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进化和自然选择

Evolution vs Natural Selection

当人们听到“进化”这个词的时候想到的大多是物种变化的过程和
Most of us hear the word “evolution” and think of the process by which species change and
物种变化 适应和突变的过程 或者灭绝
adapt and maybe turn into other species or go extinct – but that’s specifically the evolution
但这仅仅是借助于自然选择
of life forms by means of natural selection.
“进化”这个词普遍意为“概念或发展”
The word “evolution” in general just means “change or development”, and there are plenty
除了生物以外 还有很多其他的事物可以通过各种各样的形式 达到进化或改变
of other things that can evolve, or change, and in plenty of other ways.
比如根据物理学定律 宇宙也可以进化 也就是改变
For example, the universe can evolve, that is, change, according to the laws of physics
星系构成 星球和月亮轨道及行星爆炸
– galaxies form, planets and moons orbit, stars explode, etc.
这并不意味着“适者生存”的法则在星系间也同样适用
This doesn’t mean there’s any sort of cosmic “survival of the fittest” going on – that
这仅仅是自然选择的结果 而非进化
would be natural selection, not evolution.
同样地 美国的人口构成也同样在进化
Similarly, the demographic makeup of the United States can evolve as children are born, young
儿童出生 青年进城 移民入境等变化
people move to cities, immigrants arrive in the country, etc.
从这个意义上讲 进化仅仅意味着改变
In this sense, evolution just means change, and no one can deny that these these changes
没有人可以
are happening – the evidence is overwhelming!
同样 大约在查尔斯达尔文进行研究的时代
Similarly, around the time Charles Darwin was doing his research, scientists (including
包括达尔文自己在内的科学家们
Darwin himself) had begun amassing piles – literally – of evidence that showed that the nature
地球上的生命在漫长的时间中完成了
of life on earth had changed quite significantly over time: our oldest rocks show no signs
我们已知的最老的岩石没有显示生命的迹象
of life, while newer and newer rocks reveal fossilized plankton, seaweed, snails, fish,
浮游生物、海藻、
trees, insects, dinosaurs, mammals, and so on.
毫无疑问 地球上生命的变化是不争的事实
There absolutely was and is no denying the fact that life on earth changes – and change
随着时间而改变就是“进化”的真谛
over time is what “evolution” means.
达尔文提出的关于自然选择的理论
What Darwin proposed with his theory of natural selection was an explanation for HOW this
是对
change (which is stupidly well supported by evidence) could have occurred naturally.
你可以参考1986年挑战者号灾难:所有的证据都表明
You can think of it like the Challenger disaster of 1986: all the evidence showed that the
所有被命名为“挑战者”的分子群都很不幸地
collection of molecules named “Challenger” had tragically changed/evolved from a space
它的
shuttle and its rocket boosters into a cloud of gas and debris shortly after launch (though
(尽管我们常称这种进化为“爆炸”)
we normally call this kind of evolution “exploding”).
当时的科学家们所面临的问题
The question for scientists at the time was to understand and explain HOW the explosion
以此来杜绝重蹈覆辙
had happened so they could prevent it in the future.
最终 是
Ultimately, it was the Theory of Frozen O-rings in the Rocket Boosters, popularized by Richard
为灾难的原因提供了满意的解释
Feynman, that provided a satisfactory explanation for the cause of the disaster.
现在你大可以否定费曼对爆炸作出的解释
Now, you’re welcome to disagree with Feynman’s explanation for the explosion, or Darwin’s
或者否认达尔文对地球上生命改变的解释但是它们都是很好的解释
explanation for how life on earth changes, but they’re pretty darn good explanations
然而对于这些被大量完整存档的案例来说这些理论
for these incredibly well documented examples of change in the universe.
最后 无论你我信不信
In the end, the universe will go on evolving regardless of whether you and I believe in
也许我们能做的最好就是记住
it or understand it, and perhaps the best thing to do is to remember that it’s ok for
让我们的信念 观点和认识也随之进化
our beliefs and opinions and understandings to evolve, too.
这也是生活的一部分
That’s part of life, and it’s the way
也是科学的道理
of science.

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视频概述

讲解进化不仅仅发生在生物本身 宇宙万物都在发生进化 并且会一直进化下去

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Fanyu?

审核员

审核MF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1t5_iGN0xE

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