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运动使你更聪明——原因在这里 – 译学馆
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运动使你更聪明——原因在这里

Exercise Makes You Smarter - This Is Why (animated)

每天进步一点点
Back when I was still in school,
想当年我还读书的时候
there was this stereotype going around.
学校里总有一种刻板印象
Kids who were nerdy and never did any kind of sports
认为木讷且从不运动的孩子
were considered the most intelligent and bright.
是最聪明机敏的
The jocks who were sporty and fit,
而身体健康的运动型孩子
were often branded as simple-minded and empty-headed.
却常被贴上头脑简单 无知愚笨的标签
So by following this stereotype you had two groups:
这种刻板印象将人分成两种:
Smart and weak;
柔弱的智者
Dumb and fit.
健康的傻子
However in the recent years, there’s a new stereotype that’s gained popularity:
然而近几年 有一种越来越流行的新的刻板印象
A smart jock,
聪明的运动员
an individual who is both intellectually gifted and is physically fit.
即头脑灵活且身体强健的人
Did they win the genetic lottery
是他们的基因好吗
or is it possible that exercise could make you smarter?
还是运动能让人更聪明呢?
First we need to take a look back in the past before we can draw any conclusions.
在下结论前 我们先来回顾下以往的认知
Not that long ago, there was this prevailing theory that we had a fixed amount of brain cells.
不久前 主流理论认为我们脑细胞的数量是固定的
You were either born smart, with a big brain,
你要么天生聪明 脑容量大
or you weren’t.
要么天生愚笨脑容量小
And once we became adults our brains were supposed to stop creating new neurons,
且一旦成年 大脑就不会再生出新的神经元
and we could only lose neurons as we got older.
随着年龄的增长 我们的神经元只会减少
Saying the brain could grow and form new brain cells,
认为“脑细胞会繁殖 大脑会发育”的人
got you ridiculed and made fun of by the scientific community.
会被科学界奚落嘲笑
However in the mid 90s
但是在90年代中期
some scientists were looking for a way to prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
一些科学家试图找出预防阿尔兹海默症的方法
For those that don’t know,
对不懂的人来说
Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia,
阿尔海默兹症是痴呆的最常见原因
a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities.
痴呆通常是指记忆缺失和其它认知功能下降
It’s identified by a loss of neurons in certain brain regions.
这种病可通过大脑某区域神经元的缺失来确诊
To put it simply, the disease shrinks your brain.
简言之 这种疾病会让大脑萎缩
Over the 4 year period,
用了4年的时间
the scientists found 3 factors or 3 lifestyle changes,
科学家们发现 有3种因素 或者说是3种生活方式
that actually helped prevent the cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease.
能切实帮助预防阿尔海默兹症引起的认知失调
The first factor was continuous learning and education.
第一个因素是不断学习并接受教育
Things like reading books and learning more about the world around us, fall in this category.
包括读书和加强对周围世界的认识
The second was self efficacy and mindset.
第二个因素是提升自我效能感和保持良好心态
Basically an individual’s belief in their innate ability to do things well
本质上指个人相信自己有能力把事情做好
and achieve their goals.
以及实现目标
But third and last, was physical exercise.
第三也是最后一个就是锻炼身体
The first two factors weren’t so surprising, but the third one was.
前两个不足为奇 但第三个就很奇怪了
How could exercise be the most potent lifestyle change you could make to keep your brain going?
锻炼怎么成了保持大脑功能最有效的方式?
As far as we knew, exercise didn’t act on the brain.
众所周知 锻炼对大脑没有直接作用
One of the scientists of the group, Carl Cotman,
研究组中的一位科学家 卡尔·科特曼
went back to his lab and decided to study what’s going on.
开始在自己的实验室中研究锻炼影响大脑的原因
So he got a bunch of mice
他让一群小白鼠
and had them run on a running wheel from 7 to 14 days.
分别在滚轮上面跑7至14天
But it wasn’t all funny games for the mice,
这可不是为了让小白鼠玩得开心
as their brains were eventually dissected.
因为它们的大脑最后会被解剖
He looked at their brains and the cortex,
他观察到它们的大脑和大脑皮层较厚
which is the top part of the brain, was thicker.
大脑皮层即大脑最表层部分
And there was one particular area called the hippocampus which was bigger,
与没有在滚轮上跑的小白鼠相比
when compared to the mice that didn’t run on the wheel.
它们的海马体这一特殊区域更大
The brain’s cortex is where our long term memories are stored.
大脑皮层用于存储长期记忆
And the hippocampus is like a center for learning and short term memory.
而海马体则负责学习和短期记忆
So Carl found the answer he was looking for.
所以卡罗得到了答案
Exercise was making our brains grow new cells and neurons.
运动会使大脑产生新的细胞和神经元
This is why it was preventing brain’s deterioration
这就是为什么运动能预防大脑退化
and cognitive decline.
和认知能力下降
Carl’s findings paved a way for a whole new research field in science,
卡罗的发现为自然科学开拓了一条新路
by showing the world that the brain is astonishingly flexible,
让人们知道大脑是极其灵活的
able to be retrained and reprogrammed.
是可以被塑造和改变的
Like a muscle, it responds to use,
大脑像肌肉一样 根据使用的程度
adapting to new demands and conditions.
可以适应新的需求和环境
It also withers without use.
不使用时也会萎缩
So it’s either use it, or lose it.
所以大脑不用就萎缩
However that doesn’t quite explain
但这不能充分说明
why exercise is making our brains grow new neurons.
为什么运动会促进大脑产生新的神经元
Most people would consider “using your brain” as doing something creative or logical,
大多数人认为“用脑” 就是做有创造性 逻辑性的事
like writing a book or solving a puzzle.
比如写书或解决难题
But that’s not really what the brain’s main function is.
但是这并不是大脑的主要功能
The only reason why humans have such big brains is for one purpose,
人类脑容量如此大的原因
and that purpose only.
有且只有一个
And the reason is to perform adaptable complex movements.
那就是执行随机的复杂运动
Simply put, we have a brain made to move.
简单说 大脑是为运动而存在的
As pointed out by a neurophysiologist Rodolfo LLinas,
正如神经学家罗多尔夫提出的
only a mobile creature needs a brain.
只有能行动的生物需要大脑
To illustrate this, he used an example of a tiny jellyfish like animal,
为了说明这点 他以一种类似动物的小型水母
called a sea squirt.
海鞘为例
Born with a simple spinal cord and a three hundred neuron brain,
它有简单的脊髓和300个神经元的大脑
the sea squirt moves around in the ocean until it finds a coral rock,
它在海中四处游走直到找到一块珊瑚岩
where it will spend the rest of its life.
然后在那里度过余生
However once safely attached,
然而 一旦安全抵达珊瑚岩
the sea squirt simply digest its own brain for extra energy.
为了获取更多能量 海鞘就会消化掉大脑
For most of it’s life, it looks much more like a plant than an animal,
大多时候 它更像植物而不是动物
and since it’s not moving anymore,
因为它不会再移动
it has no more use for a brain.
所以大脑也没有用处了
When we bring the word “exercise” to mind,
当我们想到“锻炼”时
we might think of someone trying get it in shape or becoming buff.
我们可能会想到 某个人在努力塑身或变得强壮
However today we know that
然而今天我们了解到
exercise has a much bigger effect on our brain, than on our body.
锻炼对大脑的影响要大过对身体的影响
Physical activity activates most of your brain regions simultaneously,
身体活动能同时激活大脑的大部分区域
because like we just said, we need a brain to move.
就像刚刚说的 我们的运动需要大脑
Conditioning the heart and building muscle are essentially side effects.
当然运动能锻炼心脏 塑造肌肉
But the most profound effect exercise has on our brain,
但对大脑来说 锻炼对其最深远最有效的影响
is that it improves our learning ability.
是能提高学习能力
We mentioned earlier that
我们之前提过
the mice that ran on the running wheel had a bigger hippocampus,
在滚轮上跑的老鼠有更大的海马体
which is the brain’s center for memory and learning.
它是大脑记忆学习的中心
The reason it was bigger is because when we exercise,
它更大的原因是当我们锻炼时
we raise our levels of BDNF.
会增加体内的BDNF
BDNF or brain derived neurotrophic factor
BDNF即脑源性神经营养因子
is a powerful protein that stimulates the production of new brain cells
在刺激脑细胞新生和加强现有细胞方面
and strengthens existing ones.
十分有效
It’s found in the hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain.
它存在于海马体 大脑皮层和基底前脑
All these brain areas are vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking.
这些区域对于学习 记忆和高级思维至关重要
BDNF can be compared to a plant fertilizer.
可以把BDNF看成植物肥料
Plants need water, sun and soil to grow.
植物的成长需要水 阳光和土壤
However most soil doesn’t provide
然而大部分土壤并没有提供
the essential nutrients required for optimal plant growth.
植物生长所必需的最佳营养
This is why plant fertilizer is added.
这就是要给植物施肥的原因
Just like a plant fertilizer supports plant growth,
就像化肥促进植物生长一样
BDNF acts as a brain fertilizer.
BDNF是大脑的肥料
BDNF nourishes brain cells and makes them grow new synapses.
BDNF滋养脑细胞并使它们产生新突触
A study in 2013 showed that
2013年的一项研究表明
just 20 to 40 minutes of exercise
只需要20到40分钟的锻炼
increased BDNF in the blood by 32%.
就可以使血液中BTNF的含量提高32%
This ties closely to the German study,
这与德国的一个研究相近
where they found that people learn vocabulary words 20% faster after physical activities.
他们发现 锻炼后人们学习词汇的速度快了20%
And the rate of learning is directly correlated with the levels of BDNF.
学习速度与BDNF的水平直接相关
To put it simply, the higher our levels of BDNF are,
简言之 BDNF的含量越高
the easier it is to learn new things.
学习新事物就越容易
And if you’ve been paying any attention right now,
只要你刚刚有注意听
you know what gives a significant boost of BDNF.
你一定知道促进BDNF产生的主要因素
Which brings out a more interesting question;
这就引发了一个更有趣的问题
is there a correlation between fitness and academics?
身强体健会影响学术研究吗?
Only a few researchers have tackled this question.
虽然只有少部分人研究了这个问题
However a study from Virginia Tech showed that
但是弗吉尼亚科技中心的一项研究表明
cutting gym class and devoting more time to math, science and reading,
用数学 科学和阅读课代替体育课
did not improve test scores as many assume it would.
并不能像许多人认为的那样提高测试成绩
Cutting away exercise and spending more time behind the books
不运动然后花更多时间看书
could actually decrease your test results.
真的会降低测试成绩
Over the past few years the California Department of Education has consistently shown that
过去几年加利福利亚教育部一直表示
students with higher fitness scores also have higher test scores.
体能测试好的学生考试成绩也更好
In 2001 study, kids who were fit, scored twice as well
2001年研究 健身的孩子是那些不健身的
on academic tests as those who were unfit.
学习成绩的2倍
Body mass index and aerobic fitness were the most significant contributors.
体重指数和有氧健身是最重要的因素
This means that if you want to get better grades,
意味着如果你想获得更好的成绩
you might want to start by lacing up your running shoes, before hitting the books.
你可能会想要在看书前穿上运动鞋
There’s a school in Naperville Illinois that took full advantage of this.
内伯威尔市伊利诺斯州的一个学校充分利用了这点
Over the 20 year period, they evolved their PE program to one of the best in the world.
在20年里他们将体育项目发展到世界顶端
The program was started in response to research
这个项目的开展正是由于
which linked exercise to increased brain function.
运动能提高大脑功能的研究
As a result, they have turned 19,000 students in Naperville District 203,
结果他们使内伯威尔203区的19000学生
into one of the fittest in the nation.
成为国家最健康的学生之一
Only 3% of them were overweight, without a single obese child.
他们中只有3%的人超重 没有一个
This was at a time when 33% of America’s kids were overweight,
当时美国有33%的儿童超重
with this number increasing to 37% over the past years,
这个数字在去年增长到了37%
and still no sign of stopping.
并且没有停止的趋势
What’s more interesting is that the Naperville program
更有趣的是内伯威尔市的这个项目
has also turned those students into some of the smartest in the nation.
也让那些学生加入国家最聪明的人的行列
In 1999 Naperville’s students took an international test called TIMSS,
1999年内伯威尔市学生参加了国际性测试TIMSS
which evaluates knowledge of math and science of different countries.
它测试不同国家人的数学和科学水平
Almost every year the Asian countries score the highest,
几乎每年都是亚洲国家得最高分
while United States is usually in the mid teens,
而美国通常处于中等水平
but Napperville is an exception.
除了内伯威尔市
The students took the test as a country, to see how they would perform,
让这些学生代表国家考试 看他们的成绩如何
and they finished sixth in math and first in science.
最终他们数学第六名 科学第一名
Sixth and first in the world, as a school.
一个学校 拿到世界第一和第六
Wow. Not only that,
哇 不仅如此
but 97 percent of the 8th graders took the test,
而且八年级97%的学生参加了考试
so it’s not only the top students who were picked for it.
也就是不仅只有尖子生参加
How did they do it?
他们是怎么做到的?
As I mentioned they were the fittest school in the nation.
就像之前所说 他们是整个国家学生体质最好的学校
The key word here is fit.
重点在于健康
Fit doesn’t mean you’re skinny.
健康不代表你很瘦
The benefits of exercise don’t kick in with your shape and size,
锻炼的好处不在于你的体型和身材
but it has a lot to do with what you’re doing.
而是对你正在做的事情有影响
It’s much better to be overweight, but active daily, than being skinny and inactive.
体重超标但活跃总比瘦骨如柴但消沉好
Like I said, building muscle or losing weight
如我所说 增肌和减重
are essentially side effects that will come over time.
都是随之而来的结果
When students from Naperville go for a mile run,
当内伯威尔市的学生进行一英里跑时
they are more prepared to learn in their other classes.
会使他们在其它学习中准备得更充分
Thanks to exercise, their focus and mood are improved
通过锻炼 他们专注力和情绪都提高了
and they feel more motivated and less tense in school.
他们在学校更有激情 压力也更少
That’s why their early morning PE program is called “Learning Readiness” class.
这就是为什么早上的体育课被称为“学习阅读”课
Physical activity primes the brain for learning
体育活动激发了大脑的学习区
and if we look at it from an evolutionary standpoint,
如果我进化的角度看待它
it makes perfect sense why.
就可以完美解释
Often we forget that humans evolved as hunter gatherers.
我们经常会忘记人类是从猎手进化而来的
It’s only in the last few centuries that our lives have become more sedentary.
我们久坐的生活才持续了几个世纪
However, evolution doesn’t work that fast,
然而 进化不会这么快
and today we still have the same brains as our ancestors.
我们的大脑仍然和祖先的一样
As little as 10,000 years ago we were still hunting and gathering,
至少1万年前 我们仍旧在打猎 采集
and we moved anywhere from 10 to 14 miles every single day.
每天四处走动至少10-14英里
We were foraging for food, constantly moving from place to place,
我们寻找食物 不断搬家
looking for a new shelter.
寻找新的住所
If you weren’t fit enough to run, climb or swim,
如果你不能跑步 攀爬 游泳
you were removed from the gene pool.
那么你就会被淘汰
As far as our brains are concerned,
对我们的大脑来说
physical activity counts as a novel experience.
体育活动是一种新奇的体验
Whenever we were moving, it meant something important was happening.
无论何时运动 都表示有重要的事发生
We had to escape from a predator
我们不得不逃离捕食者
or remember the path we took so we didn’t get lost.
或记住我们走过的路 以免迷路
However when we were resting, it meant nothing important was going on.
然而 我们休息时 就表示没发生重要的事
We still have this ancient mechanism, so as far as our brains are concerned,
只要我们用大脑思考 就要遵循这古老的机制
if we are not moving, there’s no reason to learn or remember anything.
只要不动 就没理由学习或记忆任何东西
So what kind of physical activity should you do to reap the most benefits?
那么 做什么运动能获得最大的好处呢?
The answer is high intensity aerobic exercise.
答案是高强度有氧运动
Going to the gym and lifting weights every 10 minutes, like many powerlifters do,
去体育馆 像举重运动员那样 10分钟做一组举重
doesn’t seem to have such a powerful impact, as high intensity exercise does.
似乎不会像有氧运动那样有效
Powerlifting still benefits the brain, don’t get me wrong.
不要理解错 举重也对大脑有益
However if you want to get the most out of it,
但是 如果你想要最有效的
you need to get your heart rate to at least 80% of its maximum beats per minute.
每分钟的心跳至少要达到最大值的80%
Some of the best activities are running or cycling.
最合适活动包括跑步或骑行
But it’s even better if the activity involves some complex motor movements,
如果活动包括一些复杂的机械锻炼会更好
and it’s not just putting one foot after the other.
而不只是一只脚跟着一只脚
Good examples are tennis and dancing.
网球和舞蹈就是很好的例子
Optimal daily dose of exercise seems to be 20 to 40 minutes in the morning.
在早上做20到40分钟的运动似乎最合适
For some people the benefits last for the whole day,
对一些人来说会受益一整天
but for the majority they seem to last for about 2-4 hours.
但对大多数人来说会持续2-4h
This is why it might be a better idea to break it down in to smaller segments.
这也是为什么将运动拆分成小段会更好
So let’s say you do 20 minutes of your core exercise in the morning
所以早上运动20分钟作为核心
and then exercise 2 times for 5 minutes throughout the day.
然后一天中再运动两次 一次5分钟
This way you can extend the benefits.
这样你就可以延续效果
If you haven’t been active for a while, it’s better to slowly build up to those times.
如果你许久不运动 最好慢慢加大运动
30 minutes is just a recommendation and not a requirement.
30分钟只是建议而不是需求
Even just walking for 30 minutes could have a powerful effect.
即使只散步30分钟也会有很大的影响
It’s up to you to find your optimal dose,
根据你的时间安排和个人需要
depending on your schedule and personal needs.
找到最适合自己的
So to answer the question, can exercise make you smarter?
运动会使你聪明吗?为了回答这个问题
Going for a run sadly won’t turn you into a genius.
不开心的去跑步不会使你聪明
But it will prime your state of mind and at the cellular level,
但是它会从细胞层面上提高大脑的状态
improve the brain’s potential to log and process information.
提高大脑记录和处理信息的潜力
You will be able to learn things faster and more efficiently.
你会学的更快更高效
However it’s up to you to put yourself in a situation where you’re actually learning something.
然而这也取决于你是否真的在学习
If you go exercise and then right after go sit on a couch while watching TV series,
如果你运动后就坐下看电视
you’re not learning anything of value.
你没有学到任何有价值的东西
But if you put your mind to it and try learning something new,
但是如果你专注于学习新东西
whether it’s a new skill or just studying for the test,
不论是学新技能还是为了考试
you will find that it’s much easier to do so.
你会发现学得更容易了
By knowing more about the world around you and how things work,
对周围的世界更了解知道更多机制后
you could say that, yes, you’ve become smarter.
你可以说 你变得聪明了
We all have the ability to boost our brainpower
你有能力提高大脑潜力
and all we need to do is lace up our running shoes.
而你需要做的只有去运动
Thanks for watching.
感谢观看
I hope this video made you better than yesterday.
希望这个视频让你比昨天更好

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运动真的会使人变得聪明,如何证明呢?怎样运动才会更高效呢?

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视频来源

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