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Richard Dawkins谈进化稳定策略

Evolutionarily Stable Strategies ft. Richard Dawkins

稳定演化策略是什么?
What are evolutionarily stable strategies?
个体的行为策略在很多情况下比较清楚,
>> In many cases it is kind of clear what is the best thing for an individual to do,
推理可知,即提高生存机率,但有时
the best thing it can do to increase its survival with deduction. But there are times when what
一个个体的行为策略要考虑到其他个体,
is the best thing to do depends on what other individuals in the population are doing, what,
尤其是种群中的大多数个体。
in particular, the majority of individuals in the population are doing.
假设有两种海鸟,捕鱼的和偷鱼的。
A hypothetical example we could call fishers and pirates. And I am talking now about some
有两种获取食物的方式。
kind of birds where there are two ways of getting fish. These are sea birds. Either
可以钻到海里,捕鲶鱼,或者守在某处,等捕到鱼的鸟路过时,把鱼偷走。
you can fish for fish. You either dive in a sea of catfish or you hang about waiting
这就是所谓的偷鱼的海鸟。
for a bird that has caught a fish and steal it. Those are pirates. And these are two ways
这两种策略都可以谋生。哪个最好呢?
of making a living. Now what is the best thing to be? A fisher
是做捕鱼鸟还是偷鱼鸟呢?这个问题不容易回答,因为要考虑到
or a pirate? And the answer is that it is not obvious, because it depends on what the
其他的鸟是怎么做的。如果所有的鸟都捕鱼,那么
rest of the population are doing. If the whole population is fishing then it could very well
通过变异,成为一只偷鱼鸟就爽歪歪了。因为
be that an individual could mutate and become a pirate, because there are plenty of fishing
来来回回有大量的鱼,很容易偷。
going on. And it is easy to steal a fish.
你可能会说,好吧,自然选择更倾向于偷鱼鸟,
So then you might say: Well, natural selection then favors piracy, the gene for being a pirate
它的基因会撒遍整个种群,不出几代,每只鸟都偷鱼。
spreads through the population. In a few generations now everybody is a pirate. And there is no
但也没鱼可偷了。所以,偷鱼这种策略在生物演化上不可持续。
fish. So piracy is not stable. It is an unstable… it is evolutionary unstable. Fishing might
捕鱼可能也不可持续。因为如果整个鸟群都捕鱼,偷鱼鸟就可以入侵进来。
also be unstable, because if the whole population is fishing then a mutant pirate invades, so
所以,当所有鸟都捕鱼时,禁止偷鱼鸟出现的策略才是可持续的,
a stable strategy is a strategy such that when all the population is doing it no mutant
才更利于演化。所以,在刚才的假设中,
individual could arise which would do better. So neither fisher nor pirate in my hypothetical
捕鱼鸟和偷鱼鸟两种策略在演化上都是不可持续的。可持续的策略可能是以某种比例形式存在。
sort of game is evolutionarily stable. What might be evolutionarily stable is some kind
可能是有8只捕鱼鸟,就搭配2只偷鱼鸟,或者其他比例。
of ratio. It might be 80 percent fishers and 20 percent pirates, something of that sort.
而且,在这种情况下,只有当它们势均力敌,达成平衡时才能维持稳定。
And the definition of stability in this case is when they are doing equally well.
一个著名的例子就是性别比例。对稳定性别比例的任何偏离,
A well known example is the sex ratio where any departure from the stable sex ratio is
都会受到自然选择的惩罚。如果人群中男性太多,最好就
penalized by natural selection. If there are too many males an individual is better off
生女孩。如果女性太多,最好生男孩。
having daughters. And if there are too many females in a population an individual is better
所以,稳定的性别比例是50:50,或者,严格来说,
off having sons. And so the stable ratio is 50-50, or, strictly speaking, it is 50 percent
是50%的经济投入到男孩,50%的经济投入到女孩。
investment, economic investment in sons and economic investment in daughters.
只有当大家都这么做,
So an evolutionarily stable strategy is a strategy which cannot be bettered by any other
这种策略才是演化上稳定的,最好的。
strategy provided that everybody else in the population is doing it.
你们知道的,两年前,我们这个频道订阅数达到50万,
>> You know, two years ago when this channel reached half a million subscribers, you guys
你们问我接下来采访谁。我回答说,比尔•奈,奈尔•德葛拉司•泰森,理查德•道金斯。
asked me who would I like to meet. And I answered: Bill Nye, Neil DeGrasse Tyson, Richard Dawkins.
之后,比尔•奈教了我怎么系蝴蝶结。今天我采访了道金斯。
And since then, Bill Nye has taught me how to tie a bow tie. I got to interview Richard
8月22、23号,我还会邀请泰森在悉尼和堪培拉主持节目。
Dawkins and on August 22nd and 23rd I will be hosting Neil DeGrasse Tyson in Sydney and
海报上面有链接哦。
Canberra. Link in the description.
我真的要感谢你们,因为这一切都来自于
And I really want to thank you guys, because I think it is your support that has made this
你们的支持。
all happen.
另外,给视频配动画的Lyosax既是我们的一个观众,也是一个频道主。
You know, this video was animated by the Lyosax who is a viewer, but also runs his own channel.
如果你们喜欢那些动画,可以去看看。还有,
So you should check it out if you like those animations. Plus, Audible.com has been the
Audible.com是我们频道的长期赞助商。我很喜欢它,因为它热衷于分享知识,和我一样。
long term sponsor of this channel and what I love is that they are sharing information
你们知道吗,这周分享道金斯的书是有原因的。
just like I like to. You know, this week it makes sense to share a Richard Dawkins book.
我最喜欢的就是自私的基因,因为它不是在介绍表达自私性状的基因,
My favorite is The Selfish Gene, because it is not about a gene for selfishness. It is
而是关于基因如何自私。基因存在于生物体中,
about how genes themselves behave in selfish ways. And sometimes that means the organism
有时候,生物体行为之怪异,令人无法想象。
that contains those genes behaves in strange ways, ways you might not imagine. And that
对我而言,这是一本发人深省的好书。你们一定得去看看,
was a real consciousness raiser for me. So you should definitely check out this book
如果还没读的话。可以去Audible.com/Veritasium免费下载,道金斯亲自配音。
if you haven’t read it already. You can actually download it for free, read by Richard
或者也可以挑其他书看看,
Dawkins, by going to Audible.com/Veritasium. Or you can pick any other book of your choosing
有一个月的免费试用期。Audible这个有声书网站特别好,
for a one month free trial. Audible is an awesome audio book website with
书籍数量庞大,成百上千,文学种类各异,包括小说,纪实文学,杂志。
over hundreds of thousands of titles in all areas of literature including fiction, no
所以真心推荐你们去看看,如果喜欢有声书的话。
fiction and periodicals. So really you should check them out if you are at all into audio
最后,我最想说的是谢谢!因为你们,我才能和自己的偶像见面
books. Most of all I want to say thank you to you for making it possible for me to meet

my idols.

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