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体验式学习 – 译学馆
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体验式学习

Experiential Learning

可以说 最自然而有力学习方式
Arguably the most natural and powerful form of learning
是从经验中学习
is through experience,
或更准确的说是反思
or more precisely through reflection on doing.
也称为实践学习
Also called experiential learning,
这正是首席女舞者在
it’s what prima ballerinas do
国家歌剧表演后的学习方式
after their performance at the national opera.
但当小男孩在卧室踢足球
But it also happens to boys that are sad
面对生气的父亲
because their father got angry
伤心的他们也会有同样的做法
when they played football in the living room.
到一岁时
By the age of one,
我们都会有实践学习的
we all had our own painful encounter with
痛苦遭遇
experiential learning
学习走路 跌倒
when we tried to walk, failed,
再跌倒 哭泣 像婴儿一样地哭
fell and cried like, well a baby…
即使这个令人难过
And even though this was an unpleasant and
沮丧的练习会持续好几个月
discouraging exercise that lasted for months
但最后
in the end
我们都成功了
we all made it.
这怎么可能呢
How is that possible?
我们在跌倒的同时 首次冲击就已经消失了
As soon as we fell and the first shock was over,
大脑会无意识地开始理解
our brain unconsciously began to make sense
从所有得到的信息中
out of all of the information available
辨别这令人为难的事是怎么发生的
to identify how this embarrassment occurred.
大脑记住我们用手推动身体站立
It remembers that when we pushed ourselves up,
一切都顺利
everything was fine:
双脚站在地板上
our feet on the floor,
双臂摆放好
our arms in position and our head
头和肩膀伸直
and shoulders up right.
准备好了
Ready to go!
大腿肌肉
When our upper leg muscles
会以23度角拉动左脚
pulled our left foot 12.3% to the front
向前挪12.3%
at an angle of 23 degree,
这个过程不需要双臂
our arms didn’t complement the movement
用内耳心室辅助以
and the ventricles in the inner ear,
保持静态平衡
responsible for static balance,
有点晕了
got confused for a second.
这时刚好一只猫经过
When at the same moment the cat ran by,
眼睛会向海马体发送警觉信号
our eyes sent an alarming signal to the hippocampus
而我们却完全丢失了它
and we completely lost it…

Outch!
这就是大脑潜意识分析
Unconsciously this is how our brain analyses
发生在身体或环境的事情
the relationship of events within our body
之间的联系
or in the environment.
同样大脑也会在我们学着走路
It happens all the time as we learn to walk,
说话
talk,
接吻
kiss,
在漂亮办公室工作
function in a fancy office
或跳萨尔萨舞来分析
or dance the salsa.
一旦我们意识到事情的联系
Once we understand the connections between
变糟糕了
what went wrong,
我们就会知道在
we know what we need to change
下一次该怎么改变
when we try the next time.
实践学习
Experiential Learning
也可以直接用来学习一门新技能
can also be used explicitly to learn a new skill
或让我们把热爱的事情做得更好
or to become better at what we already love doing.
以下是该学习步骤
Here is how it works:
首先让自己身处某一情景去实践
First get yourself into a situation to experience.
之后 回顾所发生的事情
After, reflect on what happened.
然后尝试去理解其中的联系
Then try to understand the relationships
建立一个抽象概念
to form an abstract concept
如果我做A
– if I do A,
我会得到B
I get B.
最后 决定在下次做出什么样的改变
Last, decide what to do differently next time.
接着再做一次
Then do it again.
实践学习也被认定为
Experiential learning is also believed to be responsible
通常音乐家
for the fact that musicians
在大部分测试中表现会更好一些
generally fare better at most tests,
不管测试内容是什么
regardless of what they measure.
人们在练习乐器时
People that practice an instrument
大脑不仅仅参与驱动
not only engage their brains in motor,
视觉和听觉部分
visual and auditory areas,
而且大脑也会以快速反馈的方式
but they also learn by reflecting on what they’re doing
反思正在做的事情
with a fast feedback loop
拉小提琴拉错一个音调听起来会太糟糕
– a wrong tone on the violin sounds too terrible
很难忽略掉
to remain unnoticed.
拉小提琴时 大脑不仅是在学习演奏音乐
While playing they therefore not only learn to make music,
而且是通过整个练习过程来学习
but also that progress in general comes through practice,
反思
reflection,
理解
understanding,
重复
and repetition.
跟朋友或同事
You can use it with your friends
一起做项目时 你也可以使用这一方法
or colleagues when working on a project.
硅谷创业者也使用该方法
Silicon Valley start-ups do it
告诉研发者走出大楼
when they tell their developers to get out of the building!
在与真实的潜在客户互动后
After the interaction with real potential customers,
团队聚在一起
the team gets together,
分析反馈
analyses the feedback
决定下一步行动
and decides what to do next.
告诉我们 你的想法
Tell us, what do you think?
通过反思来学习
Is learning through reflecting on doing
只是对需要实际操作技能的学习有利吗
only good when acquiring new hands-on skills
或者该学习方法对研究科学
or is it also suitable to study science,
数学
math,
人性
the humanities
或抽象艺术也适用
or abstract art?

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体验式学习的介绍

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视频来源

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