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带孩子们探索玛雅文明 – 译学馆
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带孩子们探索玛雅文明

Exploring Maya Civilization for Kids: Ancient Mayan Culture Documentary for Children - FreeSchool

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你正在收看的节目是《基础校园》
Hundreds even thousands of years ago,
几百年甚至几千年前
before Europeans came to
在欧洲人开始
explore and conquer,
探索并征服世界前
the Maya ruled in Mesoamerica.
玛雅人便在中美洲居统治地位
One of the most powerful civilizations ever to exist
在现在的中美洲 玛雅文明是曾经存在过
in what is now Central America,
的最强大的文明之一
the Maya created huge stone temples and pyramids,
玛雅人修建了巨大的石庙 金字塔
elaborate artwork,
精美的艺术品
and a complex system of
还有让学者们困扰了几个世纪的
heiroglyphics that puzzled academics for centuries.
复杂的象形文字系统
Despite these achievements,
不谈这些成就
the Maya never unified and formed
玛雅人从未统一过 也没有在
an empire under a single leader:
某个统治者的统治下形成帝国
instead, many small city-states,
而是由许多小城邦组成
each ruled by its own kings, shared a common culture
每个城邦都由自己的国王统治 文化共享
to make up the Maya civilization.
这就形成了玛雅文明
The Maya people worshiped nature gods –
玛雅人民崇拜自然神
gods of the sun, the moon, rain, and corn.
太阳神 月神 雨神和玉米神
According to the Popol Vuh,
据《波波乌》记载
a book that contains the legends of the Maya,
这是一本囊括玛雅传说的书
the gods began by creating the earth and the sky.
诸神首先创造了天地
Next they made the animals, the birds and the flying creatures.
接着他们造动物 鸟类还有会飞的生物
There was just one problem:
但这就存在一个问题
the animals could not speak to worship the gods.
动物无法开口说话以表达对众神的崇拜
So the gods decided to make humans.
因此众神决定创造人类
The first humans were made out of mud,
第一批人类托生于泥土
but they crumbled back into dirt.
但他们会溃散成尘
The gods tried a second time, carving humans out of wood.
众神第二次试着用木头雕刻出人类
The wooden people were strong,
木头人十分强壮
but they did not worship the gods, and so the gods destroyed
但他们并不崇拜诸神 所以众神
them with a flood.
用一场洪水毁灭了他们
Finally the gods tried a third time,
最后 众神作出第三次尝试
and made humans out of white and yellow corn.
并用白玉米和黄玉米创造出人类
The precious corn was the material
玉米这种材料非常珍贵
that finally produced real humans who would worship the gods.
它最终制造出了懂得崇拜众神的 真正的人类
The Maya civilization developed in the thick jungles
玛雅文明起源于墨西哥尤卡坦半岛的
of Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula,
茂盛的丛林
spreading into what is now Guatemala, Belize,
传播至现在的危地马拉 伯利兹
western Honduras, and El Salvador.
洪都拉斯西部和萨尔瓦多等地
Four thousand years ago, around 2000 BC,
4000年前 即公元前2000年左右
the Maya began to farm,
玛雅人开始进行农耕活动
cultivating corn, beans, squash, and chili peppers.
种植玉米 大豆 南瓜和辣椒
They would have hunted deer, turkeys,
他们会去捕鹿 火鸡
rabbits, monkeys and iguana.
野兔 猴子和鬣鳞蜥
The Maya were also one of the first people
玛雅人还是第一批学着
learn to use cocoa beans.
去用可可豆的民族之一
The cocoa beans were made into a paste and mixed
先把可可豆粉制成糊状
with water, cornmeal, honey, and chile peppers
再和水 玉米粉 蜂蜜和辣椒酱搅拌
to make a spicy, frothy drink
调制出一种辛辣且多泡的饮品
for the Maya kings and priests.
来献给众王和祭司
Cocoa beans were so valuable
可可豆价值很高
that they were often used as a form of money.
因此总是作为货币来流通
Over time, these farms developed into permanent settlements
斗转星移 农场变成了固定居所
– towns, and villages.
也就是城镇和乡村
By 750 BC
直到公元前750年
these towns developed into bigger, more sophisticated cities.
这些城镇变成了更大也更复杂的城市
Some of their cities may have been home to more than 100,000 people.
部分城市可能有超过10万人居住
Most people lived in huts made out of poles and vines
大多数人住在用杆子和藤条搭成的棚屋里
and plastered with mud,
上面还抹了一层泥巴
but the ruling class lived in huge stone palaces.
但是统治阶级却住在巨大的石头宫殿内
Maya cities were the center of their culture.
玛雅的城市是文化的中心
As their cities grew,
随着城市的不断发展
the Maya built elaborate stepped stone pyramids,
玛雅人建造了精美的阶梯石制金字塔
paved roads and raised causeways,
铺好道路并且修筑堤道
wide plazas with tall stone monuments
宽阔的广场有着高高的石头纪念碑
and altars for religious sacrifices.
还有用于宗教祭祀的祭坛
Another common feature of Maya cities were
玛雅城市的另一个特色是
large stone courts that could be used to play a sport
有能进行一种简单球类运动的
known simply as’the ballgame.’
大型石头球场
The Maya ballgame was central to their culture
玛雅球赛是他们文化的核心
and their cities,
也位于城市中心地带
and was a symbol of their wealth and power.
还是财富及权力的一种象征
The stone courts had high sides
石头球场周围很高
where people could sit and watch
人们可以坐在那里观看
as two teams competed for control of
两队为了争得橡皮重球的
a heavy ball made of rubber.
控制权而展开的竞争
Players were not allowed to move the ball
球员们不被允许用手或脚
with their hands or feet, instead hitting it
去移动球 而是用臀部
with their hips, elbows and knees to keep it in the air.
手肘和膝盖去把球击至半空
The players tried to get the ball through a small stone hoop,
球员们要尽全力把球打进环形小石洞
high up on a wall of the court.
石洞在球场的围墙上
Getting the ball through the hoop ended the game,
如果球进了圆环 比赛结束
but it was so difficult to do
但这非常难做到
that the games could go on for weeks.
因此一场比赛能持续几周
The ballgame was more than just a sport.
球赛不仅仅只是一场运动
It symbolized a battle between the Maya gods in the heavens,
它还象征着天堂中的玛雅众神
and the rulers of Xibalba, the underworld.
和地狱统治者之间的战斗
The winning team would represent the Hero Twins of Maya legend,
获胜队伍将代表玛雅神话中的英雄双胞胎
and the losers were sometimes sacrificed to the gods.
战败方有时会被献祭给众神
Sacrifice was important in Maya culture.
献祭在玛雅文化中非常重要
An offering of blood was seen as food or nourishment for the gods.
祭品的鲜血被视为众神的食物或营养品
Sometimes the Maya would cut themselves and offer their blood to the gods.
有时玛雅人会割伤自己来给众神提供血液
Other times they would sacrifice animals.
其他时候他们用动物献祭
Human sacrifice was usually limited to important events,
人祭仅限于发生重大事件之时
like the dedication of a new temple
比如一座新寺庙的落成典礼
or a new king, or times of trouble,
新王继位或是像饥荒 干旱 战争
like famine, drought, or war.
这样的困难时期
War was frequent in the lands of the Maya.
玛雅大地上经常发生战争
They were not unified under a single ruler.
玛雅人不是由某个统治者统治
Instead, each city and its surrounding land was ruled
相反 每个城市和其周围地域都由
by its own king, or’holy lord,’
其国王或神圣的主管辖
who claimed to be related to the gods
他们自称和众神有关系
and communicate with them for their people.
并可以为了人民和众神进行交流
These small kings fought each other for resources,
这些小王为了资源 领土和权力
for territory, and for power.
互相发动战争
It was common for warriors to make small raids
对战士们来说 向邻地发动小型突袭
into their neighbor’s territory, taking captives
活捉俘虏 洗劫财产
and looting their riches.
是再稀松平常不过的了
Prisoners were sometimes tortured and forced to play the ballgame,
有时囚犯们会受到折磨 并被迫参加球赛
after which they would be sacrificed.
球赛过后他们就会成为祭品
Sometimes larger battles resulted in a strong city
有时更大规模的战争
conquering or destroying a weaker one.
会导致强者征服或摧毁弱者
The Maya were proud of their battles.
玛雅人为战争感到自豪
Warrior kings had their victories recorded on stone monuments,
战神会把胜利记录在石碑上
which endure to this day.
保存至今日
Between the frequent warring and human sacrifice,
由于不断的战争和人祭
you might think that the Maya were a violent and warlike people,
你可能认为玛雅人暴力又好战
but they were also scholars and astronomers,
但是他们也是学者和天文学家
who made many advances in mathematics, writing, and art.
在数学 文字和艺术上取得很多进展
The Maya developed a complete system of numbers
玛雅人发明了完整的20进位制记数系统
based on the number 20, nearly 1,000 years
比我们现在使用的阿拉伯数字系统
before the development of the Arabic number system that we use today.
早了将近1000年
They also discovered the concept of zero,
他们还发现了零的概念
one of only a few cultures in history to invent it independently.
而历史上只有少数几个文明独自发现过此概念
They used their number system to create one
他们用自己的数字系统创造出一个
of the most accurate calendar systems ever made,
最精准的历法系统之一
one which would not be rivaled for a thousand years.
千年来都未逢敌手
They made great advancements in astronomy,
他们还在天文学方面做出伟大的成就
observing the skies as closely as possible
无需使用望远镜就可以极其细致地
without a telescope.
观测天空
With these, they were able to track the motions
以此为基础 他们就能够极为精准地追踪到
of the sun, the moon and the planets very accurately,
太阳 月亮乃至其他行星的远动轨迹
and correctly predict their motions even thousands of years in the future.
并准确预测其未来甚至于几千年后的运动轨迹
Around 300 BC, the Maya began to write.
公元前300年左右 玛雅人开始进行书写
It was the only true writing system
这是唯一曾在美洲发展起来的
ever to be developed in the Americas.
真正的文字系统
Instead of 26 letters, like the English alphabet,
不像英语字母表中的26个字母
the Maya used more than 800 different hieroglyphs.
玛雅人使用800个以上不同的象形文字
Some of the heiroglyphs represented words,
有些象形文字就代表字
while others represented syllables that could
但其他的则表示
be combined to spell out words and write sentences.
能够组合在一起拼写成字和句子的音节
The Maya made paper books from the inner bark
玛雅人用折叠起来像个手风琴的树皮内层
of trees that folded up like an accordion.
制造纸书
A book of this kind is called a codex.
这样的书现在被称为古抄本
In the 16th century,
16世纪时
all but a handful of the Maya codices were burned
除了少数几本古抄本
by Spanish priests and conquistadors.
其他的基本全被西班牙传教士和征服者烧毁
Fortunately, the Maya left written records many other places,
幸运的是 玛雅人在很多别的地方记录了文字
carved in stone in temples, sculptures,
把文字刻在神庙的石头上 雕塑上
and on monuments,
还有石碑上
which lets us piece together some of their history.
这样使得我们拼凑出他们零碎的历史
The Maya have been called by some the greatest artists in Mesoamerica.
中美洲一些伟大的艺术家称其为玛雅人
Although they had no metal tools,
尽管他们没有金属工具
they were expert carvers, creating elaborate objects
但他们却是雕刻方面的专家
out of bone, flint, and jade.
用骨头 燧石和碧玉雕刻出精美的作品
They carved the stone of their buildings –
他们在建筑物的石头上进行雕刻
the walls, the doorways, and the stairs.
刻在墙壁 门廊和台阶上
They carved their sacrificial altars and the markers of the ball courts.
他们雕刻了祭坛和球场的标志
Most of all, they carved monuments to their kings
最重要的是 他们给他们的王雕刻纪念碑
and their warriors, recording victories
为战士们记录下胜利
and important events for their history.
还记录历史上的重大事件
The Maya were also skilled in ceramics,
玛雅人还很擅于制陶
making pottery of many different shapes and sizes.
做许多形状大小不一的陶器
Cups, bowls, plates and vases
杯子 碗 盘子和花瓶上
were often elaborately decorated with paintings or carvings,
常常精心地装饰着绘画或雕刻
sometimes even with heiroglyphic writing.
有时候上面甚至还刻着象形文字
The Maya also made detailed and realistic figurines
玛雅人也会制作细节逼真的
in the shape of people and animals.
人形或兽形小雕像
Although few examples survived
尽管很少有东西
the tropical climate of the Maya homeland,
能在玛雅地区的热带气候中保留下来
they also made beautiful paintings and murals.
但他们仍会制作精美的绘画及壁画
Some of the brightest and most vivid murals remaining
其中一些保存下来的最亮眼最生动的
used a special color called Maya blue.
壁画使用了一种名叫玛雅蓝的特殊颜色
This bright blue color was very strong,
这种亮蓝色十分浓烈
and did not fade as cities were overtaken by jungle.
即使城市被丛林覆盖 这蓝色也未曾消退
After the fall of Maya civilization,
玛雅文明衰落之后
the secret to making this color was lost,
调配这种颜色的秘诀就失传了
puzzling chemists and artists alike for hundreds of years.
数百年来 化学家和艺术家都困惑不已
At the height of their culture,
在玛雅文明高度繁荣之时
Maya population may have topped 5 million people,
玛雅人口数量可能达到500万
but around 900 AD, their civilization began to decline.
但公元900年左右时 玛雅文明开始衰落
It did not fall all at once –
衰落并非一夕之间
because it was never an empire with a centralized government,
因为玛雅并不是一个中央集权的帝国
the fall was slow and gradual.
衰落的过程是潜移默化的
One by one, cities fell into chaos
城市一个接一个地陷入混乱
and were abandoned to be reclaimed by the jungle,
并被遗弃在丛林中
but no one is really sure why.
但却无人知晓真正的原因
Perhaps the population grew too large
也许是因为人口数量增长太过庞大
for the land to produce enough food for everyone to eat.
以至于土地无法生产出足够每人吃的食物
Maybe constant wars between city-states destroyed
也许是城邦间不休的战争摧毁了
trade routes and alliances.
贸易路线和贸易联盟
Even a long drought could have caused people to abandon their cities.
甚至是久旱不雨也可能导致人们遗弃自己的城市
By the time the Spanish arrived in the 1500s,
直到西班牙人16世纪来到玛雅时
most Maya were living in small farming villages,
大多数玛雅人都住在小型的农耕村庄
their ancient stone cities forgotten
古老的石头城被遗忘
and lost beneath a layer of living jungle.
并消失在一片生机勃勃的丛林中
A few cities were still inhabited,
少数几个城市还有人居住
but they were not used ceremonially the way they had
但这些城市已不再像几个世纪前那样
been centuries earlier.
作为仪式需要来使用
The Maya were one of the most enduring and longest-lasting civilizations
玛雅文明是世界历史上最为渊远流长的
in the history of the world.
文明之一
Many people have wondered, where did they go?
很多人想知道 玛雅人去何处了
The truth is, the Maya are not gone.
事实上 玛雅民族并未离开
Millions of Maya still live in their ancestral homeland in the Yucatan,
数百万玛雅人仍然住在祖辈生活过的尤卡坦半岛
speaking Mayan languages
用玛雅语交流
and practicing the traditions of their people.
延续着玛雅人的传统
As for the ancient Maya, we are still learning about them.
至于古代玛雅人 我们仍在研究中
Many Maya structures are hidden in the jungles of the Yucatan,
许多玛雅建筑隐藏在尤卡坦半岛的丛林中
overgrown and just waiting
杂草丛生
for explorers and archaeologists to find them.
只等探险家和考古学家去探寻
Pyramids and cities, as well as the artifacts and treasures
丛林中的金字塔 古城市
inside them are constantly being discovered.
手工艺品和财宝不断被人们发现
As they are, we add more pieces to the puzzle
正因不断的发掘 我们的拼图碎片数量增多
and improve our understanding of the Maya,
也加强了我们对玛雅文明
the ancient builders of Mesoamerica.
对中美洲古建筑的了解
I hope you enjoyed learning about the Maya today.
希望你们喜欢今天关于玛雅文明的学习
Goodbye till next time!
下期见

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视频来源

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