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进化:生命之书 – 译学馆
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Evolution: The Book Of Life

[开场音乐] [键盘声音]
[Intro Music] [Typing noises]
[火箭发射的声音] [爵士乐]
[Rocket blast-off sound] [jazz music]
艾利克:你好 乔 最近怎么样
Eric:Hey Joe, what’s up?
Joe:I’ve thinking a lot.
Eric:About what?
乔:关于基因和进化 关于他们是怎么运作的
Joe:About genes and evolution,and like how it work stuff
Eric:Do you do this a lot?
乔:是的 我是个科学家
Joe:Well, I’m a scientist.
乔:我是说-我的意思是基因和进化 我的脑子有时候会自动冒出这些
Joe:I mean- I mean genes and evolution, it just blows my mind sometimes,
how can everything come from other things.
how can we be all make of the same stuff,
and how do I even exist?!
艾利克:好吧 早上10点前的
Eric:Okay… Seven cups of coffee before
10:00 AM might conjure an existential crisis.
Joe:Have-have you read this?
Eric:Oooh, On the Origin of Species. It’s a REALLY good book.
Joe:Darwin figured out that everything on Earth descended from a common ancestor
and he’s the first person to figure out how things evolve,
that they’re constantly changing
and passing on mutations to their offspring.
艾利克:是的 随着时间的变化 随着基因的进化
Eric:Right! And over time, due to those mutations
they might be able to produce more food,
或者会变装 又或者能生育更多的后代
but happen camouflage,breed and have more offspring.
Joe: Darwin had a great beard…
Eric: Some people even think it’s one of the greatest ideas humans have ever had!
乔:等一下 比动画更生动吗 比那些立体脆玉米饼还脆吗
Joe: Wait… better than animated gifs?! Better than those-those tacos with Doritos for the
艾利克:是的 甚至比那些还好
shell?! Eric: Yes, even better than those.
Joe: How could that be responsible for everything on Earth?
我是指 鸟类、米格鲁猎犬、
I mean, birds, and beagles, and
小鱼们、还有小猫们 还有艾利克:还有我们
little fishies, and- and kittens, an- Eric: And-and us?
乔:对,还有 还有我们 我的意思是
Joe: Right! And-and-and us! I mean,
how could all of those creatures arise from the same tuff?
Eric: Because everything on Earth carries
an instruction book. Joe: But fish can’t read.
艾利克:我想 我想说的是基因组 这是一个比喻
Eric: I’m-I’m talking about genomes… It’s a metaphor.
乔:噢,噢 基因组 就像花园里小家伙的尖尖的帽子
Joe: Oh oh, like genomes. Like the little guys in the garden with the pointy hats?
艾利克:不是 基因组 你不是博士吗 实际上我也看了一本书
Eric: No. GE-nomes… Don’t you have a Phd? Actually, I’ve been reading a book too.
《双螺旋》由吉姆·华生博士写的 华生博士 弗朗西斯·克里克博士还有罗莎琳·富兰克林博士
The Double Helix. By Doctor Jim Watson? Dr. Watson, Francis Crick, and Rosalind Franklin.
So, so they figured out the chemical that made all the ingredients for all that evolution
他们叫它DNA乔·等等 等等 我知道这个故事
stuff. They called it DNA. Joe: Wai-wai-wait. I know this story. Those
这些人盗取了罗莎琳·富兰克林的科学成果而且还因此获得了诺贝尔奖 他们
guys stole Rosalind Franklin’s work and they won the Nobel Prize with it, and then
甚至没有感谢罗莎琳 假如你问我 他们就是一群
they didn’t even give her any thanks. If you ask me, they’re a couple of-
艾利克:正如我说的 所有地球上面的生命有一份可以向我们解释一切真相的说明书
Eric: As I was saying, all life on Earth is made of instructions that tell us really how
to be.. whatever it is! Joe: Does that mean every member of a species
同样的基因了艾利克:几乎一样的 每个个体的基因
has the same genome? Eric: ALMOST the same. Every individual’s
仅仅有略微的不同乔:哦 好吧 因为我们是
just a SLIGHTLY little bit different. Joe: Oh, right. ‘Cause we’re like the
同一个物种 但是你的头发是红色的艾利克:是的 世上只有少于1%的人
same species, but you have red hair. Eric: That’s right! Less than 1% of the
拥有红色头发乔:哦 我一直认为你有红色头发
world’s population has red hair. Joe: Oh, I always thought that you had red
hair ‘cause you were unlucky.
艾利克:看见这四个字母了没有 这足够写2000种不同的组合了
Eric: See those four letters? It’s enough to make 20, 000 different instructions, in
46 different chapters. Joe: Sounds like a very avantgarde book.
艾利克:潮人们会喜欢的 你看 每个细胞里面有60亿个碱基
Eric: Hipsters would love it. You see, there’s 6 billion letters inside of each cell.
乔:听起来像是由千年时间完成的哈利波特 我是说 这不是我知道的
Joe: It’s like a thousand complete volumes of Harry Potter! I mean, not that I would
know, or anything… Eric: Mhmm.
乔:我们要怎样知道所有的这些A C G T的碱基组合
Joe: But how do we know what all the orders of all these As and Cs and Gs and Ts is?
艾利克:我们将他们进行排序 我们已经知道了人类基因组的所有碱基
Eric: We sequence them! We’ve read every letter in the human genome.
乔:60亿 这将会耗费一个人数百年的时间 你是
Joe: All six billion of them? That would take somebody, like a hundred years! Are you some
kind of ginger wizard? Eric: Now we’ve got these machines that
可以在一天内就把人类基因组组合好 你想知道它们怎么工作的吗 想吗
can sequence the human genome in a single day. You wanna know how they work, don’t
艾利克:很简单 整个基因组会被复制
you? Eric: So basically, the whole genome is copied,
然后将复制的分成小的随机的碎片 就像这样[打响指]
and then it’s put into these small, random pieces. Like this! [snaps fingers]
乔:哦 看起来这里有点重叠 我喜欢游戏 我敢打赌我可以拼回它们
Joe: Ooh! Looks like these overlap a little bit. I like games! Bet I could put these back
艾利克:看 这一切现在都有意义了 能够
together! Eric: See, it all makes sense now! Being able
to sequence the human genome was an awesome day for science.
乔:我们的书随着时间的流逝进化着 而真正的书不会变
Joe: Our book is changing over time with evolution. Real books don’t change.
艾利克:当然 即使是达尔文也需要修正《物种起源》
Eric: Sure they do. Even Darwin revised On the Origin of Species.
Joe: So evolution’s like the book editor deciding which version’s best!
艾利克:有时候产生的一个物种是无用的 它就会消失 有时候自然会创作出
Eric: Sometimes, a species writes a dud, land it goes extinct. Sometimes, nature writes
a book and makes it into a best seller’s list.
乔:所以我猜这些生命的密码就像书籍 每个人有自己的版本
Joe: So I guess this code for life is kinda like a book, and everybody has their own version…
That’s a book I’d like to read! Eric: Me too.
乔:谢谢你教我的这些关于基因和进化的事 艾利克 假如你想要
Joe: Thanks for teaching me all about genes and evolution, Eric! If you want to find out
了解更多关于艾利克的事 请查阅这本说明书假如你要了解更多关于科学的好故事
more about Eric, check that in the description! If you want to read more great stories about
请看这本书 并点击订阅
science, check out this book, and then click subscribe!
Joe: [raising his hand] Whaaat!