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体验式学习 – 译学馆
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体验式学习

Experiential Learning

Arguably the most natural and powerful form of learning
可以说 最自然而有力学习方式
is through experience,
是从经验中学习
or more precisely through reflection on doing.
或更准确的说是反思
Also called experiential learning,
也称为实践学习
it’s what prima ballerinas do
这正是首席女舞者在
after their performance at the national opera.
国家歌剧表演后的学习方式
But it also happens to boys that are sad
但当小男孩在卧室踢足球
because their father got angry
面对生气的父亲
when they played football in the living room.
伤心的他们也会有同样的做法
By the age of one,
到一岁时
we all had our own painful encounter with
我们都会有实践学习的
experiential learning
痛苦遭遇
when we tried to walk, failed,
学习走路 跌倒
fell and cried like, well a baby…
再跌倒 哭泣 像婴儿一样地哭
And even though this was an unpleasant and
即使这个令人难过
discouraging exercise that lasted for months
沮丧的练习会持续好几个月
in the end
但最后
we all made it.
我们都成功了
How is that possible?
这怎么可能呢
As soon as we fell and the first shock was over,
我们在跌倒的同时 首次冲击就已经消失了
our brain unconsciously began to make sense
大脑会无意识地开始理解
out of all of the information available
从所有得到的信息中
to identify how this embarrassment occurred.
辨别这令人为难的事是怎么发生的
It remembers that when we pushed ourselves up,
大脑记住我们用手推动身体站立
everything was fine:
一切都顺利
our feet on the floor,
双脚站在地板上
our arms in position and our head
双臂摆放好
and shoulders up right.
头和肩膀伸直
Ready to go!
准备好了
When our upper leg muscles
大腿肌肉
pulled our left foot 12.3% to the front
会以23度角拉动左脚
at an angle of 23 degree,
向前挪12.3%
our arms didn’t complement the movement
这个过程不需要双臂
and the ventricles in the inner ear,
用内耳心室辅助以
responsible for static balance,
保持静态平衡
got confused for a second.
有点晕了
When at the same moment the cat ran by,
这时刚好一只猫经过
our eyes sent an alarming signal to the hippocampus
眼睛会向海马体发送警觉信号
and we completely lost it…
而我们却完全丢失了它
Outch!

Unconsciously this is how our brain analyses
这就是大脑潜意识分析
the relationship of events within our body
发生在身体或环境的事情
or in the environment.
之间的联系
It happens all the time as we learn to walk,
同样大脑也会在我们学着走路
talk,
说话
kiss,
接吻
function in a fancy office
在漂亮办公室工作
or dance the salsa.
或跳萨尔萨舞来分析
Once we understand the connections between
一旦我们意识到事情的联系
what went wrong,
变糟糕了
we know what we need to change
我们就会知道在
when we try the next time.
下一次该怎么改变
Experiential Learning
实践学习
can also be used explicitly to learn a new skill
也可以直接用来学习一门新技能
or to become better at what we already love doing.
或让我们把热爱的事情做得更好
Here is how it works:
以下是该学习步骤
First get yourself into a situation to experience.
首先让自己身处某一情景去实践
After, reflect on what happened.
之后 回顾所发生的事情
Then try to understand the relationships
然后尝试去理解其中的联系
to form an abstract concept
建立一个抽象概念
– if I do A,
如果我做A
I get B.
我会得到B
Last, decide what to do differently next time.
最后 决定在下次做出什么样的改变
Then do it again.
接着再做一次
Experiential learning is also believed to be responsible
实践学习也被认定为
for the fact that musicians
通常音乐家
generally fare better at most tests,
在大部分测试中表现会更好一些
regardless of what they measure.
不管测试内容是什么
People that practice an instrument
人们在练习乐器时
not only engage their brains in motor,
大脑不仅仅参与驱动
visual and auditory areas,
视觉和听觉部分
but they also learn by reflecting on what they’re doing
而且大脑也会以快速反馈的方式
with a fast feedback loop
反思正在做的事情
– a wrong tone on the violin sounds too terrible
拉小提琴拉错一个音调听起来会太糟糕
to remain unnoticed.
很难忽略掉
While playing they therefore not only learn to make music,
拉小提琴时 大脑不仅是在学习演奏音乐
but also that progress in general comes through practice,
而且是通过整个练习过程来学习
reflection,
反思
understanding,
理解
and repetition.
重复
You can use it with your friends
跟朋友或同事
or colleagues when working on a project.
一起做项目时 你也可以使用这一方法
Silicon Valley start-ups do it
硅谷创业者也使用该方法
when they tell their developers to get out of the building!
告诉研发者走出大楼
After the interaction with real potential customers,
在与真实的潜在客户互动后
the team gets together,
团队聚在一起
analyses the feedback
分析反馈
and decides what to do next.
决定下一步行动
Tell us, what do you think?
告诉我们 你的想法
Is learning through reflecting on doing
通过反思来学习
only good when acquiring new hands-on skills
只是对需要实际操作技能的学习有利吗
or is it also suitable to study science,
或者该学习方法对研究科学
math,
数学
the humanities
人性
or abstract art?
或抽象艺术也适用

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体验式学习的介绍

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视频来源

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