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你需要知道的地球

Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth

地球是宇宙中所有已知生命的家园
Planet Earth is the home of every lifeform known to us in the universe.
它的年龄约为宇宙的三分之一
Its age is about 1/3 of the age of the universe
无可否认 它就是美的化身
and, admitted, it is a thing of beauty.
地球是微扁的球体 有着重金属地心
A slightly squashed sphere with a heavy metal core,
和较轻的表层地壳
and a lighter surface crust,
地壳四周有层稀薄的甜美空气 供我们呼吸
wrapped in a thin sliver of sweet air to breathe,
还有广阔的大洋 肥沃的平原 雄伟的高山
with vast oceans, fertile plains, magnificent mountains,
淡水河流 小溪 湖泊 泉水以及蓄水层
fresh water rivers, streams, lakes and aquifers,
地球绕着太阳按轨道运行
orbiting a star which warms us,
太阳能温暖你我 也给我们提供能量
and gives us energy.
但我们的家园是如何形成的
But how did our home come in to existence,
以及它是由什么组成的呢?
and what’s it made of?
《简而言之》频道出品
kurzgesagt
46亿年前
4.6 billion years ago,
地球形成于死亡星球的残骸
Earth was created from the remnants of dead stars,
这些残骸在一团巨大污浊的气体云中聚集
that collected in a giant, dirty gas cloud.
气体云在其中心变得越来越密集
The gas cloud became denser in its center,
后来形成吸积盘
and formed an accretion disk.
小颗粒开始聚集起来
Small particles started clumping together,
形成越来越大的物质
and building larger and larger objects,
最终形成了如今的星球
until they form the objects we call “Planets” today.
这个过程耗费了一千到两千万年
This process took 10 to 20 million years,
至今这个过程我们也了解的不是很透彻
and is still not very well understood.
在那时 太阳系还是刚形成且一片混乱之时
At about this time, when the solar system was young and chaotic,
一个巨大如火星般物体与地球相撞
a giant object, about as big as Mars, collided with our home.
影响巨大
The impact was violent,
如果当时那个物体体型再大一点
and if the object had been more massive,
很有可能会毁了地球
it might have destroyed Earth.
地球上的物质被冲击进入轨道形成了月球
Materials from Earth were smashed out into orbit, and formed the Moon,
在太阳系中 月球是地球的最大卫星
which is the biggest satellite in relation to its planet in the solar system.
在这时 地球简直就是炼狱
At this time, Earth was a hot hell,
不时被小行星撞击
constantly being hit by asteroids,
形成了众多火山岩浆和有毒气体
with seas of lava, and a toxic atmosphere.
但巨大改变即将发生
But something was about to change drastically.
地球冷了下来
Earth cooled down.
地球内部的水体
Water from the inside of the Earth
慢慢流到了表面并且形成降雨落在地球上
wandered to the surface and rained down on Earth,
当再次被蒸发就形成了云
only to vaporize again and become clouds.
大量的小行星撞击将越来越多的水体带到了地球
Millions of asteroids brought more and more water to our planet.
地球上所有水体的体积和地球比只有这么多
All the water on Earth has about this volume compared to Earth.
现在 地球表面71%是水 29%是陆地
Today, the surface of Earth is 71% water, and 29% land.
其中97.5%的水是海水只有2.5%是淡水
97.5% is saline water, while only 2.5% is fresh water.
淡水的69%又是冰雪
The fresh water is 69% ice and snow,
30%的是地下水
30% are ground waters,
只有约1%是剩余地下水
and only about 1% make up the remaining ground waters.
但即使是这一小部分大部分还是冰冻状态
But even this small part is mostly frozen.
我们水源中只有一少部分是湖泊和河流
Only a tiny part of our water is actually lakes and rivers.
还有更小的一部分是存在于有机体内
and an even tinier part is bound in living things.
那么 地球在慢慢变冷
So, gradually the Earth cooled down,
地表就行成了一层薄薄的地壳
and the surface formed a thin crust.
但在地球内部 热岩浆持续翻滚
But inside the earth, hot rock continue to swirl about,
从下面推动地壳最终将之裂开
moving the crust from below and breaking it apart.
这个过程就是”板块构造论”
This process is called “Plate Tectonics”,
而且正在发生着
and is happening right now.
未来我们会做有关板块构造论的完整视频
We’ll make a whole video about it in the future.
目前 我们知道地壳
For now, let’s just say that the crust of Earth
是由不断移动的巨大分隔板块组成的
consisted of separate giant plates that move around.
当板块相遇 就会挤压破碎形成高山
As they meet, they crumble, and create mighty mountains.
或者猛烈向下挤压 深入地球内部 形成海沟
Or violently plunge back down, deeper into Earth, creating deep trenches.
这就是地球最高山喜马拉雅山
That’s the way the highest place on Earth was formed: Mt.Everest,
和最深海沟马里亚纳海沟的形成方式
and the deepest: the Mariana Trench.
在我们看来
From our perspective,
地球的山峰和海沟都很高深险峻
Earth’s mountains and trenches are mighty indeed,
但如果你看一看地球的横截面
but when you look at the Earth in cross-section,
你就知道他们有多渺小了
you can see how tiny they actually are.
我们所站立的位置就是地壳
The part we stand on is the crust,
厚度大约是50千米
which is about 50 kilometers thick,
但会有5到70千米的浮动
though it can vary between 5 and 70 kilometers
另外 人类钻过的最深的洞也只有12.262千米
By the way, the deepest hole ever drilled by man is 12.262 kilometers deep.
地壳层下面就是地幔
After the crust, comes the mantle.
这是一层硅酸盐岩石层
It’s a silicate rocky shell,
大约有2900千米厚
and about 2,900 kilometers thick.
地幔包括上地幔和下地幔
The mantle consists of the upper mantle, and the lower mantle.
上地幔也有许多不同区域
The upper mantle has different regions, too.
它的最上部分有黏性并且支撑着地壳
It’s upper part, which is viscous and carries the crust,
这部分叫做”岩石圈”
is called the “Lithosphere.”
岩石圈下面是”软流层”
After that, there comes the “Asthenosphere,”
包含了移动行性不强的绝大部分固体物质
which consists of less mobile, mostly solid material.
下地幔深入直达外地核
The lower mantle reaches deep down to the outer core of Earth.
外地核是由铁 镍元素构成的液体层
Earth’s outer core is a liquid layer of iron and nickel,
大约有2266千米厚
about 2,266 kilometers thick.
温度从4000摄氏度(7232华氏度)
Temperatures vary from 4,000℃(7,232℉)
到5700摄氏度(10292华氏度)不等
to 5,700℃(10,292℉).
在中心就是内地核了
And in the center, is the inner core.
大部分是固体形式
It’s mostly solid,
是由铁镍合金构成 成球状
a ball made of an iron-nickel alloy.
半径大约1200千米
with a radius of about 1,200 kilometers.
大约有月球个头的70%大小
70% of the size of the moon,
和太阳表面温度不相上下
and about the temperature of the surface of the Sun.
它还在缓慢增长
It is slowly growing
并以每年约1毫米的估计速度增长
at an estimated rate of about 1mm/year.
进一步看
Now, for some perspective,
这一小层之前熔融地幔熔化产物的再结晶体
this small layer of crystallized melt products of former molten mantle,
就是我们生活的区域
is where we live.
还有就是地球的磁场区
Then, there’s Earth’s magnetic field.
这是肉眼不可见的现象
It’s an invisible phenomenon
它能够转移从太阳等地传来的高能粒子
that diverts high energy particles coming from the Sun and other sources,
营造一个稳定环境
allowing for a stable environment,
以免过多辐射对地球造成影响
with comparatively little radiation impact on Earth.
但为什么会存在这种磁场呢?
But why is it there?
事实上 我们对此也知之不多
Actually, we don’t really know a terrible lot about that.
只知道这可能与地核有关
We know, it has something to do with the core of Earth.
在这金属层内部
Inside this metal sphere,
巨大的电子流以及其复杂的规律运转
large electrical currents flow in complicated patterns.
这就形成了磁场
They cause a magnetic field,
根据电力学定律 它能够稳定自身
that sort of stabilizes itself according to the laws of electrodynamics.
这整个系统叫做”发电机”
This entire system is called the “Dynamo.”
但不要以为被我们误导 以为我们已经搞清楚了
But, don’t let us fool you into thinking we have it all figured out.
说到振奋人心的消息
Speaking of breathtaking information,
我们周围存在的气体物质怎么样?
what about the airy stuff that surrounds us?
论体积 干燥空气主要是由氮气
By volume, dry air consists mostly of Nitrogen,
氧气 氩气 碳以及含量不断变化的水蒸气
Oxygen, Argon, Carbon, a variable mount of water vapor,
以及小部分其他其他组成
and small amounts of other gases.
人类非常依赖大气层的最低一层
Humans are very dependent on the lowest layer of the atmosphere:
也就是对流层 这里是天气变化发生的地方
the Troposphere – Where the weather is.
平均大约有12千米厚
It’s 12 kilometers thick on average.
在这之上是平流层
Above that is the Stratosphere,
臭氧层就在这层 保护着我们
which is where the ozone layer protects us
免受部分太阳的最强烈光线
from the sun’s most aggressive type of light.
在这之上是中间层 地球上最冷的地方
Above that is the Mesosphere, the coolest place on Earth,
平均气温约零下85摄氏度(零下121华氏度)
with an average temperature around -85℃(-121℉).
80千米以上是暖层
At about 80 kilometers up, the Thermosphere starts.
与太空的过度层是散逸层 没有清晰界限
The transition to space is a fluent one, without clear borders.
但人类决定太空从此开始
but humans decided that space starts here.
在100千米之上 地球的终点 太空就开始了
At about 100 kilometers, Earth stops, and space begins,
虽然大气层可以延伸到更远
though the atmosphere extends a bit further.
但在此区域 我们发现了电离层
In this region, we find the Ionosphere,
极光
the aurora borealis,
以及国际空间站
and the ISS,
最外层就是外大气层了
and the outermost layer is the Exosphere,
最远能达1万千米
stretching up to 10,000 kilometers.
与外太空嵌合在一起
It merges fluently with outer space,
在外太空是没有一点大气的
where there’s no atmosphere at all.
在此区域的原子和分子相距很远
The atoms and molecules in this area are so far apart,
以至于他们能够穿行上百千米
that they can travel hundreds of kilometers
而不与其他原子或分子相互碰撞
without colliding with each other.
是的 人类以现今形式存在
OK. Humans, in their present form,
只持续了大约二十万年
have only been around for 200,000 years.
那只是地球历史的0.004%
that’s 0.004% of Earth’s history.
根本就算不上长
Not long, really.
而我们现在呢
And, here we are now,
就生活在又小又湿润的岩石圈上稀薄的潮湿表层
living in a thin, moist layer on a small, wet rock.
我们把这个岩石圈叫做地球
We call this rock: Earth.
这是宇宙深耕细作的产品
It is the product of the universe’s deepest workings,
是不断建造并摧毁过程的结果
the result of a constant process of creation and destruction,
在宇宙中时时刻刻无处无在的发生着
happening all of the universe, all the time,
而且是靠着运气
helped by chance,
宇宙法则和随机事件发生的
the laws of the universe and random events,
我们也是够幸运的了
we are really lucky.

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快来和我们一起了解地球的形成,构造吧,出乎你的想象

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审核团C

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGXi_9A__Vc

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