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你知道运动与大脑之间的关系吗 – 译学馆
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你知道运动与大脑之间的关系吗

EXERCISE AND THE BRAIN - SPARK BY JOHN RATEY ANIMATED BOOK SUMMARY

Imagine you are offered to give up 30 minutes
想象一下 你被要求放弃
of your morning time in exchange for free
早晨30分钟的时间以换取免费的
a magic pill.
一粒神奇药丸
The pill improves your learning capability
这种药能提高你的学习能力
reduce your anxiety and stress
减轻你的焦虑和压力
improves your mood and motivation
改善你的情绪和增加动力
and generally it makes you a better version
一般来说 它会让你在一天
of yourself for the rest of the day.
剩下的时间里变得更好
So would you take that offer?
你会接受这个提议吗
Well what I just described is the reason
我刚才描述的就是
why you should exercise.
你应该锻炼的原因
When you think of exercising the first things
当你想到锻炼时 你首先想到
that comes to your mind are the benefits or
的是锻炼的好处
maybe losing weight or having a healthier heart.
也许是减肥 或者拥有一个更健康的心脏
But the real benefits of exercise happen in the brain.
但锻炼的真正好处是在大脑中产生的
So what is the brain for anyway?
那么大脑到底有什么用呢
You may think it’s
你可能认为这是
about solving math problems
关于解决数学问题
or creating a new smartphone app
或做出一个新的智能手机应用程序
that will make you are millionaire.
这将使你成为百万富翁
But neuroscientist Daniel Wolpert says that
但是神经学家丹尼尔·沃尔伯特说
our brain is for one thing only:
我们的大脑只有一个功能:
To produce adaptable and complex movement.
产生适应性强 复杂的活动
That’s it!
就是这样
The Koala is a great example.
考拉就是一个很好的例子
In the past it had a much bigger brain
在过去 它的大脑要大得多
but once it adapted it’s digestive system
但是一旦它适应了它的消化系统
to derive all the energy it needs
从桉树叶中获得它需要的所有能量
from Eucalyptus leaves, it didn’t had to move
它就不需要那么多的运动
as much, less movement meant less brain activity
更少的运动意味着更少的大脑活动
and its brain shrunk.
它的大脑也就萎缩了
Studies has shown that
研究表明
there is a very powerful connection
大脑和运动之间
between the brain and movement.
有着非常强大的联系
A big brain is needed to
你需要一个大的大脑
facilitate complex movements and executing
来促进复杂的运动
such movements and getting your heart rate up
并执行这样的运动和提高你的心率
enhances your brain power.
可以增强你的脑力
Exercise has been shown to help people better
人们已证实运动能帮我们更好地
deal with stress and anxiety, improved mood,
处理压力和焦虑 改善情绪
focus and motivation.
集中精力和激发动力
A 2007 study has shown that
2007年的一项研究表明
exercise also primes the brain to learn faster.
锻炼还能让大脑更快地学习
Subjects who did high intensity training beforehand
事先进行高强度训练的受试者
were able to learn vocabulary 20 % faster than
学习词汇的速度
those who remained sedentary.
比久坐不动的受试者快20%
This phenomenon is due to a protein
这种现象是由一种叫做
called Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor
脑源性神经营养因子
or BDNF for short.
(简称BDNF)的蛋白质引起的
BDNF helps to support the survival
BDNF有助于维持现有神经元的活力
of existing neurons and encourages the growth
并促进新神经元
and differentiation of new neurons and synapses.
和突触的生长和分化
In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus, cortex,
在大脑中 它活跃在海马体 皮质
and basal forebrain—areas vital
这是对学习 记忆
to learning, memory, and higher thinking.
和高级思维至关重要的基础前脑区域
A 2013 study showed that
2013年的一项研究表明
only 20 to 40 minutes of aerobic exercise
只需要20到40分钟的有氧运动
increased the BDNF in the blood by around 32%.
就能使血液中的BDNF增加32%左右
So the reason why exercise is a key trigger
所以运动是大脑产生
for all kinds of positive effects in the brain,
各种积极影响的关键因素
particularly learning, is
尤其是学习
because movement signals to the brain
因为运动向大脑发出信号
that something important is happening.
表明有重要的事情正在发生
Maybe not in modern times,
也许不是在现代
but in the past the reason to move was
但在过去 搬家的原因
for the sake of survival.
是为了生存
You move to escape a predator
你为了躲避捕食者
to find better shelter, hunt for food et cetera.
而寻找更好的庇护所 寻找食物等等
And while moving its in your best interest
在移动的过程中 记住地形
to remember the lay of the land so you don’t get lost
是你最大的兴趣所在 这样你就不会迷路
and you can locate forageable food again.
还能再次找到可觅食的食物
When attacked by a predator you
当被捕食者攻击时
better remember which path was most efficient
你最好记住哪条路是最有效的逃跑路线
to escape, so you can prevent yourself
这样你就可以防止
from becoming a tigers meal the next time.
自己下次成为老虎的美餐
When you are sitting on your couch
当你坐在沙发上看电视时
watching television you signal your brain that
你会向大脑发出信号
nothing important is happening and it’s time for rest.
告诉它没什么重要的事情发生了 该休息了
Exercise also affects the areas of the brain
锻炼也会影响大脑中
responsible for motivation and action.
负责动机和行动的区域
The reward center is one of
奖赏中心是大脑中
the most important areas in the brain.
最重要的区域之一
Dopamine is a key player in the reward system.
多巴胺是奖赏系统中的一个关键角色
From evolutionary perspective dopamine is released
从进化的角度来看 多巴胺是
when we expect some kind of reward,
在我们期待某种奖励时释放的
it makes us want to do stuff,
它让我们想做一些事情
and it reassures us that
它让我们确信我们
the thing we did was worth doing.
所做的事情是值得做的
So if your reward center is not working properly,
因此 如果你的奖赏中心工作不合理
you might have hard time to get things done.
你可能很难完成工作
If your brain doesn’t expect reward
如果你的大脑不期待
and fulfilment from something
从某件事中得到回报和满足
it won’t justify doing it.
那它就不值得去做
There are pills that can help with this,
有一些药物可以帮助解决这个问题
but you don’t have to buy any kind of drugs to
但你不需要购买任何药物
get your reward system going.
来启动你的奖赏系统
Studies show that
研究表明
exercise boost motivation
锻炼通过增加
by increasing dopamine storage
多巴胺的储存和
and increasing the creation of dopamine receptors
增加奖赏中心多巴胺受体的形成
in the reward center.
来增强动力
It might not make you stay up all night
它可能不会让你
in a studying frenzy like adderall, but it will
像adderall那样整夜熬夜学习 但它会
give you more willpower and focus to do
给你更多的意志力 让你集中精力
those little things that don’t usually feel rewarding.
去做那些通常感觉没有回报的小事
But even though your reward center
但是即使你的奖赏中心
might be working just fine,
工作得很好
you are feeling great,
你感觉很好
and you are satisfied with your ability to learn,
你对自己的学习能力很满意
you can still improve all of these areas.
你仍然可以提高所有这些方面
When you exercise
当你锻炼的时候
you might not feel a drastic change all of a sudden,
你可能不会突然感到剧烈的变化
but later on you will look back
但是当你回头复盘的时候
and notice the difference in learning speed,
你会注意到学习速度 情绪 注意力的不同
mood, focus and you will get more things done.
你会完成更多的事情
Now that you know all the benefits of exercise,
既然你已经知道了运动的所有好处
it’s up to you whether or not you will take
那就看你是否愿意服用
the magic pill and improve your life or
神奇的药丸来改善你的生活
you will stay the same and get the same results
还是保持原来的状态
you’ve always had.
得到和以前一样的结果
Anyway if you want to learn how muscles
无论如何 如果你想知道肌肉
work and actually grow when exercising you should
是如何工作的 在锻炼的时候肌肉是如何生长的
go over to my friend
你应该去找
at Food for Thought and watch his video on this topic!
我在《Food for Thought》的朋友 看他关于这个话题的视频
And If you don’t want to miss my upcoming videos
如果你不想错过我即将发布的视频
make sure to subscribe.
请订阅
Anyway thanks for watching
不管怎样 谢谢你的收看
and I’ll see you next time.
我们下次再见

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运动和大脑的关系到底是怎样的呢?这个视频会给你答案。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPhcft_hwV8

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