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人类的头骨

Everything Scientists Could Learn By Looking At Your Skull

难以置信 我发现科学家可以通过观察一个头骨 仅是头骨
I find it incredible that scientists can look at a skull, just the skull… and determine
便能精确确认这个人的身份
almost exactly who that person was.
头骨中有着我们的种族 年龄 性别的线索
Skulls hold clues to our race, age, and sex.
例如 1988年 仅从一个树林里发现的一个头骨
For example, just from a skull found in the woods in 1988.
警察就能解决一个年轻亚洲女性被其丈夫谋杀
Police were able to solve the case of a young Asian woman whose husband was ultimately charged
的案件
with her murder.
你可能知道 我们都有指纹 但没有人有相同的指纹
You probably know we all have fingerprints but no two person’s prints are the same,
头骨也一样 每个人的头骨都不同
skulls are like this too; every individual’s skull is different.
你的父母决定了你头骨的形状 但你的祖先帮助科学家找出
Your parents determine how your skull is shaped but your ancestry helps scientists identify
你来自哪里 以及你的身份
where you came from, and who you are.
头骨决定了我们长相
Our skulls underlie how we look…
例如我们颧骨的高度 以及我们下巴的形状决定了我们的
Things like the height of our cheekbones, and the shape of our jaw determine our facial
面部特征 但这些非度量特征并不是解决案件的必要条件
features, but those don’t necessarily help solve cases, they’re called nonmetric features
——太个人化
— they’re too personal.
但是一些头骨共有的普通特征能帮助我们识别
But there are some general features all skulls have that help identify who a skull belonged
这个头骨属于谁的
to.
每个人看到一个单独的头骨都想知道的第一个问题是
One of the first questions anyone would have looking at a solitary skull is whether it
这个头骨来自女性还是男性
came from a man or a woman.
男性的头骨趋向于更大 更厚 更重 有一个更显著的脊
Men tend to have larger, thicker, heavier skulls with a more pronounced ridge here…
在他们的颞线上 同时有一个更显著的脊在眼睛的上方
in their temporal line, and a more pronounced ridge over top of the eyes.
女性的眼窝边缘有一个略微尖锐的表面
Women have a slightly sharper surface on the edge of their eye socket.
头骨中也有年龄的线索
Skulls hold clues to age as well.
组成头骨的骨头在婴儿时期是分离的 但是由纤维组织束连接在一起
The bones that make up the skull are separated in babies but held together by fibrous bands
来促进大脑的生长
of tissue to allow the brain to grow.
这些独一无二的纤维连接叫做颅缝
These are unique fibrous joints called cranial sutures.
随着年龄的增长 骨骼会越来越紧密 关节也开始融合
As we age, the bones grow closer together and the joints start to fuse.
年龄越大 缝的距离越近
The older we get, the more the sutures close.
我相信有些人已经在评论中讨论种族问题了
I’m sure someone is already down in the comments asking about race.
头骨也可以揭示很多关于我们种族的信息 但是 像这些特征一样
Skulls can reveal a lot about our race as well, but, like with any of these characteristics
它们不是百分之百的
they’re not 100-percent.
事实上 经常性的 有些头骨似乎表明它们来自不止一个种族团体
In fact, often skulls seem to indicate they come from more than one racial group.
随着时间的推移 为了适应不同的环境人类已经逐步形成了不同的特征
Humans have evolved different features over time as we’ve adapted to different environments,
我们的头骨展示的是有关于我们祖先的线索
and our skulls show those clues to our ancestry.
以鼻子为例
Take the nose for example.
鼻脊骨 是支撑软骨分离鼻孔的一块
The nasal spine, the tiny little bit of bone that supports the cartilage separating the
小小的骨头
nostrils.
在亚洲人中 鼻脊骨一般是中等高度
In Asian populations, that bone tends to be of moderate height.
在白种人中 它更突 更直
In Caucasian populations, it’s more prominent and straighter.
在非洲人中 它明显更小 有的人完全消失了
In African populations, it’s significantly smaller or sometimes totally absent.
因此鼻子的形状也是不同的 人类学家认为这是因为在进化过程中 气候
And shapes of noses differ, too, anthropologists think because of the climates we evolved in
影响了鼻腔的形状和大小
[re], and this is reflected in the shape and size of the nasal cavities.
欧洲较冷的气候条件下,人们通过形成更窄的鼻子
Populations in the cooler climates of Europe adapted by forming narrower noses to more
来适应更有效地加热吸入的空气而像生活在非洲和南亚这样暖气候的人
efficiently heat inhaled air, while populations in warmer climates like Africa and South Asia
更扁平的鼻子才能适应
adapted with broader noses.
当然也有其他一些显著的因素
And there are other distinguishing factors, as well!
内耳的卵形窗在白种人中比
An oval-shaped window in the inner ear is seen more in Caucasian populations than Native
美国土著人更常见
American populations.
在人群中 眼眶的形状 下颌骨或前额的投影
There are also subtle differences between populations in the shape of eye orbits, projection
颧骨和前额的形状和距离也都有细微的差异
of the lower jaw or forehead, shape and distance between cheekbones, and forehead.
通过观察组成你脸部的骨头 你可以学到很多
There is so much you can learn from looking at the big bone that makes up your face!
当然 单独研究一块头骨是不完美的
Of course, studying a skull alone isn’t perfect.
这个被谋杀的妇女的案子靠头骨破了案 但是也涉及常规的警务活动
The case of the murdered woman hinged on the skull, but also involved routine police work
和颅面复原
and facial reconstruction…
但是在任何一个案子中 知道被害人的性别 年龄和可能留下的遗产确实能帮忙
But in any case, knowing a victim’s sex, age and possible heritage can absolutely help
缩小搜索范围找到凶手
narrow the search and find a killer.
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为你的品牌创造身份和信息的第一步
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当然 正如我们在视频里解释的那样
Of course, there’s so much more difference existence,like DNA evidence, which isn’t always right,
会存在很多差异 即使是DNA检测的证据 也不总是正确的
as Trace explains in this video right here.
但是 说真的 这个够酷吧
But, seriously, how cool is this!?
在下方的评论中留下你的想法 给这个视频点个赞
Let us know your thoughts in the comments below, be sure to give this video a like,
并订阅 不要错过Seeker的精彩片段
and subscribe so you never miss an episode of Seeker.

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视频概述

科学家从头骨中获取的大量线索可以知道很多信息

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

zxr

审核员

译学馆审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtG9uB5C7Sk

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