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鹦鹉螺实验 – 译学馆
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鹦鹉螺实验

Experimentals: Nautiluses

这是一个关于鹦鹉螺的故事
(Narrator) This is a nautilus story
一只鹦鹉螺永远不会忘记 自然界的数学方程
A chamberednautilus never forgets—Nature’s math equation—
以及寻找尼摩船长…
And finding Captain Nemo…
我真的很想研究一种依赖感官系统的动物
(Dr.Jennifer Basil) I really wanted to workon an animal that relied on a sensory system
我从未接触过的动物
that I really wasn’t privy to.
我是说 你成为一名科学家
I mean, when you become a scientist it’s
是因为你乐于面对未知事物
because you are comfortable facing the great unknown,
并努力了解它到底意味着什么 去看看除此之外还有什么
and trying to see what it means, and see what’s out there.
鹦鹉螺经过五次大规模的物种灭绝而幸存下来
Nautiluses have survived five mass extinctions,
包括使地球上几乎90%的物种都消失的
including the Permian Extinction, which killed off
二叠纪物种灭绝
almost 90 percent of life on Earth,
还有最终使恐龙灭绝的
and also, the Cretaceous Extinction that,
白垩纪物种灭绝
wound up killing off the dinosaurs.
你将通过古老的大脑来窥探这个世界
You’re getting to peek into the world of anancient brain.
一个显然在做正确事情的大脑
A brain, that clearly is doing something right,
因为它的思想已经传承了数千年
as the lineage has survived for hundreds of millions of years.
我用物体在迷宫里牵引它们
I’ve run them in mazes with objects,
它们知道这些物体的位置
and they learn where the objects are,
并且能意识到这些物体移动了
and they learned of the objects have moved.
它们可能一直在做一些非常复杂的事情
They’ve probably been doing highly complicated things for a very long time,
毫无疑问 这些时间肯定比我们的久
longer than we have, that’s for sure.
我认为
I think one of the reasons why
人们不认为鹦鹉螺能做这些复杂行为
people didn’t attribute complex behavior to them is
原因之一是它们的世界观与我们不同
their world view is so different.
“客观世界”是动物内在的世界观
“Umwelt,” means the internal worldviewof an animal.
这就是研究动物行为学或动物反应的学者们
And that’s what people who study ethology, or animal behavior,
尝试去理解的
try to understand.
当动物们运用感官和人们完全不同时
And when animals are using senses completely different from yours,
想要理解是很困难的
that’s very hard.
鹦鹉螺的视觉不具有很高的灵敏度
Nautiluses are not highly visual.
它们主要依赖于触觉和嗅觉
They rely primarily on touch and on smell.
你知道 你在游泳时
You know, when you’re swimming
你会感觉到水向你流来
and you feel the water moving against you
想象一下 如果你有90只触手
think if you had 90 tentacles,
它们全都检测到了水流中不同的波动
all of them detecting different wavelets of water
就像此时 万物盛开
Like right now, everything’s in bloom, and,
你可以闻到杜鹃花的芳香
you know you can smell the azaleas.
但是你想想你是否能够判断
But can you imagine if you could also say,
这个杜鹃花丛有3002朵盛开的花吗?
‘That azalea bush has 3,002 blossoms on it’?
想象一下这种数量级的类似信息
Think of that amount of information that’s kind of like,
我认为 它可能相当于
I think, what it would be like
一个生活在深海中的鹦鹉螺接受的信息量
to be a nautilus living in the deep ocean.
所以很可能是
So it could very well be
鹦鹉螺的学习和记忆与嗅觉有关
that the learning and memory is linked to the sense of smell
因为那是它主要依赖的感觉
of the nautilus because that’s the primary sense that it relies upon.
住了15年 我能进入公寓 放下钥匙
After 15 years I can go into my apartment and put my keys down,
嗯 虽然我知道桌子在哪
um,’cause I know where the table is,
但是我仍然把灯打开了
but I still turn the light on.
鹦鹉螺不需要光…
Nautiluses don’t need the lights…
因此它们要解决的问题我一点也不了解
So they’re solving problems that are completely alien to me,
这真的改变了
and that’s really changed the
我对智力的认知 同时改变了我的世界观
way I think about intelligence, and also how I view the world.
大自然的数学方程式
Nature’s Math Equation
考虑一下鹦鹉螺的形状
(Narrator) Consider the nautilus’ form.
如果你打开了它坚硬的外壳 那它看起来就是这样的
If you crack open the hard, outer casing,that is.
鹦鹉螺的壳要么是上升螺旋
Depending on how you look at it,
要么是下降螺旋 这取决于你怎么看
its shell is either an ever increasing or decreasing
每一条曲线都是连续的并且形状不变
chambered spiral, its shape unaltered witheach successive curve.
沿着螺旋延伸的扭曲壁面
The twisting walls along this spiral make
形成了众所周知的分形图像
what’s known as a fractal pattern.
这种图像是一种
And that pattern is a kind
常出现在我们身边的方程式图
of equation occurring all around us in nature:
罗马花椰菜 盐滩 闪电 雪花 云 山 孔雀羽毛 蕨类植物
Romanesco broccoli, salt flats, lightning,snowflakes, clouds, mountains, peacock feathers, ferns,
瀑布 当然还有鹦鹉螺……
waterfalls, and, of course, nautiluses…
这个图像为什么叫分形图像呢?
So what makes a pattern fractal?
想象一下公园里的一棵树
Imagine a tree in a park.
整棵树
The whole tree.
现在 想象一根树枝
Now, a branch.
它就像一棵树的缩小版 对吧?
It’s like a smaller version of the tree,right?
好 那么树枝上的枝条呢?
OK, what about a branch on the branch?
它就像一棵树更小的缩小版
It’s like an even smaller version of a tree.
以此类推
And on and on.
分形图像在随机性中找到了不变性……
A fractal pattern finds constancy in randomness…
因此一棵树可以被分割成好几部分
Therefore a tree can be divided into parts
每一个连续的部分都十分相似
and each successive part is a very similar
与整体非常相似 有时候甚至是完全一样
— sometimes identical — reduced copy ofthe whole.
分形通常是无限的
A fractal is potentially never-ending,
通过一遍又一遍简单地复制被创造出来
created by repeating a simple process over and over
不停重复……
and over and over and over and over…
这就是为什么你会在电影中看到分形
That’s why you find fractals in movies,
所以那些看起来不可能的电脑特效更加容易制作
so CGI of impossible things are easier to make
例如 《星际旅行二:可汗怒吼》中的“创世纪星球序列”
For example, “The Genesis planet sequence”in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan.
这里的分形技巧是一个可控的随机形式
The fractal technique here is a form of controlled randomness,
通过增加天然的复杂度来模拟场景
which adds a natural-like complexity to simulated scenes.
研究者们同样
Reserchers, too,
也在使用分形几何建造模型
are now using fractal geometry to build models
从而比以往更早发现 疾病和畸形的微观形态
to find microscopic patterns of diseases and abnormalities earlier thanever before.
分形学可以创造事物 也可以进行预测
Fractals can create and fractals can predict…
到处都是分形学
There are fractals all over….
到处都是
and over and over and over and over…
(解说员)让我来给你讲一讲世界上第一部水下电影
(Narrator) Let me tell you about the world’sfirst underwater motion picture.
那是一匹死去的马
That’s a dead horse.
这是拍摄技巧的发明者
That’s the inventor of the filming technique.
这是他手上的一把刀
That’s a knife in his hand.
这是一头鲨鱼 不过
And that’s a shark. But,
这是之后发生的事
that’s later.
故事从儒勒·凡尔纳开始 它必须如此
The story begins, as it must, with Jules Verne.
(所有在海洋表面以下发生的好故事都是这么开始的…)
(All good stories below the ocean’s surfacedo…)
那一年是1916年
The year is 1916.
凡尔纳的无声默片《海底两万里》
The silent film of his 20,000 Leagues
是世界上唯一一部这种类型的影片
Under the Sea is “ the only production of its kind in the world.
其中的见解被人们否定了数千年
[with] sights that for thousandsof centuries have been denied to mankind.”
在图像中 你第一次从尼莫船长的“魔窗”中向外看
In the picture, the first time you see out Captain Nemo’s “ magic window,
凡尔纳的虚构历险
” the fiction
就结束了…
of Verne’s adventure stops…
在差不多九分钟的时间里 一部纪录片就是播放的这些画面
For almost nine minutes, a documentary ofsorts plays out like this.
实际上 魔窗是光球的炮眼…
The magic window is, in reality, the portholeof the photosphere…
凡尔纳的鹦鹉螺号就呈现出来了
Verne’s Nautilus ship come to life.
这就是光球
This is the photosphere.
这是它的发明者 JE·威廉姆森
This is its inventor, J.E. Williamson.
威廉姆森的父亲是一位船长 他也负责清理沉船
J.E.’s father, a sea captain and shipwreck scavenger,
他之前设计了一种打捞设备
had previously designed a deep-sea
一根管子和一个有窗户的船舱相连
salvaging device: a tube affixed to a windowed chamber capable
这种设备可以探寻到海洋深处
of reaching great depths…
当然闪电也启发了威廉姆森
Lightning, of course, struck.
通过加装一盏灯为水里照明
J.E would add a lamp to illuminate the water
而且他还设计了一个窗户更大的观察室
and design a viewing chamber with larger windows…
同时 他还在舱口架了一台照相机
ALso, he dropped a camera down the hatch.
1914年
In 1914
威廉姆森回溯他的第一次拍摄经历
J.E got backing for his first filming experiment,
他将一艘驳船命名为儒勒·凡尔纳
christened a barge the Jules Verne,
并将航向调向巴哈马群岛…
and set a course for the Bahamas…
现在你正看到的是
What you’re seeing right now is
第一部在水下拍摄的电影
the first motion picture recorded below the ocean’s surface
威廉姆森的实验成果
—the result of J.E.’s experiment.
多么奇怪
How strange
这个人们所知甚少的世界中的动态影像记录
that the first moving images recorded of this little-seen world
竟是一匹倒置的用来引诱鲨鱼的死马
were of a dead horse lowered upside down as bait for a shark.
不仅把鲨鱼引向了照相机
Not only to lure the shark to the camera,
还诱导它走向了死亡
but to lure it to its death…
和美丽比起来 人们更喜欢暴力
That violence was prefered over beauty…
威廉姆森答应了他的投资人 让人和鲨鱼展开搏斗
J.E promised his financiers a fight betweenman and shark.
一名被雇佣的巴哈马潜水员参加了第一镜
The first take was of a hired Bahamian diver,
但是他杀死鲨鱼的场景
but he killed a shark
没有被镜头捕捉到
just out of the camera’s frame.
威廉姆森本人则参加了第二镜
The second take was of J.E himself…
他是这样回忆当时的经过的
He remembered it like this:
“我抓住了那只怪物的鳍 感觉自己的手紧紧攥住了它
“ I grasped the monster’s fin, felt my hand close upon it.
转了一下 我就来到了它青白色的腹部下面
With a twist, I was under the livid white belly
这是我试图够到的地方
at the spot I was trying to reach.
我用我剩下的力气攻击了它
With all my remaining strength I struck.
当我感觉到整把刀除了刀柄都扎进了鲨鱼的肉里时
A quivering thrill raced up my arm
我的胳膊产生了一种使人颤栗的兴奋感
as I felt the blade bury itself to the hilt in the flesh…
然后就是模糊 困惑 混乱”
Then a blur, confusion—chaos.
威廉姆森又说:“我设法上了甲板
J.E Williamson (again): Somehow I had managedto reach the deck…
因为用力过猛 我仍然气喘吁吁 大脑一片混乱
Still panting from exertion, my head in a whirl,
我及时地顺着管道滑下来
I slid down the tube in time to witness
得以目睹了那条鲨鱼生命的最后时刻
the end of the shark.
它的腹部朝上
With upturned belly gleaming
透过水面 在晃动的阳光照耀下闪着光
in the wavering sunlight filtering through the waters,
那头死去的怪物漂走了”
the dead monster was drifting away.”
在拍摄了六千英尺的胶片之后
Six thousand feet of celluloid ribbon later,
儒勒·凡尔纳号调整航向回到了美国
the Jules Verne set a course back to America.
这部影片上映时的标题是《海底两万里》
The resulting film was exhibited under thetitle,”Thirty Leagues Under the Sea,”
后来更名为《深海之惧》
and later came to be known as”The Terrors of the Deep”…

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视频概述

本视频介绍了鹦鹉螺这一存在了数亿年的物种,之后由此引出分形图像以及其在生活中无处不在,最后介绍了世界上第一部在水下拍摄的电影《海底两万里》又名《深海之惧》。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

猫巷

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CkJ1MKMO0MI

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