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心脏研究史

Everything We've Ever Known About... The Heart

心脏研究史
Every day your heart beats a 100,000 times
每天 你的心脏跳动100000次
and your blood travels 12,000 miles.
你的血液流经12000英里
Egyptians believed it wasn’t blood that travelled
埃及人相信 不光血液会自己流动
they believed that the heart and other organs had wills of their own
他们相信 心脏和其他器官也有自己的意志
and could move around independently inside the body.
可以在身体内自主移动
In the Fourth Century BC, Aristotle
公元前4世纪的Aristotle
– who by all accounts look like a cross between a hipster and Rory McGrath –
众所周知 他长得像嬉皮士版的Rory McGrath
said the heart was the seat of intelligence, motion and sensation
他说心脏是智慧 运动和感觉所在之地
and that it was a hot, dry organ.
是一个又热又干燥的器官
Other organs, he thought,
他认为 其他器官
like the brain and liver merely existed to keep the heart cool.
比如大脑和肝脏 其存在仅为了冷却心脏
Around 275BC, a guy called Erasistratus
大约在公元前275年 一个叫Erasistratus的人
almost figured out the principle of circulation
差不多提出了循环的原理
but thought that the heart pump air
但他认为 心脏在身体周围涌出气体
containing the animal spirits around the body.
那气体中含有动物灵气
Before you write him off as a dunce
先不急着说他无知
it’s worth noting that after death the
要知道在死后
heart and arteries don’t contain blood
心脏和动脉是没有血液的
as it pools in the veins
因为血液淤积在了静脉中
so this theory held up for about 500 years until Galen
这一理论维持了大约500年 直到Galen出现
– shown here having just walked into a plate glass window –
他打破了研究禁区
started prodding about in hearts.
开始了对心脏的探索
He said, [bad Greek accent]
他说 [糟糕的希腊口音]
“The heart is, as it were,the hearthstone and source of the innate heat
心脏就像是壁炉 给身体提供热量
by which the animal is governed.”
生物被其主宰着
I wish they weren’t all Greeks
我希望他们不都是希腊人
I can only really do German and French accents.
我只能说德国和法国味英语
Galen felt the heart was secondary to the liver in importance,
Galen认为 在重要程度上 心脏是次于肝脏的
since it didn’t produce any humour.
因为它不产生任何体液
The heart continued to be studied in Europe and Islam,
在欧洲和伊斯兰国家 不断有关于心脏的研究
where in the 1200s, Ibn-al-Nafiz correctly traced pulmonary circulation
在13世纪的伊斯兰 Ibn-al-Nafiz正确描述了肺循环
but he wasn’t very popular at parties and no one paid any attention.
然而当时他只是无名之辈 其论述无人关注
So it wouldn’t be until 1628,
一直到1628年
when English physicist William Harvey wrote On the Circulation of Blood,
当英国物理学家William Harvey写下《血液循环》
that we would know that
我们才知道
the heart’s one role is the transmission of the blood
心脏的作用之一是输送血液
and its propulsion by means of the arteries to the extremities everywhere.
通过动脉将血液推动至全身各处
He once restarted an arrested pigeon’s heart by flicking it
他曾通过击打心脏 让一只被捕杀的鸽子恢复心跳
Very scientific, isn’t it? Flick it.
很科学吧?击打心脏
He realised that blood had to be circulated
他意识到 血液循环
when he calculated the volume of blood being pumped by the heart.
是在计算心脏泵送血量的时候
The irony being that he could have learned from any butcher that
讽刺的是 他随便问个屠夫就能知道
cutting antery would leave an animal
动物被切开动脉后
completely exsanguinated in a matter of minutes.
短短几分钟就会血流殆尽
Amazingly, the effect of electricity on the heart
令人吃惊的是 电流在心脏上的作用
was being researched as early as the 1770s.
早在1770年代就有研究了
A British phycisian called Squires
1774年 一位名叫Squires的英国医生
stimulating the heart of a young girl with electricity in 1774
用电流刺激一个小女孩的心脏
and a Danish physicist called Abildgaard
一位名为Abildgaard的丹麦物理学家
reanimating a chicken after trying electric shocks on various bits of it.
用数次电击救活了一只小鸡
Don’t play with your food.
不拿你的食物开玩笑了
In 1797, Alexander von Humboldt
1797年 Alexander von Humboldt
found a dead bird in his garden and brought it back to life
在他的院子里发现一只死鸟 并通过将电极放在鸟嘴和直肠中
by placing electrodes in its beak and rectum.
让它死而复生了
He then tried the experiment on himself, with less favourable results…
他还尝试在自己身上实验 但结果不甚理想
During the French Revolution
在法国大革命期间
Bichat and Nysten used electricity
Bichat和Nysten使用电流
to restart the hearts of some of the many beheaded bodies cluttering up the place.
在乱尸堆里 让一些断头尸的心脏重新跳动
Astonishingly, pacemakers were being trialled as early as the late 1920s
令人震惊的是 起博器早在1920年代后期
developed independently in Australia and America.
就分别由澳大利亚与美国进行了研发
In 1957, a dog with an artificial heart survives…
1957年 一只装有人工心脏的狗活了……
for 90 whole minutes.
整整90分钟
In 1963 the first patent for an artificial heart
1963年 第一个人工心脏的专利
is granted to a man called Paul Winchell, a ventriloquist –
授予了一个名叫Paul Winchell的口技艺人
now there’s a novelty act
现在有个新发现
Winchell’s work is aided by Dr Henry Heimlich –
医生Henry Heimlich协助了Winchell的工作
yes, that Heimlich!
对 就是那个Heimlich!
Four years later, a South African called Louis Washkansky,
4年后 一位名叫Louis Washkansky的南非人
he survived for 18 days after the world’s first successful heart transplant.
他在世上首例成功的心脏移植术之后活了18天
Only in the 1980s did the procedure become more successful and widespread
直到1980年代 这一手术才更成功 更广泛
and now 300 are carried out in the UK every year.
现在英国每年进行300例这样的手术
Did you know that if you take a single heart cell
你知道吗 如果你取出一个心脏细胞
and put it in a petri dish
将它放在培养皿中
it would have a pulse
它会有跳动
and if you took one from another heart
如果从另外一个心脏中取出一个细胞
it would have a different pulse
它会有不同的跳动
but if you then push them together
但是如果你将它们放到一起
so that they were touching
让它们互相接触
they’d synchronise?
它们将会同步跳动
That’s kind of beautiful, isn’t it?
很美妙 不是吗?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=paxRF-hvHxA

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