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你在电影里听到的是什么 – 译学馆
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你在电影里听到的是什么

Everything you hear on film is a lie | Tasos Frantzolas

我想通过一个实验开始
I want to start by doing an experiment.
我将播放雨天的三个视频
I’m going to play three videos of a rainy day.
但我把其中一个视频的音频换掉了
But I’ve replaced the audio of one of the videos,
它不再是下雨的声音
and instead of the sound of rain,
我加上了煎培根的声音
I’ve added the sound of bacon frying.
我想让你们仔细听那一个剪辑是培根的声音
So I want you think carefully which one the clip with the bacon is.
(下雨声)
(Rain falls)
(下雨声)
(Rain falls)
(下雨声)
(Rain falls)
好的
All right.
其实 我撒谎了
Actually, I lied.
这些全都是煎培根的声音
They’re all bacon.
(培根滋油声)
(Bacon sizzles)
(掌声)
(Applause)
我的目的并不是让你们
My point here isn’t really to make you hungry
每次看到下雨的景象时都感到饥饿
every time you see a rainy scene,
而是告诉你们我们的大脑都习惯于接受谎言
but it’s to show that our brains are conditioned to embrace the lies.
我们关注的不是精确性
We’re not looking for accuracy.
因此在这个骗术的主题里
So on the subject of deception,
我想引用我最喜欢的一位作家的话
I wanted to quote one of my favorite authors.
在“谎言的衰变”中 奥斯卡·王尔德得出了这样的结论
In “The Decay of Lying,” Oscar Wilde establishes the idea
所有糟糕的艺术都源于复制自然以及呈现真实
that all bad art comes from copying nature and being realistic;
而伟大的艺术都是依靠造假和骗术来
and all great art comes from lying and deceiving,
叙说着美丽的 不真实的事物
and telling beautiful, untrue things.
所以 当你在看电影时
So when you’re watching a movie
电话铃响了
and a phone rings,
那不是真正的电话铃响
it’s not actually ringing.
都是在后期制作中加进去的
It’s been added later in postproduction in a studio.
你听到的所有声音都是假的
All of the sounds you hear are fake.
除了那些对话 所有的声音
Everything, apart from the dialogue,
都是假的
is fake.
你在看电影的时候看到一只小鸟在振翅飞翔
When you watch a movie and you see a bird flapping its wings —
(翅膀拍打声)
(Wings flap)
他们并没真正去给那只鸟录音
They haven’t really recorded the bird.
如果你去录一张纸
It sounds a lot more realistic if you record a sheet
或抖动厨房手套的声音 听起来会更实际
or shaking kitchen gloves.
(拍打声)
(Flaps)
近距离的香烟燃烧
The burning of a cigarette up close —
(香烟燃烧)
(Cigarette burns)
如果你攥着一个保鲜膜球
It actually sounds a lot more authentic
然后松开
if you take a small Saran Wrap ball
听起来会更真实
and release it.
(团成球的保鲜膜被放开的声音)
(A Saran Warp ball being released)
拳打的声音?
Punches?
(拳打声)
(Punch)
噢 让我再放一遍
Oops, let me play that again.
(拳打声)
(Punch)
这其实是通过把刀插入蔬菜里制作而成的
That’s often done by sticking a knife in vegetables,
一般是卷心菜
usually cabbage.
(刀插入卷心菜的声音)
(Cabbage stabbed with a knife)
下一个 是骨头断裂声
The next one — it’s breaking bones.
(骨头断裂的声音)
(Bones break)
当然了 并没有人真的受伤
Well, no one was really harmed.
其实这是……
It’s actually …
掰芹菜或冻生菜的声音
breaking celery or frozen lettuce.
(掰开冻生菜或芹菜的声音)
(Breaking frozen lettuce or celery)
(笑声)
(Laughter)
录制合适的声音并不总是
Making the right sounds is not always as easy
像去超市 去蔬菜区
as a trip to the supermarket
那么简单
and going to the vegetable section.
其实往往会比那复杂很多
But it’s often a lot more complicated than that.
那么 让我们一起用逆向工程体验一下
So let’s reverse-engineer together
制作一个音效的过程
the creation of a sound effect.
我最喜欢的段子之一来自于弗兰克·塞拉凡尼
One of my favorite stories comes from Frank Serafine.
他是我们音效库的贡献者之一
He’s a contributor to our library,
也是《创:战记》和《星际迷航》及其他作品的伟大音效设计师
and a great sound designer for “Tron” and “Star Trek” and others.
他是派拉蒙公司中凭借《寻找红色十月》赢得奥斯卡最高声誉奖
He was part of the Paramount team that won the Oscar for best sound
团队中的一员
for “The Hunt for Red October.”
在这个九十年代的描述冷战期的经典影片里
In this Cold War classic, in the ’90s,
他们需要制作潜水艇螺旋桨的声音
they were asked to produce the sound of the propeller of the submarine.
但他们遇到一个小困难
So they had a small problem:
他们当时在西好莱坞找不到潜水艇
they couldn’t really find a submarine in West Hollywood.
因此简单来说 他们想了这么个办法
So basically, what they did is,
他们去了一个朋友的游泳池
they went to a friend’s swimming pool,
弗兰克或者邦巴表演了一次炮弹入水
and Frank performed a cannonball, or bomba.
他们安装了一个水下麦克风
They placed an underwater mic
和一个游泳池外的水上麦克风
and an overhead mic outside the swimming pool.
这就是水下麦风克录制的声音
So here’s what the underwater mic sounds like.
(水下跳水声)
(Underwater plunge)
加上水上麦克风的声音后
Adding the overhead mic,
它听起来是这样的:
it sounded a bit like this:
(水花四溅声)
(Water splashes)
他们录制成这个声音后把它降了一个八度
So now they took the sound and pitched it one octave down,
听起来就好像慢放一个录音
sort of like slowing down a record.
(低八度后的水花四溅声)
(Water splashes at lower octave)
然后他们把很多高频的声音去掉
And then they removed a lot of the high frequencies.
(水花声)
(Water splashes)
然后再降一个八度
And pitched it down another octave.
(又降一个八度的水花声)
(Water splashes at lower octave)
然后他们又加入了一点点
And then they added a little bit of the splash
水上麦克风录制的水花四溅声
from the overhead microphone.
(水花声)
(Water splashes)
然后循环反复播放
And by looping and repeating that sound,
他们最终得到了这种效果:
they got this:
(螺旋桨声)
(Propeller churns)
看吧 创造力和技术结合
So, creativity and technology put together in order to create the illusion
就为了创造出我们在潜水艇里的错觉
that we’re inside the submarine.
但当你创造了声音
But once you’ve created your sounds
并和画面同步后
and you’ve synced them to the image,
你希望这些声音可以在叙事的世界中变得鲜活
you want those sounds to live in the world of the story.
最好的方法之一就是加一点电子回响
And one the best ways to do that is to add reverb.
这是我要谈的第一个音效手段
So this is the first audio tool I want to talk about.
在原声结束之后
Reverberation, or reverb, is the persistence of the sound
混响或者回响是声音的持续
after the original sound has ended.
所以这就像是
So it’s sort of like the —
来自环绕在声音周围的材料
all the reflections from the materials,
物体和墙的全部回声
the objects and the walls around the sound.
举个例子 射击的声音
Take, for example, the sound of a gunshot.
原声只有不到半秒的时间
The original sound is less than half a second long.
(枪声)
(Gunshot)
加上回响后
By adding reverb,
我们可以做出好像在浴室里录制的声音
we can make it sound like it was recorded inside a bathroom.
(枪声在浴室里回响)
(Gunshot reverbs in bathroom)
或者像是在礼拜堂或教堂里录制的声音
Or like it was recorded inside a chapel or a church.
(枪声在教堂里回响)
(Gunshot reverbs church)
或者在大峡谷
Or in a canyon.
(枪声在峡谷里回响)
(Gunshot reverbs in canyon)
回响给了我们很多
So reverb gives us a lot of information
关于听者和声音来源之间的空间信息
about the space between the listener and the original sound source.
如果把声音当成是味觉
If the sound is the taste,
回音就像是声音的气味
then reverb is sort of like the smell of the sound.
而回响还有很多其他的用处
But reverb can do a lot more.
听一个没有太多回响的声音
Listening to a sound with a lot less reverberation
而不看屏幕上的动作
than the on-screen action
将会立即让我们觉得
is going to immediately signify to us
我们在听一位解说员说话
that we’re listening to a commentator,
在听一位并未参与电影动作的旁白者说话
to an objective narrator that’s not participating in the on-screen action.
另外 在电影院中的动情时刻
Also, emotionally intimate moments in cinema
通常听不到任何回响
are often heard with zero reverb,
因为那样才会听上去像有人在我们耳朵里说话
because that’s how it would sound if someone was speaking inside our ear.
在完全相反的情况下
On the completely other side,
在语音里加入很多回响
adding a lot of reverb to a voice
会使我们感觉正在听回忆
is going to make us think that we’re listening to a flashback,
或者好像我们在大脑里的一个角色里
or perhaps that we’re inside the head of a character
或者在听上帝的声音
or that we’re listening to the voice of God.
或者是在电影里更强大的
Or, even more powerful in film,
摩根·费里曼
Morgan Freeman.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
那么
So —
(鼓掌)
(Applause)
还有什么其他手段或是方式
But what are some other tools or hacks
是音效师在使用的呢
that sound designers use?
这里有一个很重要的
Well, here’s a really big one.
沉默
It’s silence.
短暂的沉默会使我们集中注意力
A few moments of silence is going to make us pay attention.
在西方世界里
And in the Western world,
我们不太习惯在对话时安静下来
we’re not really used to verbal silences.
人们会觉得奇怪或无礼
They’re considered awkward or rude.
因此 一段正在进行的对话变的沉默
So silence preceding verbal communication
可以制造很多紧张感
can create a lot of tension.
但是想象一下在好莱坞大片中
But imagine a really big Hollywood movie,
全都是爆炸和机枪声
where it’s full of explosions and automatic guns.
嘈杂的声音过一会儿就不觉得嘈杂了
Loud stops being loud anymore, after a while.
就像阴阳理论中说的
So in a yin-yang way,
静中有动 动中有静
silence needs loudness and loudness needs silence
两者相辅相成
for either of them to have any effect.
那么无声意味着什么呢
But what does silence mean?
这取决于每个电影如何使用它
Well, it depends how it’s used in each film.
无声可以让我们进入角色的思绪
Silence can place us inside the head of a character
或是引发思考
or provoke thought.
我们通常从无声联想到
We often relate silences with …
沉思
contemplation,
冥想
meditation,
陷入深思
being deep in thought.
但是除了一种意义之外
But apart from having one meaning,
无声是一块空白的画布
silence becomes a blank canvas
让观看的人把自己的想法画上去
upon which the viewer is invited to the paint their own thoughts.
我要说清楚的是 并不存在一种叫做无声的东西
But I want to make it clear: there is no such thing as silence.
我知道这说法听起来差不多是TED演讲里最自负的
And I know this sounds like the most pretentious TED Talk statement ever.
但是 即使你进入一个没有任何回响的房间
But even if you were to enter a room with zero reverberation
也完全没有外部声音
and zero external sounds,
你仍然可以听到自己血液流动的声音
you would still be able to hear the pumping of your own blood.
历史上 电影院里从来没有无声的时刻
And in cinema, traditionally, there was never a silent moment
因为放映机会发出声音
because of the sound of the projector.
即使是在如今的杜比音响世界
And even in today’s Dolby world,
如果你倾听四周 没有一刻是无声的
there’s not really any moment of silence if you listen around you.
总会有某种声音存在
There’s always some sort of noise.
现在 既然说没有真正的无声
Now, since there’s no such thing as silence,
电影制片人和音效设计师用什么呢
what do filmmakers and sound designers use?
他们通常利用同义的周围环境
Well, as a synonym, they often use ambiences.
氛围是独特的背景音
Ambiences are the unique background sounds
具体到每一个地点
that are specific to each location.
每个地点都有独特的声音
Each location has a unique sound,
每个空间也有独特的声音
and each room has a unique sound,
这叫做室内音
which is called room tone.
这是在摩洛哥的一家市场里的录音
So here’s a recording of a market in Morocco.
(说话声 音乐)
(Voices, music)
这是在纽约时代广场的录音
And here’s a recording of Times Square in New York.
(交通声 车喇叭声 说话声)
(Traffic sounds, car horns, voices)
室内音是房间里所有声音的叠加:
Room tone is the addition of all the noises inside the room:
通风设备 供暖设备 冰箱
the ventilation, the heating, the fridge.
这是我布鲁克林区公寓的录音
Here’s a recording of my apartment in Brooklyn.
(你能听到排风机 热水器 冰箱 街上的交通的声音)
(You can hear the ventilation, the boiler, the fridge and street traffic)
室内音以最原始的方式起着作用
Ambiences work in a most primal way.
他们在潜意识里直接与我们的大脑对话
They can speak directly to our brain subconsciously.
所以 你窗户外面的鸟叫可以代表常态
So, birds chirping outside your window may indicate normality,
或许因为 我们作为一个物种
perhaps because, as a species,
数百万年来已经习惯每天早上听到它
we’ve been used to that sound every morning for millions of years.
(鸟叫声)
(Birds chirp)
另一方面 工业方面的声音越来越频繁的
On the other hand, industrial sounds have been introduced to us
出现在我们生活中
a little more recently.
即使个人来说我很喜欢它们
Even though I really like them personally —
它们曾被一个我的英雄大卫-林奇
they’ve been used by one of my heroes, David Lynch,
和他的音效师斯普来特使用
and his sound designer, Alan Splet —
但工业的声音常常带有负面的意义
industrial sounds often carry negative connotations.
(机器噪音)
(Machine noises)
音效还可以进入我们的情感记忆
Now, sound effects can tap into our emotional memory.
有时候 它们会特别重要
Occasionally, they can be so significant
以至于变成一部电影的角色
that they become a character in a movie.
雷声可以代表神的干预或愤怒
The sound of thunder may indicate divine intervention or anger.
(打雷声)
(Thunder)
教堂钟声可以提醒我们时光流逝
Church bells can remind us of the passing of time,
或者也许提醒我们自己的死亡
or perhaps our own mortality.
(钟声)
(Bells ring)
玻璃破碎的声音可以表示一段爱情
And breaking of glass can indicate the end of a relationship
或友情的结束
or a friendship.
(玻璃破碎声)
(Glass breaks)
科学家相信刺耳的声音
Scientists believe that dissonant sounds,
例如铜管乐器声或管乐器演奏的巨大声响
for example, brass or wind instruments played very loud,
会让我们想到大自然中动物的咆哮声
may remind us of animal howls in nature
因此可以制造刺激或恐惧的感觉
and therefore create a sense of irritation or fear.
(铜管乐器演奏声)
(Brass and wind instruments play)
我们现在已经谈到了屏幕上的声音
So now we’ve spoken about on-screen sounds.
但有时候 声源是看不到的
But occasionally, the source of a sound cannot be seen.
我们称之为画外音
That’s what we call offscreen sounds,
或者是“盲听”
or “acousmatic.”
盲听的声音
Acousmatic sounds —
“盲听”一词来自古希腊的毕达哥拉斯
well, the term “acousmatic” comes from Pythagoras in ancient Greece,
他曾在面纱或帘子后面教学多年
who used to teach behind a veil or curtain for years,
从未在门徒面前现身
not revealing himself to his disciples.
我想这位数学家兼哲学家认为
I think the mathematician and philosopher thought that,
采用那种教学方法
in that way,
他的学生会更专注于语音
his students might focus more on the voice,
专注于他的词语及其意义
and his words and its meaning,
而不是专注于他讲话时的样子
rather than the visual of him speaking.
有点像《绿野仙踪》
So sort of like the Wizard of Oz,
或是电影《1984》的大哥大
or “1984’s” Big Brother,
把语音和来源分开
separating the voice from its source,
把因和果分开
separating cause and effect
就像制造一种无处不在或全景环视的感觉
sort of creates a sense of ubiquity or panopticism,
因此产生了权威感
and therefore, authority.
盲听声音有一个强大的传统
There’s a strong tradition of acousmatic sound.
罗马和威尼斯的修道院里的修女
Nuns in monasteries in Rome and Venice used to sing in rooms
习惯在接近天花板的顶层房间里唱歌
up in galleries close to the ceiling,
创造出我们在聆听远在天空的天使的景象
creating the illusion that we’re listening to angels up in the sky.
理查德·瓦格纳创造出了著名的管弦乐队
Richard Wagner famously created the hidden orchestra
他们隐藏起来了被安排在舞台与观众之间的一处区域
that was placed in a pit between the stage and the audience.
我的偶像之一 埃夫斯·特文 以躲藏在酒吧的黑暗角落而闻名
And one of my heroes, Aphex Twin, famously hid in dark corners of clubs.
我认为所有这些大师知道的就是通过隐藏声源
I think what all these masters knew is that by hiding the source,
来创造神秘的感觉
you create a sense of mystery.
这种手段你会在电影院里反复看到
This has been seen in cinema over and over,
希区柯克和雷德利·斯科特在《外星人》中也有使用
with Hitchcock, and Ridley Scott in “Alien.”
听到声音的同时 看不到来源
Hearing a sound without knowing its source
可以产生一定程度的紧迫感
is going to create some sort of tension.
同时 还可以尽量减少导演的特定视觉限制
Also, it can minimize certain visual restrictions that directors have
并呈现一些录制电影时没有的东西
and can show something that wasn’t there during filming.
如果这些听上去比较理论化
And if all this sounds a little theoretical,
我想播放一个视频
I wanted to play a little video.
(玩具的吱吱声)
(Toy squeaks)
(打字声)
(Typewriter)
(敲鼓声)
(Drums)
(玩乒乓球声)
(Ping-pong)
(磨刀声)
(Knives being sharpened)
(打碟声)
(Record scratches)
(锯割声)
(Saw cuts)
(女人尖叫声)
(Woman screams)
我试着通过这些工具表达出
What I’m sort of trying to demonstrate with these tools
声音是一种语言
is that sound is a language.
它可以使我们感觉好像移动了地理位置
It can trick us by transporting us geographically;
它可以改变心情
it can change the mood;
它可以控制速度
it can set the pace;
它可以让我们开怀大笑或深感恐惧
it can make us laugh or it can make us scared.
对我个人而言 我在几年前
On a personal level, I fell in love with that language
深深地爱上了这门语言
a few years ago,
努力实现了把它当做一种职业
and somehow managed to make it into some sort of profession.
我认为 通过我们的声音库的工作
And I think with our work through the sound library,
我们在扩展这门语言的词汇
we’re trying to kind of expand the vocabulary of that language.
并且用这种方法 我们希望提供合适的呈现手段
And in that way, we want to offer the right tools
给音效设计师
to sound designers,
电影制作人
filmmakers,
视频游戏和软件设计师
and video game and app designers,
让他们讲述更加完美的故事
to keep telling even better stories
并创造更加美丽的假象
and creating even more beautiful lies.
谢谢大家的聆听
So thanks for listening.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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视频概述

电影里的声音都是怎么制作出来的呢?你会好奇嘛?看了这个视频你也会自己试试嘛?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Daisy

审核员

vicky

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6liIKYeUzaY

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