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出口与进口 保护主义与关税 – 译学馆
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出口与进口 保护主义与关税

🚧 Exports and Imports | Protectionism, Tariffs and Who Benefits From Them

What do we pay with for the products and services we need?
我们用什么来支付所需的产品和服务?
With money, of course.
当然是用货币了
But if we realize that money is merely a medium of exchange,
但如果我们意识到 货币只是一种交换媒介
then what do we ultimately pay with?
那究竟用什么来支付呢?
We pay with production.
我们用产出来支付
To be able to consume, one first needs to produce.
生产是消费的前提
Consider a simple example: suppose that I’m a hairdresser
来看一个简单的例子 假设我是理发师
who wants to buy some bread rolls.
想买些圆面包
I can go to a grocery store and
我可以去食品杂货店
offer to buy the rolls in exchange for styling baker’s hair.
主动提出给面包师做头发来兑换圆面包
I may even be able to do that,
如果面包师需要做头发
provided that the baker wants my services.
我就可以得到面包
But the owner of the bakery may turn out to be bald,
但万一面包店老板没有头发呢
and thus consider my service to be worthless.
他会认为我提出的服务毫无用处
This is what makes money a useful medium of exchange.
因此产生了货币这一有用的交换媒介
I can make money by styling,
我给人做头发来挣钱
say, my friend Jessica’s hair,
比如给我的朋友Jessica做头发
and then use the money to buy the rolls.
然后用钱去买圆面包
But let us not fool ourselves.
不自圆其说了
The truth of the matter is that
事实真相是
I buy the rolls with my hairdressing services.
我是用美发服务来买的圆面包
I produce my services,
我产出服务
and this production allows me to eat the rolls.
是这个产出让我有面包吃
The fact that money is used as a medium of exchange
货币作为一种交换媒介
does not change the basic truth that
没有改变
in order to buy something we have to sell something first.
要买必先有卖这一基本事实
Such exchange, if voluntary, is obviously beneficial for both parties.
这种交换 若是自愿的 显然双方都可获益
If it were not, then no one would participate in it.
如果交换是非自愿的 那没人会参与其中
It suits me that as a hairdresser
做为理发师 我不但擅长且高效
I can focus on providing the services I am good and efficient at,
并能专心做好这件事 这适合我
and leaving the baking bread rolls to people who are best at it.
烤面包就让最擅长烘焙的人去做
While the bald baker does not need my services,
光头面包师虽然不需要我的服务
he is free to use the money he earns
但他可以用卖面包的钱
by selling his products to get other goods he needs.
随意买他需要的商品
It can turn out, for instance,
情况也可能是这样
that Jessica knows how to prepare a hair growth lotion
Jessica会配制生发液
which she sells to the baker on a regular basis.
她把生发液定期卖给面包师
Thanks to the market exchange,
由于有市场交换
me, Jessica, and the bald baker
我 Jessica 及光头面包师
can all get what we want cheaper and better than possible,
都能获得各自想要的产品
were we to produce these things ourselves.
且比自己的产出 更物美价廉
Then what are imports and exports?
那什么是进口和出口呢?
Basically, when you import something, you are buying it.
总体来说 进口就是你要买的物品
An export, in turn, is a sale.
相反 出口就是出售的物品
The only reason we have separate names for these transactions
我们给这些交易分别命名的原因只有一个
is because they involve individuals from different countries.
即这些交易涉及不同国家的个人
The economic laws, however, do not change simply
经济规律并没有变
because we have crossed a border.
只是因为我们跨境交易了
We still have to pay for consumption with production,
我们仍要用产出来支付消费
and the voluntary exchange remains beneficial for both parties.
自愿交换仍是互利互惠
To put it simply, we use exports to pay for imports.
简而言之 我们用出口来支付进口
You probably heard a claim that exports are more important than imports.
你或许听过出口比进口更重要的说法
Let us go back to the hairdresser’s case.
让我们回到理发师的这一例子上来
What do I care most about as a hairdresser?
作为理发师 我最关心的是什么?
Do I want to have more clients than bread rolls?
相比面包 我想要更多的客户吗?
Is production my real goal?
生产是我真正的目标吗?
Clearly not.
显然都不是
I would be most happy just lying belly up on a beach,
我最喜欢做的是一边躺在沙滩上
having free bread rolls serviced me by a waiter
一边吃着服务生免费送的面包
My goal is to be able to consume more,
我的目标是多消费
not to have to produce more.
而非多产出
Production is only a means to this end.
生产只是达到目的的手段
What we want is to import more,
我们想做的是进口更多商品
because it means getting all the cool stuff from abroad.
因为能从国外进口优质的产品
Export is a “ necessary evil ”
我们不喜欢出口 但出口十分必要
that allows us to pay for the imported goods.
因为可以用出口赚的钱来支付进口商品
If we would be able to continually import without exporting,
如果不出口 还能持续进口
it would be better for us!
对我们而言 当然再好不过
But we cannot have that.
但不会有这样的好事
With that in mind, we can now talk about protectionism.
鉴于此 现在我们来谈论一下保护主义
Consider this: we all know that
设想一下 众所周知
sanctions are used to harm a country.
制裁往往会伤害到一个国家
However, many people, for different reasons,
而许多人 出于不同的原因
consider trade tariffs and restrictions,
认为强加的贸易制裁
that is imposing trade sanctions on ourselves, to be a positive thing.
如关税和贸易限制 是好事
“We will stimulate domestic demand,” they say.
他们说 我们需要刺激内需
Is this the right thinking?
这种想法对吗?
Let us go back to an example from a previous video.
让我们回到之前视频中的例子
There are two countries.
有两个国家
One is up far North and the other down far South.
一个在很北的位置 另一个在很南的位置
Suppose that there is no contact between them.
假设这两个国家没有来往
The Northerners are superb producers of spruce planks,
北方国家虽盛产优质的云杉木板
but they want oranges as well.
但北方人还想吃橙子
This is why some individuals bore huge costs to build greenhouses,
因而有些人花大钱建造温室
thus creating just the right conditions for growing oranges.
为种植橙子提供合适的生长环境
The Southern country has an abundance of oranges, and they grow everywhere
南方国家盛产橙子 无需为种植橙子
without any need create special conditions for them.
刻意创造条件 橙子遍地都是
At some point these two countries establish trade relations.
某一天 这两个国家建立了贸易关系
The Northern market is suddenly flooded with cheap oranges.
北方市场突然涌入大量的便宜橙子
Southern oranges, even after paying for transportation, are half as cheap
算上运费 南方橙子也比北方温室的酸橙
and much tastier than the sour Northern ones grown in greenhouses.
便宜一半 且口感更好
You may think that access to cheaper oranges would benefit everyone.
或许你认为吃到更便宜的橙子 有利于每个人
Well, almost everyone.
好吧 是几乎每个人
Most Northern orange producers will be most unhappy.
但最不满意的将会是大多数北方橙子厂家
Some of them will try to push for tariffs
他们中的一些人试图要求增加关税
in an effort to protect domestic producers.
来保护国内橙子生产商
One of them will say that 500 people employed in his company
其中一人会说他公司的500名员工
will suddenly lose their jobs.
会突然就没了工作
Another will argue that the Southern competition is unfair
另一个则认为与南方竞争不公平
because Southerners have more sun than Northerners.
因为与北方比 南方日照更充足
Were orange producers to succeed
如果橙子生产商
in pushing through the tariffs on Southern oranges,
成功对南方橙子征收关税
they would gain,
他们就会获利
but all other people including domestic consumers would lose.
但包括国内消费者在内的其他人会蒙受损失
After all, the only reason for importing Southern oranges is that
毕竟进口南方橙子的原因只有一个
it is more profitable to grow them there.
那就是在南方种植更合算
Introducing tariffs means that
引入关税意味着
all consumers are subsidizing less efficient domestic producers
所有消费者多买橙子花的钱
by spending more on oranges than on anything else.
来补贴国内产效低的橙子生产商
Moreover, human capital, i.e.
此外 还有人力资本 也就是说
the employees of orange companies, is frozen in this ineffective activity,
橙子公司的低产效工作束缚了其员工
thus hindering the development of more effective industries
高效率产业想扩展业务 招聘员工
that want to expand their businesses and need employees.
因为这种情况 高效率产业发展会受阻
To put it simply,
简而言之
wastes limited resources on unprofitable production avenues.
就是在亏损生产渠道上浪费有限资源
These resources could otherwise supply both countries with much more added value.
这些有限资源本可以为两国创造更多价值
For any individual, city, province, or country,
对任何一个人 城市 省份 或国家来说
it is a blessing to be able not to spend money
不用投资生产
to produce something if it can be bought for less.
就能买到更便宜东西 是天大的好事
True, in the absence of such a tariff
事实是 不征收关税
the ineffective producer will get into trouble,
产能低的生产商会陷入麻烦
and he will probably have to close his business or restructure it.
公司要么倒闭 要么进行重组
But the same applies on an even narrower scale.
这一情况也适用于更小的区域
A more effective producer may appear in a city
一个城市或这个城市的其中一个城区
or one of its districts, thus
也许会冒出较高效率的生产商
pushing out a less effective producer out of his line of work.
从而淘汰掉低效能生产商
Which producer in his right mind cares
头脑清楚的生产商在意的是
whether he was pushed out of market by domestic or foreign competition?
把他挤出市场的是国内竞争者还是国外竞争者
None.
两者都不是
Customers do not care about this either.
消费者不关心这些
They just want to get a cheaper and better product.
他们只在意能买到物美价廉的商品
In this way, their living standard will increase,
这样 他们的生活水准就会提高
because they will be able to afford to buy more goods
因为他们能用最近省下来的钱
with their newly saved money.
买到更多的东西
This also creates a chance for the producer
这也给被挤出市场的生产商
who was pushed out of his line of work.
创造了机会
Now that the people can afford new things,
既然人们买得起新东西
he can start to provide them.
他就开始给他们供货
In other words,
换言之
importing a new product closes one avenue of work
进口新产品会阻断一个工作门路
while opening up another someplace else.
但在其他地方会打开新的商机
Thus free trade increases the wealth of both sides of the transaction.
如此 自由贸易增加了交易双方的财富
When we recognize that exchanges are positive for individuals,
我们认为交易有利于个人时
we must let go of the notion
必须摒弃一种观念
that the sum of these positive exchanges between individuals
即个体之间积极交易的总和
can have a negative effect.
会产生负面影响
The imposition of tariffs and restrictions on trade, however,
而征收关税 限制贸易
will always cause economic problems.
又总会引起经济问题
on the other hand,
反过来说
taking part in the international division of labor
参与国际劳动分工
increases our standard of living.
则能提高生活水准
There is a question, however, that is worth asking.
不过有一个问题值得一提
Can we make our production more competitive
那就是 我们能让本国的产品
than the production of other countries?
比其他国家更有竞争力吗?
In a way, yes.
在某种程度上 可以
As Jan Jakub Tyszkiewicz writes in his article,
就如Jan Jakub Tyszkiewicz 在
quite wittily entitled “ Our enemy, imports ”:
其标题风趣的一篇文章《我们的敌人 进口产品》中
“ Factors that make it more profitable to produce a good
写到:“ 一样产品在一个地方
in one place instead of another can be divided into two types:
比另一个地方盈利的原因有两种
intervention-based and market-based.”
干预因素和市场因素”
It is quite difficult to influence market-based factors to improve,
改善影响市场的因素比较难
because they boil down to such matters as availability of raw materials,
因为影响市场因素可以归结为 原材料的可获得性
geographic location, or, for example, manufacturing traditions,
地理位置 或比如说制造业传统 等一些问题
while intervention-based factors can hinder productivity quite easily.
同时干预因素也容易阻碍生产力
Some of these intervention-based factors
其中一些干预因素
include market regulations, taxes and fees, or trade unions
包括市场监管 税费或工会
having a grip over legislators.
会牵制立法者
True, we have little influence over the fact
的确 我们对以下事实的影响微乎其微
that a country simply has no significant oil reserves,
一个国家因没有大量石油储备
and thus cannot be an oil superpower.
就无法成为石油超级大国
With a bit of goodwill of the government, however,
如若政府姿态友好
we can abolish governmental interventions hindering our productivity.
我们可以取消阻碍生产力的 政府干预
Obviously, nothing will change the fact
当然 什么都改变不了
that our production capabilities will still be limited,
我们生产能力有限这一事实
as is always the case,
情况一贯如此
but we will become more effective in our production.
但我们的生产会更高效
So the recipe for a better position on international markets
因而在国际市场占据更有利位置的秘诀是
is less regulation instead of more of it.
要减少监管而非加强监管
Having better conditions to operate a business translates into an ability to
如果把运营业务的较有利条件
compete with other companies more effectively where possible.
转化成与其他公司更有效竞争的能力
No additional assistance from the government is needed.
就不需要政府的额外帮助
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感谢您的支持 赞助和评论
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感谢您分享我们的视频
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欢迎订阅YouTube频道
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在Facebook页面
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视频概述

通过具体例子来解释什么是进出口,为什么需要进出口,为什么会出现贸易保护和关税,以及让产品更有竞争力的因素有哪些。

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