that’s doing this once every three or four months.
而不是找那些三四个月才做一次手术的医生
Wong: “Styes are contagious.”
Wong: “麦粒肿是会传染的”
Bossert: No. Wong: Not at all.
Bossert: 不是的 Wong: 绝对不会
Styes are not contagious.
麦粒肿不传染
And you don’t get them from pools, public pools.
你不会从泳池 公共泳池传染到
Bossert: And you don’t get them from rubbing your eyes.
Bossert: 也不会因为揉眼睛感染到
Wong: Doorknobs. Bossert: Kissing others.
Wong: 摸门把手 Bossert: 亲吻
No, you don’t get them from any of those things.
不 你也不会因为这些行为感染到
Just like some people can have more oily skin or more dry skin.
就像有些人可能是偏油性或偏干性皮肤
I describe it kind of like a pimple.
我把它形容成有点像一个丘疹
Bossert: The contents in the oil gland can be different consistencies.
Bossert: 每个人油脂腺分泌的油脂不同
So if you tend to have
所以如果你偏向于
that heavier, thicker oil inside the gland itself,
油脂腺内有更重 更厚的油脂
then you can be more prone to getting them.
那你就更容易出现麦粒肿
Wong: And usually what we want to do is heat.
Wong: 而我们通常能做的就是热疗
A lot of heat is going to help it drain.
大量的热量可以帮助排出油脂
Pink eye is contagious.
红眼病是有传染性的
What most people think of as pink eye is viral conjunctivitis.
大多数人认为的红眼是病毒性结膜炎
Sometimes it can be bacterial conjunctivitis.
有时也可能是细菌性结膜炎
Viral conjunctivitis is really, really contagious.
病毒性结膜炎真的真的很容易传染
That you do get from doorknobs and the surface of objects.
你可能从门把手和物体表面感染到
制作人:有没有可能 你对着某人脸上放屁 然后感染红眼病?
Is that something people think?
有人会这么想吗?
Producer: Yeah.
制作人: 有啊
Not true.
不是真的
What I hope people take away from this video
我希望大家看完这个视频后
is that they get their annual eye exams,
能每年进行眼科检查
they don’t equal good vision with eye health,
不要将良好的视力与眼睛健康相提并论
that they take their contact lenses out when they sleep and they shower,
睡觉和洗澡时不要戴隐形
and that they follow the 20-20-20 rule.
然后遵守20-20-20法则

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视频概述

关注眼睛健康 破解谣言

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KB94KvskOlU

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