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最棒的常青植物! – 译学馆
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最棒的常青植物!

Excellent Evergreens

我居住的地方现在是冬天
It’s winter where I live…
并且许多叶子已经纷纷落下!
…and a lot of trees have lost their leaves!
叶子首先变成棕色,黄色,红色,甚至变成紫色,然后叶子开始从树上掉落。
The leaves turned brown, or yellow, red, and even purple and then they fell off the trees.
但是有些树叶的颜色仍旧是绿色的!
But some trees are still green!
事实上,似乎这些树叶的颜色不会变成棕色,
In fact, it seems like these trees don’t ever turn brown — they stay green all of
它们的颜色一直是绿色的!
the time!
这就是这些树木的特殊名称的由来…常青树!
That’s why we have a special name for these kinds of trees … evergreens!
在你居住地方的附近,可能会有一些闻名于世的常青树
Depending on where you live, you might have some well-known evergreens in your neighborhood.
这些树木包括松树,冷杉和云杉。
These include pine, fir, and spruce.
根据这些树木的叶子的形状,这些树木很快就能被识别出来。
These trees are easiest to recognize by their leaves.
并且的确是这样!
And yes!
那些树上瘦瘦的,尖尖的东西,确实是他们的叶子!
Those thin, pointy, things on these trees are actually their leaves!
通常我们把它们称作为针叶,因为这些叶子的形状就长的像针一样!
We usually call them needles, because that’s what these leaves look like!
有些针叶长而柔软,有些针叶短而尖锐。
Some needles are long and soft, and others are short and sharp.
当针叶变老了,它们会从树上落下,通常一次只会落下一些针叶,
When needles get old, they do fall from the tree, but usually just a few at a time, and
并且新的叶子很快就长了出来。
the tree grows new ones very quickly.
所以这些树木全年都呈现出一片绿意盎然的景象。
So the trees stay green all year round.
虽然这些针叶看起来与其他叶子不尽相同,
Now, even though needles don’t look like the leaves on other trees, they have the same
但是它们(与其它的叶子一样)都有捕捉阳光的这个功能。
job — to catch sunlight.
树木通过光和作用来产生能量。
The tree then uses the sunlight to make energy.
并且产生出的能量帮助树木生长!
And energy helps the tree grow!
当然,和大多数植物一样,常青树也需要灌溉大量的水分。
Of course, evergreen trees also need lots of water, just like most other plants.
但是在许多地方,冬天雨下的不是很频繁。
But in many places, rain doesn’t fall very often during the winter.
并且树木不能吸收已经变成冰或雪的水。
And trees can’t use the water that’s frozen into ice and snow.
所以一棵树木必须得靠本身储存的水分来尽可能长地维持自己的生命
So a tree needs to hold on to the water inside it, for as long as it can.
并且之所以常青树上的针叶能够帮助那些树木储存水分,
And the thin needles you find on evergreens help keep the water inside those trees, because
是因为它们外表覆盖了一层薄薄的东西,有点像腊一样的东西。
they’re covered with a thin layer of stuff that’s kind of like wax.
这层像腊一样的保护层有助于锁住针叶里面的水分,所以树木才不会干枯。
This waxy layer helps trap water inside the needles, so the tree doesn’t dry out.
另外一件事你可能需要了解关于松树,云杉和冷杉的是,
Another thing you might know about pine, spruce, and fir trees is that they make these neat
它们这些整齐的,小小的东西叫做球果。
little things called cones.
球果可以是大的,可以是小的,甚至颜色可能是五彩缤纷的!
Cones can be big…or very small…and even colorful!
球果的作用就是生产出种子来,这些种子有一天可能会成长为一棵新的树木!
A cone’s job is to make the seeds that will someday grow into new trees!
事实上,如果你再往深处看看松果的内部,你会看见里面的种子。
In fact, if you look deep inside a pine cone, you’ll see the seeds inside.
这些种子是动物们,像松鼠,花栗鼠和鸟类的美味小吃。
These seeds are a tasty snack for animals like squirrels, chipmunks, and birds.
并且有着球果的常青树有着一个特殊的名字。
And evergreens that have cones also have a special name.
这类植物叫做针叶树。
This group of plants is called conifers.
这个名字正好里面有个”cone”!
The name has the word “cone” right in it!
并且松树,云杉和冷杉不是那里唯一的针叶树。
And pine, spruce, and fir aren’t the only conifers out there!
世界上一些最大的针叶树中数巨大的红杉最为著称。
Some of the biggest conifers in the world are known as giant sequoia trees.
巨大的红杉生长在美国的西部地区,并且它们名至实归――因为
Giant Sequoias live in the Western United States, and they live up to their name — because
它们可以长成参天大树。
they can grow to be enormous.
许多这些树木的宽度足够开过一辆汽车。
Many of these trees are wide enough to drive a car through.
这些树木的其中一颗树木高度达84米,并且宽度达大约11米。
One of these trees is almost eighty four meters tall, and about eleven meters wide.
它甚至还有个名字:绅士的谢尔曼。
It even has a name: General Sherman.
并且科学家说道,尽管它不是世界上最高的树木,
And scientists say that, while it’s not the tallest tree in the world, it’s the
从整体上来看,它却是全世界最大,最重的树木。
biggest, heaviest tree overall.
像绅士的谢尔曼这样的树木可以长的如此高大是因为它们可以存活地很久。
Trees like General Sherman grow to be so big, because they live for a really long time.
有些红杉可以存活三千年,
Some sequoias can live for over three thousand years, making them some of the oldest living
这使它们成为星球上其中最古老的生物。
things on the planet.
现在,你可能在冬天有雪的地方看到许多针叶树的照片或者绘画图片。
Now, you might see lots of pictures or drawings of conifers in cold and snowy places.
但是它们不止生长在寒冷的地方!
But they don’t only grow where it’s cold!
针叶树作为普通的植物也出现在炎热,干燥的地方,
Some of the most common plants in hot, dry places are conifers, too — like the cedar
像雪松和柏树就是这样。
and the cypress.
并且生长在这些地方的常青树有一种与众不同的叶子。
And many evergreens in these places have a different kind of leaf.
雪松的叶子是瘦而平滑的,并非像针叶树的叶子一样是瘦而尖锐的。
Instead of being thin and pointy like a needle, cedar leaves are thin and flat.
这种叶子叫做scale,
This kind of leaf is called a scale, and they do seem a little like the thin and flat scales
并且它们确实看起来有点像瘦而平滑的鱼的大小。
of a fish.
就像针叶一样,scales有助于常青树储存水分,
Just like needles, scales help the evergreen save water, so it can stay green even when
所以即使它处于干燥地带,也能保持常青不老。
it’s very dry.
好了,让我们再谈论另一种常青树。
Okay, let’s talk about one more evergreen.
这棵树木以它宽大,扁平的叶子和五颜六色的浆果而著称。
This one is known for its broad, flat leaves and brightly colored berries.
没错,尖叫吧!
Right you are Squeaks!
它就是冬青树!
It’s holly!
冬青树是常青树,通常它的叶子是暗绿色的,叶子边缘布满着刺。
Holly is an evergreen with leaves that are often dark green and prickly around the edges.
并且就像针叶一样,冬青树的叶子上面有一层有光泽的涂层,
And just like needles, holly leaves have a shiny coating on them that helps them save
当冬青树处于干燥地带,这些涂层有助于储存水分。
water when it’s dry.
冬青树不是针叶树,所以它不会结出球果来。
Holly is not a conifer, so it doesn’t make cones.
相反的是,可以从浆果的内部找出冬青植物的种子。
Instead, the seeds of holly plants are found inside the berries.
尽管最著名的冬青树结出的浆果颜色是红色的,
Although the most famous kinds of holly have red berries, some holly plants make berries
然而一些冬青植物结出的浆果的颜色也有白色的,橘色的,甚至还有黑色的。
that are white, orange, or even black.
所以甚至冬天来了,各种植物还会保持常青状态!
So even when it’s wintertime, many kinds of trees keep their green!
这个冬天,希望你出去走走,
Here’s hoping you get outside and have a chance to see some of these excellent evergreens
有机会去看看其中的这些极好的常青树!
this winter!
谢谢加入到SciShow Kids!
Thanks for joining us on SciShow Kids!
你对你这个世界身边的事物会存在疑问吗?
Do you have a question about something in the world around you?
如果是的话,让你的大人帮你在下面写下评论,或者发邮件到kids@scishow.com!
If so, ask a grownup to help you leave a comment down below, or send us an e-mail to kids@scishow.com!
谢谢观看!
Thanks!
我们下次再见。
See ya next time.

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