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上瘾这件事你知道的都是错的

Everything We Think We Know About Addiction Is Wrong

说说 海洛因上瘾是什么原因?
What causes, say, heroin addiction?
这个问题真的很愚蠢 对吗?
This is a really stupid question, right?
很明显 我们都知道;
It’s obvious; we all know it;
海洛因导致海洛因毒瘾
heroin causes heroin addiction.
这是它的原理
Here’s how it works:
如果你吸食海洛因20天 到了第21天
if you use heroin for 20 days, by day 21,
你的生理上会极度地渴望毒品
your body would physically crave the drug ferociously
因为在这毒品里有化学诱因
because there are chemical hooks in the drug.
这是对“瘾”的描述
That’s what addiction means.
但 有一点值得注意
But there’s a catch.
我们认为我们知道的关于“瘾”的知识几乎都是错误的
Almost everything we think we know about addiction is wrong.
如果你 举个例子 你屁股摔成两瓣了 你就得去医院
If you, for example, break your hip, you’ll be taken to a hospital
你要被注射大量的二乙酰吗啡 几周甚至几个月
and you’ll be given loads of diamorphine for weeks or even months.
二乙酰吗啡就是海洛因
Diamorphine is heroin.
实际上 它是比任何瘾君子所买来的更强的海洛因
It’s, in fact, much stronger heroin than any addict can get on the street
因为它没有经过毒贩子的掺假或稀释
because it’s not contaminated by all the stuff drug dealers dilute it with.
这些在你周围打转的人给你
There are people near you being given
大量的顶级海洛因供你在医院里一时享乐
loads of deluxe heroin in hospitals right now.
所以 至少有些人会变成瘾君子?
So at least some of them should become addicts?
但是经过了严谨的研究 这种事是不灰花生滴
But this has been closely studied; it doesn’t happen.
你奶奶的臀部手术是不会让她成为瘾君子的
Your grandmother wasn’t turned into a junkie by her hip replacement.
这是为什么呢?
Why is that?
我们关于毒瘾的主流理论一部分来自于一系列的实验
Our current theory of addiction comes in part from a series of experiments
这些实验在20世纪之前就做过了
that were carried out earlier in the 20th century.
实验很简单
The experiment is simple:
抓一只老鼠放进带有两个水瓶的笼子里
you take a rat and put it in a cage with two water bottles.
一只瓶里只放水 另一只瓶里就放掺有海洛因或可卡因的水
One is just water, the other is water laced with heroin or cocaine.
几乎每次你做这个实验时,
Almost every time you run this experiment,
鼠会痴迷于有毒的水
the rat will become obsessed with the drugged water
并经常跑回来 直到它杀死自己
and keep coming back for more and more, until it kills itself.
但在1970年代 布鲁斯·亚历山大 一个心理学教授
But in the 1970s, Bruce Alexander, a professor of psychology,
注意到关于这个实验的一些奇怪的现象:
noticed something odd about this experiment:
老鼠是所有单独放在笼子里
the rat is put in the cage all alone.
它们除了吸毒无事可做
It has nothing to do but take the drugs.
他想知道 如果我尝试不同的实验 会发生什么?
What would happen, he wondered, if we tried this differently?
所以他建立了“老鼠公园” 这里基本上算老鼠的天堂;
So he built Rat Park, which is basically heaven for rats;
这是一个郁郁葱葱的笼子 里面有老鼠彩色球 还有滑梯
it’s a lush cage where the rats would have colored balls, tunnels to scamper down,
有一群可以一起玩耍的小伙伴 还可以啪啪啪——
plenty of friends to play with, and they could have loads of sex—
拥有一只老鼠所有可能想要的
everything a rat about town could want.
他们会有毒水和正常的水瓶
And they would have the drugged water and the normal water bottles.
有趣的事情来了:
But here’s the fascinating thing:
老鼠的公园里 老鼠很少喝有毒的水;
in Rat Park, rats hardly ever use the drugged water;
没有人强制老鼠去喝 也没有老鼠喝过量
none of them ever use it compulsively; none of them ever overdose.
但也许这是一个有怪癖的老鼠 对吧?
But maybe this is a quirk of rats, right?
幸好 有一个关于人类的实验沿着相同的思维:
Well, helpfully, there was a human experiment along the same lines:
越南战争
the Vietnam War.
有20%的米国大兵是吸食海洛因的瘾君子
20% of American troops in Vietnam were using a lot of heroin.
人们回家后惊慌失措
People back home were really panicked,
因为他们认为会有成千上万的吸毒者
because they thought there would be hundreds of thousands of junkies
在战争结束后出现在美国街头
on the streets of the United States when the war was over.
但一些跟踪大兵的研究发现了一些神奇的现象:
But a study followed the soliders home and found something striking:
他们没有去戒毒所 也没有戒毒;
they didn’t go to rehab; they didn’t even go into withdrawal;
95%的大兵回到家后就再也不吸毒了
95% of them just stopped after they got home.
如果你相信上瘾的旧理论 那这解释不通啊
If you believe the old theory of addiction, that makes no sense.
但如果你相信教授亚历山大的理论 这很有道理
But if you believe Prof. Alexander’s theory, it makes perfect sense,
因为假如你被抛弃在其他国家荒无人烟的热带雨林
because if you’re put into a horrific jungle in a foreign country
而且你会随时死去
where you don’t want to be, and you could be forced to kill or die at any moment,
吸毒是一个消磨时光的好方法;
doing heroin is a great way to spend your time;
但如果你回到你温暖的家 和你的朋友家人在一起
but if you go back to your nice home with your friends and your family,
就相当于从那个笼子里逃了出来
it’s the equivalent of being taken out of that first cage
被放到极乐世界
and put into a human Rat Park;
不是毒品让你上瘾 而是那个“笼子”
it’s not the chemicals, it’s your cage.
我们需要重新考虑上瘾的原因了
We need to think about addiction differently.
人类天生需要与朋友一起交流
Human beings have an innate need to bond and connect.
当我们快乐和健康时 我们会将身边的人团结在一起
When we are happy and healthy, we will bond with the people around us.
但当因为我们受到心理创伤时 被孤立时
But when we can’t,
被生活的挫折打败时
because we’re traumatized, isolated, or beaten down by life,
我们会将自己寄托在某些能给你释怀的东西上
we will bond with something that gives us some sense of relief.
它可能是无时无刻地看手机;
It might be endlessly checking a smartphone;
也有可能是色情片 游戏 Reddit 赌博 也可能是可卡因
it might be pornography, video games, Reddit, gambling, or it might be cocaine.
我们将自己寄托在某些事物上 这是我们的人性
But we will bond with something, because that is our human nature.
远离不健康牢笼的方法 就是建立一个健康的纽带
The path out of unhealthy bonds is to form healthy bonds,
去和你想联系的人联系吧
to be connected to people you want to be present with.
“瘾” 只是与世隔绝危机中的一种症状
Addiction is just one symptom of the crisis of disconnection
我们置身其中
that’s happening all around us.
感受着它
We all feel it.
从20世纪50年代起 平均每个美国人的密友数在
Since the 1950s, the average number of close friends an American has
逐步的下降
has been steadily declining.
与此同时 每个人平均的居住空间
At the same time, the amount of floor space in their homes
在逐步的增加
has been steadily increasing.
我们选择居住空间而非朋友 也选择无需交流的东西
To choose floor space over friends, to choose stuff over connection.
至今我们打响毒品大战已经将近一个世纪了
The War on Drugs we’ve been fighting for almost a century now
但越来越糟
has made everything worse.
我们没有帮助其他人走向健康 使人们团结到一起
Instead of helping people heal and getting their life together,
而是把他们驱逐出社会
we have cast them out from society,
使他们更难找工作让自己稳定下来
we have made it harder for them to get jobs and become stable,
我们把吸毒者应得的权利与支持通通夺走
we take benefits and support away from them if we catch them with drugs,
把他们关进戒毒所 就是所谓那些“不健康的笼子”
we throw them in prison cells, which are literally cages,
我们把不健康的人
we put people who are not well
放到会使他们感觉更糟糕的地方 还讨厌他们(为什么)不快快康复
in a situation which makes them feel worse and hate them for not recovering.
长久以来 只有为数不多的人戒毒成功
For too long, we’ve talked only about individual recovery from addiction.
但现在我们需要谈论“社会如何进步”
But we need now to talk about social recovery.
因为我们的社会由于某些落后的观念而出了毛病
Because something has gone wrong with us as a group.
我们必须建立一个更加尊重人权的理想国
We have to build a society that looks a lot more like Rat Park
并且减少那些像“孤立笼子”的错误
and a lot less like those isolated cages.
我们将改变自身不自然的生活方式
We are going to have to change the unnatural way we live
并重新认识对方
and rediscover each other.
“成瘾”的对立面不是清醒而是“连接”
The opposite of addiction is not sobriety; the opposite of addiction is connection.
非常感谢约翰·哈里的帮助
This video is a collaboration with Johann Hari,
他是本书的作者
the author of the book
“Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs”《追逐尖叫:毒品之战的开始与结束》
“Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs”.
他非常友好地与我们合作并给这个视频传播消息
He was very kind to work with us on this video to spread the word.
我们建议您看看这本书
We recommend that you give the book a try.
我们的视频在“Patreon.com”获得了你的支持
Our videos are made thanks to your support on Patreon.com.
如果你想帮助我们制作更多的视频 我们真的很感激你的支持
If you want to help us make more of them, we really appreciate your support.
我们与一些朋友共同制作了这个交互视觉式视频
We made an interactive version of this video together with some friends.
看看链接的描述
See the link in the description.
感谢“Amara.org”社区提供英文字幕
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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《追逐尖叫:毒品之战的开始与结束》

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ao8L-0nSYzg

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